The Jazz Age
or….
The
ROARING
1920s
Life
cover,
July 1,
1926
Life cover, July 1, 1926
CONSUMERISM
(electric) appliances
automobiles
advertising (image vs. utility)
buying on credit
chain stores
Consumer
Debt,...
CONSUMERISM:
Impact of the Automobile
Replaced the railroad as
the key promoter of
economic growth (steel,
glass, rubber, ...
Automobiles &
Industrial Expansion
Henry Ford
‘fordism’
Ford Highland Park assembly line, 1928
(From the Collections of He...
Impact of the Automobile:
Trains and Automobiles, 1900-1980
Jones, Created Equal
Automobiles & Consumerism
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved
< Ford ad: “Every family -- with even ...
July 4, Nantasket Beach, Massachusetts, early 1920s
MASS CULTURE:
Radio
New mass medium
1920: First
commercial radio
station
By 1930: over 800
stations & 10
million radios
Ne...
•Radio sets, parts
and accessories
brought in $60
million in 1922…
• $136 million in
1923
•$852 million in
1929
•Radio rea...
MASS CULTURE:
Movies
Movie “palaces”
“talkies” (1927)
Will Hays
80 million tickets sold per week by
1930 (population: 100 ...
“Flappers” sought
individual freedom
Known for their
short “bobbed” hair
Ongoing crusade for
equal rights
Most women r...
ROLE OF WOMEN:
Women and Politics
Impact of suffrage
League of Women Voters
National Women’s Party
Alice Paul (founder)
Ma...
CHANGES IN LITERATURE & ART
Literature
“lost generation”
F. Scott Fitzgerald- The Great
Gatsby
Sinclair Lewis-author who w...
CHANGES IN LITERATURE & ART
African Americans
Harlem
Renaissance-African
American culture in
the form of
literature,theatr...
CHANGES IN LITERATURE & ART
Jazz
“The Jazz Age”
Louis Armstrong
Duke Ellington
The Cotton Club
Louis Armstrong & the Fate ...
Religion
“modernists”
“fundamentalism”
Scopes Trial
American Civil Liberties Union
Clarence Darrow
William Jennings Bryan
1925
The first conflict between
religion vs. science being
taught in school was in 1925 in
Dayton, Tennessee.
Scopes Trial
A.K.A. Monkey Trial
Fundamentalism
Rejected ideas that implied human moral
behavior came from society and nat...
John T. Scopes
Biology teacher in Dayton TN recruited to
teach evolution
Arrested for teaching evolution
Clarence Darrow—S...
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
Prohibition
Prohibition
The noble experiment
“Speakeasies”
Al Capone
Alphonse “Scarface” Capo...
Immigration, 1921-1960
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
Immigration
Emergency Quota Act - 1921
3% of total number people in ethnic group per
year
Based on 1910 census
National Or...
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
Xenophobia and Racial Unrest
National Origin
Act of 1924
Number of
Immigrants and
Countries o...
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
Xenophobia and Racial Unrest
Communist International
3rd International Goal (1919):
promote w...
•Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a
time of great upheaval…U.S.
“scared out of their wits".
•"Reds” as they were called,
"Anar...
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
Xenophobia and Racial Unrest
Sacco &
Vanzetti
HAVE A CHAIR! from The Daily Worker
IS THIS THE...
Sacco and Vanzetti Case
2 shoe-factory workers were murdered and
robbed of company payroll
Nicola Sacco, a shoemaker, and ...
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
Xenophobia and Racial Unrest
Birth of a Nation - D.W. Griffith
“new” Ku Klux Klan
“American-i...
Black Population, 1920
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan parade in
Washington, D.C., Sept. 13, 1926
BUSINESS – FRIENDLY
GOVERNMENT
Warren G. Harding
“Return to normalcy”
Herbert Hoover
Andrew Mellon
The “Ohio Gang”
Teapot ...
The 1920 Election
Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of
Versailles led many Americans
to vote for the Republican,
Warren Harding...
The Ohio Gang: President Warren Harding (front row, third from right), Vice-President
Calvin Coolidge (front row, second f...
Republican Policies
Harding’s Return to "normalcy"
tariffs raised
corporate, income taxes cut
spending cuts
Government-bus...
BUSINESS – FRIENDLY
GOVERNMENT
Calvin Coolidge
“The business of
America is business”
President Calvin Coolidge Coolidge th...
