ECONOMIC REASONS FOR REGIONAL DIFFERENCESH/OOld South
North, South, and Westdeveloped in verydifferent directions --did not see eye to eye onmany issues
The North wasbecomingindustrializedAdvances in communications,transportation, industry, andbanking were helping it become thenations commercial center
Slavery had beenoutlawed in manystates (immigrantsand unskilled labor)
The South,meanwhile,remained almostentirely agrarian
Tobacco andcotton, required vastacreageSoutherners wereconstantly looking west formore land
They also looked fornew slave territories toinclude in the Union inorder to strengthentheir position inCongress
Western economicinterests were largelyrooted in commercialfarming, fur trapping,and real estatespeculation
Distrusted the North,which they regardedas the home ofpowerful banks thatcould take their land
They had little moreuse for theSouth, whose rigidlyhierarchical societywas at odds with theegalitarianism
Westerners wantedto avoid involvementin the slavery issue-regarded asirrelevant
SOCIAL HISTORY, 1800-1860H/OSouthern Hierarchy
Cotton gin altered Southern agriculture –needed more slaves …Commerce led to a larger middle class (esp.North) and industrialization resulted inbigger cities (and large groups of“impoverished” immigrants) …Westward migration created a newfrontier culture …
Each of these sets ofcircumstancesinfluenced peoplesattitudes and ambitions
Remember thesegeneralizations about thedifferent regions of the U.S.,because by using them andsome common sense, youcan often answer specificAP questions
If a question asks about support for aparticular tariff, which area would almostcertainly support and which oppose?It wouldn’t matter whattariff is asked about –the North wouldsupport it while theSouth opposed it!
THE NORTH AND AMERICAN CITIESnations industrialand commercialcenter
Modern waste disposal,plumbing, sewers, andincineration were still along way off …unhealthyenvironments
Epidemics notonly likely butinevitable, butcities meant jobs
Northern farmers, unable tocompete with cheaperproduce carted in from theWest and South (bysteamship and rail), movedto cities to work in the newfactories
Cities offered moreopportunities for socialadvancementProvided importantservices
Labor unions began to formAmericans in cities formedclubs and associationsthrough which they couldexert more influence ongovernment
wide variety ofleisure-time optionsA very few (thearistocracy) controlledmost of the personalwealth
Middle class made up oftradesmen, brokers, andother professionalsWomen in their familiescould devote themselves tohomemaking
This was known as theCult of domesticity
Since labor was usuallyperformed away from thehome …the notion developed thatmen should work whilewomen kept house and raisedchildren
Middle classesconstituted much of themarket for luxurygoods such ashousewares and finefurniture
In working-class families, menoften worked in factories or atlow-paying crafts; women oftenworked at homeFamilies lived just abovethe poverty level
Were most often recentimmigrants1840s and 1850s: when thegreat immigration wavesfrom Ireland and thenGermany arrived
Met with hostility, especiallyfrom the working classes, whofeared competition for low-paying jobsThe Irish, in particular, weresubject to wide-spread bias,directed in part at theirCatholicism.
1830s and 1840s, religious,ethnic, and/or class strifecould escalate to violence
THE SOUTH AND RURAL LIFE
Few major urbancenters in the South (agricultural economy)
1860 the population densityof Georgia was 18 peopleper square mile …(Massachusetts, the mostpopulous state, had 153people per square mile)
Not enough peoplearound to supportorganized culturaland leisure events
While the Northdeveloped canals,railroads, and highways,the South did not … financing such
South did not develop astrong market economyWealthiest Southerncitizens consisted mainlyof plantation owners
More than three-quarters of whiteSoutherners owned noslaves. Of the rest, halfowned five or fewerslaves
Southern Paternalismrelied on theperception of blacks aschildlike and unable totake care of themselves
Slave owners almost alwaysconverted their slaves toChristianity, again convinced thatthey were serving the slaves bestinterests. The Africans, inturn, adapted Christianity to theircultures and incorporated theirown religions and traditions intotheir new faith
most workedextremely long hoursat difficult andtedious labor
But remember ….Slaves were aninvestment(importing African slaves was banned in1808, making it essential to keep onesslaves alive and reproducing)
Majority of Southern plantersfarmed smaller tracts of landYeomen owned no slaves andworked their small tracts of landwith only their families. Most wereof Scottish and Irish descent andfarmed in the hills, which wereunsuitable for plantation farming
South was also home tomore than 250,000 freeblacksBlack codes, prevented themfrom owning guns, drinkingliquor, and assembling ingroups of more than three