The 1924 Election
Calvin Coolidge served as
President from 1923 to 1929.
“Silent Cal”.
Republican president
• Secretary of the Interior, Albert
B. Fall leased naval reserve oil land
in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk
Hills, Californ...
Harding and Coolidge
Republican presidents appeal to
traditional American values
Harding dies in office after 2 years.
Sca...
+ + =
$
REPUBLICAN ECONOMY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE AND BIG
BUSINESS……….
Lower Taxes Less Federal Higher Strong
Spending Ta...
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  1. 1. The Jazz Age or…. The ROARING 1920s
  2. 2. Life cover, July 1, 1926 Life cover, July 1, 1926
  3. 3. CONSUMERISM (electric) appliances automobiles advertising (image vs. utility) buying on credit chain stores Consumer Debt, 1920–1931 General Electric ad (Picture Research Consultants & Archives)
  4. 4. CONSUMERISM: Impact of the Automobile Replaced the railroad as the key promoter of economic growth (steel, glass, rubber, gasoline, highways) Daily life: commuting, shopping, traveling, “courting” Increase in sales: 1913 - 1.2 million registered; 1929 - 26.5 million registered (=almost one per family) Passenger Car Sales, 1920-1929 Filling Station, Maryland in 1921
  5. 5. Automobiles & Industrial Expansion Henry Ford ‘fordism’ Ford Highland Park assembly line, 1928 (From the Collections of Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village) “Trying out the new assembly line“ Detroit, 1913 Henry Ford (1835-1947) 1913: 14 hours to build a new car 1928: New Ford off assembly line every 10 seconds 1913: car=2 yrs wages 1929: 3 mos. wages
  6. 6. Impact of the Automobile: Trains and Automobiles, 1900-1980 Jones, Created Equal
  7. 7. Automobiles & Consumerism Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved < Ford ad: “Every family -- with even the most modest income, can now afford a car of their own." “Every family should have their own car. . .You live but once and the years roll by quickly. Why wait for tomorrow for things that you rightfully should enjoy today?" (Library of Congress) Dodge advertisement photo, 1933
  8. 8. July 4, Nantasket Beach, Massachusetts, early 1920s
  9. 9. MASS CULTURE: Radio New mass medium 1920: First commercial radio station By 1930: over 800 stations & 10 million radios Networks: NBC (1924), CBS (1927) The Spread of Radio, to 1939
  10. 10. •Radio sets, parts and accessories brought in $60 million in 1922… • $136 million in 1923 •$852 million in 1929 •Radio reached into every third home in its first decade. •Listening audience was 50,000,000 by 1925
  11. 11. MASS CULTURE: Movies Movie “palaces” “talkies” (1927) Will Hays 80 million tickets sold per week by 1930 (population: 100 million) (Billy Rose Theatre Collection, The New York Public Library)
  12. 12. “Flappers” sought individual freedom Known for their short “bobbed” hair Ongoing crusade for equal rights Most women remain in the “cult of domesticity” sphere Discovery of adolescence
  13. 13. ROLE OF WOMEN: Women and Politics Impact of suffrage League of Women Voters National Women’s Party Alice Paul (founder) Margaret Sanger- called for limiting number of children per family Alice Paul Sheppard-Towner Act
  14. 14. CHANGES IN LITERATURE & ART Literature “lost generation” F. Scott Fitzgerald- The Great Gatsby Sinclair Lewis-author who wrote about absurdities of small town life Ernest Hemingway-famous author Eugene O’Neill-modern playwright F. Scott & Zelda Fitzgerald on the Riviera, 1926 (Stock Montage)
  15. 15. CHANGES IN LITERATURE & ART African Americans Harlem Renaissance-African American culture in the form of literature,theatre and music that originated from Harlem New York Langston Hughes- key writer of HR Langston Hughes
  16. 16. CHANGES IN LITERATURE & ART Jazz “The Jazz Age” Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington The Cotton Club Louis Armstrong & the Fate Marabel band, 1919 Louis Armstrong
  17. 17. Religion “modernists” “fundamentalism” Scopes Trial American Civil Liberties Union Clarence Darrow William Jennings Bryan
  18. 18. 1925 The first conflict between religion vs. science being taught in school was in 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee.
  19. 19. Scopes Trial A.K.A. Monkey Trial Fundamentalism Rejected ideas that implied human moral behavior came from society and nature, not God Rejected Darwin’s theory of evolution— humans developed from lower life forms Believed in creationism—God created world
  20. 20. John T. Scopes Biology teacher in Dayton TN recruited to teach evolution Arrested for teaching evolution Clarence Darrow—Scopes lawyer William Jennings Bryan—prosecutor Scopes found guilty after 8 days Sentenced to $100 fine Conviction later overturned on technicality
  21. 21. SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Prohibition Prohibition The noble experiment “Speakeasies” Al Capone Alphonse “Scarface” CaponeGovernment agents breaking up an illegal bar during Prohibition
  22. 22. Immigration, 1921-1960 SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:
  23. 23. Immigration Emergency Quota Act - 1921 3% of total number people in ethnic group per year Based on 1910 census National Origins Act - 1924 2% of each nationality living here in 1890 1929 limit total immigrants to 150,000/yr with nationality allotment based on 1920 census
  24. 24. SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Xenophobia and Racial Unrest National Origin Act of 1924 Number of Immigrants and Countries of Origin, 1891-1920 and 1921-1940 Percentage of Population Foreign Born, 1850-1990
  25. 25. SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Xenophobia and Racial Unrest Communist International 3rd International Goal (1919): promote worldwide communism Red Scare Palmer Raids (1920) A. Mitchell Palmer’s Home bombed, 1920 Police arrest “suspected Reds” in Chicago, 1920
  26. 26. •Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheaval…U.S. “scared out of their wits". •"Reds” as they were called, "Anarchists” or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Agitators” (Communists). •Anti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution. •6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S. •No due process was followed Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
  27. 27. SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Xenophobia and Racial Unrest Sacco & Vanzetti HAVE A CHAIR! from The Daily Worker IS THIS THE EMBLEM? from The Daily Worker Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, 1921
  28. 28. Sacco and Vanzetti Case 2 shoe-factory workers were murdered and robbed of company payroll Nicola Sacco, a shoemaker, and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, a fish peddler Italian immigrants arrested on flimsy evidence • Anarchists and immigrants Found guilty, sentenced to death, executed anti-immigrant sentiments led Congress to change immigration laws
  29. 29. SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Xenophobia and Racial Unrest Birth of a Nation - D.W. Griffith “new” Ku Klux Klan “American-ism” (Picture Research Consultants & Archives) Ku Klux Klan initiation, 1923. The Klan opposed all who were not “true Americans”. (c) 2000 IRC
  30. 30. Black Population, 1920
  31. 31. Ku Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan parade in Washington, D.C., Sept. 13, 1926
  32. 32. BUSINESS – FRIENDLY GOVERNMENT Warren G. Harding “Return to normalcy” Herbert Hoover Andrew Mellon The “Ohio Gang” Teapot Dome Scandal Harding with Laddie, June 13, 1922 Albert B. Fall (left)
  33. 33. The 1920 Election Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European…
  34. 34. The Ohio Gang: President Warren Harding (front row, third from right), Vice-President Calvin Coolidge (front row, second from right), and members of the cabinet. The 1920 Election
  35. 35. Republican Policies Harding’s Return to "normalcy" tariffs raised corporate, income taxes cut spending cuts Government-business cooperation “The business of government, is business” Return to “isolation”
  36. 36. BUSINESS – FRIENDLY GOVERNMENT Calvin Coolidge “The business of America is business” President Calvin Coolidge Coolidge throwing out first pitch 1924
  37. 37. The 1924 Election Calvin Coolidge served as President from 1923 to 1929. “Silent Cal”. Republican president
  38. 38. • Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall leased naval reserve oil land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny •Fall had received a bribe of $100,000 from Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair. •Fall found guilty of taking a bribe. •Sinclair and Doheny were acquitted of charges.
  39. 39. Harding and Coolidge Republican presidents appeal to traditional American values Harding dies in office after 2 years. Scandals break after his death Teapot Dome Scandal Calvin Coolidge becomes President after Harding’s death in 1923. Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall leased naval reserve oil land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny Fall had received a bribe of $100,000 from Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair. Fall found guilty of taking a bribe.
  40. 40. + + = $ REPUBLICAN ECONOMY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE AND BIG BUSINESS………. Lower Taxes Less Federal Higher Strong Spending Tariffs National Economy Fordney-McCumber Tariff---1923 Hawley-Smoot Tariff ---1930 raised the tariff to an unbelievable 60%!!!
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