Prejudice was a constantfact of lifeSome were mulattos, (mostlydescendants of wealthy whites)and led lives of relative luxuryand refinement in the DeepSouth, particularly in andaround New Orleans
THE WEST ANDFRONTIER LIVING
In 1800 the frontier lay east ofthe Mississippi RiverBy 1820 nearly all of thiseastern territory had attainedstatehood
Now the frontier regionconsisted of much of theLouisiana PurchaseBy the early 1840s, thefrontier had expanded toinclude the PacificNorthwest
In 1848 the Gold Rush drewnumerous settlers toCaliforniaOhio Valley and pointswest were hospitable tograin production and dairyfarming
Midwest came to be known as"the nations breadbasket."Fur traders were often thefirst pioneers in a region…constantly moved west
Trappers formed the firstAmerican government in theOregon TerritoryWestern frontier wasalso home to cattleranchers and miners
Frontier life was rugged.Because of the possibilitiesfor advancement and for"getting a new start in life,the West came to symbolizefreedom and equality
RELIGIOUS ANDSOCIAL MOVEMENTS
Impulse to improve the lives of othersEarly social reformmovements grew out ofthe Second GreatAwakening
Second Great Awakeningbegan in the Northeast inthe 1790sGave birth to numeroussocieties dedicated tosaving humanity from itsown worst impulses
Movement spread toSouth and West …churches began toreplace revivals
Most active members ofreform groups werewomenTemperance societiesachieved nationwideprohibition in 1919
Popularized the notionthat society is responsiblefor the welfare of its leastfortunatePenitentiaries sought torehabilitate criminals
Other importantmovements of the period
The Shakers, a utopian groupthat splintered from theQuakers …isolated themselves incommunes where theyshared work and itsrewards
Other Utopian groupsincluded the Oneidacommunity in New York,the New Harmonycommunity in Indiana, andBrook Farm inMassachusetts
Joseph Smith formed theMormon Church of JesusChrist of Latter-Day Saints in1830Strong opposition in theEast and Midwest
Mormons made thelong, difficult trek tothe Salt Lake Valley… came to dominatethe Utah territory
Womens rights movementwas born in the mid-nineteenth centurySeneca FallsConvention, held in1848
Its leaders: Lucretia Mottand Elizabeth CadyStantonStanton teamed up with SusanB. Anthony and founded theNational Womens SuffrageAssociation in 1869
Horace Mann wasinstrumental in pushingfor public educationlengthened the schoolyear used the firststandardized books
THE ABOLITION MOVEMENTBefore the 1830s, fewwhites fought for theliberation of the slaves
Most anti-slavery whitessought gradual abolition,coupled with a movementto return blacks to Africa
Moderates wantedemancipation to take placeslowlyImmediatists, as theirname implies, wantedemancipation at once
Immediatist WilliamLloyd Garrison beganpublishing a popularabolitionist newspapercalled the Liberator in1831
In the 1840s,Frederick Douglassbegan publishing hisinfluential newspaperThe North Star
Other prominent blackabolitionists includedHarriet Tubman andSojourner Truth
HEADING TOWARD THE CIVIL WAR (1845-1860)1844 pitted James Polk, aDemocratexpansionist, against Whigleader Henry Clay
-"54 -40 or Fight"-Americas Northwesternborder should be extendedto the 54 40 latitude, deepin Canadian territory
Polk wanted the immediateannexation of Texas as wellas expansion into theMexican-claimed territoriesof New Mexico, Arizona,and California
Polk won. President Tylerproposed the annexation ofTexas saying Polk’s winwas a “mandate.”U.S. annexed Texas, andMexico broke off diplomaticrelations
Polk realized the UnitedStates could hardlyafford to fight twoterritorial wars at thesame time, so …He softened his position onCanada
The Oregon Treaty, signed withGreat Britain in 1846, allowedthe United States to acquirepeacefully what is nowOregon, Washington, and partsof Idaho, Wyoming, andMontana
Polk concentrated on effortsto claim the Southwest fromMexico -tried to buy the territorywhen that failed, heprovoked Mexico until itattacked American troops
The Mexican-American WarBegan in 1846did not have universalsupport from theAmerican public
Opponents arguedthat Polk hadprovoked Mexico intowar at the request ofpowerful slaveholders
Defeat of the WilmotProviso, a Congressionalbill mandating theprohibition of slavery inany territory gained fromMexico during thewar, reinforced thosesuspicions
led to the formation of theFree Soil PartyA single-issue partydevoted to the goals ofthe Wilmot Proviso
Southerners felt that it wasthe choice of the settlers innew territories, and not of thefederal governmentThe two sides weregrowing farther apart
Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo (1848)Mexico handed over almost allof the modern Southwest:Arizona, New Mexico,California, Nevada, and Utah
New territories posed majorproblems regarding the status ofslaveryPolitical parties split over issue– anti-slavery Whigs went toFree Soil party which refusedto allow popular sovereignty
THE COMPROMISE Of 1850California, the populousterritory, wanted statehood.Californians had alreadydrawn up a state constitution.That constitution prohibitedslavery.
Proslavery forces arguedsouthern California should beforced to accept slavery, inaccordance with the boundarydrawn by the MissouriCompromise
Democrat Stephen Douglasand Whig Henry Clayhammered out what theythought to be a workablesolution, known as theCompromise of 1850
Original compromise wasdefeated, but Douglas broke itdown into smaller bills andmanaged to get each passed.Admitted California as a freestate; created the territories ofUtah and New Mexico, but leftthe status of slavery up to eachterritory to decide
This reinforced theconcept of popularsovereignty; andenacted a strongerfugitive slave law
Definition of popularsovereignty was so vaguethat Northerners andSoutherners couldinterpret the law entirelydifferently so as to suittheir own positions
The fugitive slave law,meanwhile, made it mucheasier to retrieve escapedslaves and required freestates to cooperate intheir retrieval
We’re on ourway to BIGproblems!
Toward War Between the StatesAntislavery sentiments inthe North grew stronger in1852 with the publicationof Uncle Toms Cabin
It was turned into a popular playthat toured America and Europeextremely powerfulpiece of propaganda
Franklin Pierce, perceived inboth the North and South as amoderate, was elected president.
THE KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT AND"BLEEDING KANSAS"
Settlers entering the Kansas andNebraska territories found noestablished civil authorityCongress wanted to buildrailways through the territory,but they needed some form ofgovernment to impose order.
Stephen Douglas formulatedand ushered throughCongress a law that left thefate of slavery up toresidents without specifyingwhen or how they were todecide.
To make mattersworse, by opening thetwo territories toslavery, the Kansas-Nebraska Act repealedthe MissouriCompromise
Many Northern states passed lawsweakening the fugitive slave actSoutherners, who thoughtthe fugitive slave law wouldbe the final word on theissue, were furious.
Antislavery Whigsjoined NorthernDemocrats and formerFree Soilers to form anew party, theRepublicans.
They championed a widerrange of issues, includingthe further development ofnational roads, moreliberal land distribution inthe West, and increasedprotective tariffs
Western settlers, and Easternimporters all found something tolike in the Republican platformAnother new partyformed during thisperiod
The American party, oftencalled the Know-Nothingsbecause they met privatelyand remained secretive abouttheir political agenda, ralliedaround a single issue: Hatredof foreigners
For a while it appeared that theKnow-Nothings, and not theRepublican party, would becomethe Democrats chief competitionBut the party self-destructed,primarily because its Northernand Southern wings disagreedover slavery
Time for “self determination.”Just prior to the electionfor Kansass legislature,thousands of proslaveryMissourians temporarilyrelocated in Kansas
The new legislature, whichPresident Pierce recognized,promptly declared Kansas aslave territory.Abolitionists refused toaccept this outcome and setup their own government
Proslavery forces demolishedthe abolitionist city ofLawrence.Radical abolitionist JohnBrown led a raid on aproslaverycamp, murdering five.
Brown hoped to spark aslave revolt but failed.He was executed afterhis raid on Harper’sFerry in 1859.
After his execution, news spread thatBrown had received financial backingfrom Northern abolitionistorganizations .Brown became a martyr forthe cause, celebratedthroughout the North.
More than 200 people diedin the conflict, which is howKansas came to be knownas Bleeding Kansas, orBloody Kansas, during thisperiod.
The crisis destroyedPierces political careerDemocrats choseJames Buchanan astheir 1856 candidate
In a sectional vote, Buchanan wonthe election, carrying the SouthRepublican John Fremontcarried the NorthKnow-Nothings ran MillardFillmore, who won only 20percent of the vote