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Life cover, July 1, 1926 Life cover, July 1, 1926
CONSUMERISM (electric) appliances automobiles advertising (image vs. utility) buying on credit chain storesConsumerDebt,1920–1931 General Electric ad (Picture Research Consultants & Archives)
CONSUMERISM:Impact of the Automobile Increase in sales: 1913 - 1.2 million registered; Passenger Car 1929 - 26.5 million registered Sales, 1920-1929 (=almost one per family) Replaced the railroad as the key promoter of economic growth (steel, glass, rubber, gasoline, highways) Daily life: commuting, shopping, traveling, “courting” Filling Station, Maryland in 1921
Automobiles &Industrial Expansion Henry Ford 1913: car=2 yrs wages „fordism‟ 1929: 3 mos. wages 1913: 14 hours to build a new car 1928: New Ford off assembly line every 10 seconds Ford Highland Park assembly line, 1928 (From the Collections of Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village) “Trying out the new assembly line“ Detroit, 1913 Henry Ford (1835-1947)
Impact of the Automobile:Trains and Automobiles, 1900-1980 Jones, Created Equal
July 4, Nantasket Beach, Massachusetts, early 1920s
MASS CULTURE:Radio New mass medium 1920: First commercial radio station By 1930: over 800 stations & 10 million radios Networks: NBC (1924), CBS (1927) The Spread of Radio, to 1939
•Radio sets, parts and accessories brought in $60 million in 1922… • $136 million in 1923 •$852 million in 1929 •Radio reached into every third home in its first decade.•Listening audience was 50,000,000 by 1925
MASS CULTURE:Movies Movie “palaces” “talkies” (1927) Will Hays (Billy Rose Theatre Collection, The New York Public Library) 80 million tickets sold per week by 1930 (population: 100 million)
“Flappers” sought individual freedom Known for theirshort “bobbed” hairOngoing crusade for equal rightsMost women remain in the “cult ofdomesticity” sphere Discovery of adolescence
ROLE OF WOMEN:Women and Politics Impact of suffrage League of Women Voters National Women‟s Party Alice Paul (founder) Margaret Sanger- called for limiting number of children per family Alice Paul Sheppard-Towner Act
CHANGES IN LITERATURE & ARTLiterature “lost generation” F. Scott Fitzgerald- The Great Gatsby Sinclair Lewis-author who wrote about absurdities of small town life Ernest Hemingway-famous author Eugene O‟Neill-modern playwright F. Scott & Zelda Fitzgerald on the Riviera, 1926 (Stock Montage)
CHANGES IN LITERATURE & ARTAfrican Americans Harlem Renaissance-African American culture in the form of literature,theatre and music that originated from Harlem New York Langston Hughes- key writer of HR Langston Hughes
CHANGES IN LITERATURE & ARTJazz “The Jazz Age” Louis Armstrong Duke Ellington The Cotton Club Louis Armstrong Louis Armstrong & the Fate Marabel band, 1919
Religion “modernists” “fundamentalism” Scopes Trial American Civil Liberties Union Clarence Darrow William Jennings Bryan
1925 The first conflict between religion vs. science beingtaught in school was in 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee.
Scopes TrialA.K.A. Monkey Trial Fundamentalism Rejected ideas that implied human moral behavior came from society and nature, not God Rejected Darwin‟s theory of evolution— humans developed from lower life forms Believed in creationism—God created world
John T. Scopes Biology teacher in Dayton TN recruited to teach evolution Arrested for teaching evolutionClarence Darrow—Scopes lawyerWilliam Jennings Bryan—prosecutorScopes found guilty after 8 days Sentenced to $100 fine Conviction later overturned on technicality
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:Prohibition Prohibition “Speakeasies” The noble experiment Al CaponeGovernment agents breaking up an illegal bar during Prohibition Alphonse “Scarface” Capone
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Immigration, 1921-1960
ImmigrationEmergency Quota Act - 1921 3% of total number people in ethnic group per year Based on 1910 censusNational Origins Act - 1924 2% of each nationality living here in 1890 1929 limit total immigrants to 150,000/yr with nationality allotment based on 1920 census
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS:Xenophobia and Racial Unrest National Origin Number of Immigrants and Act of 1924 Countries of Origin, 1891-1920 and 1921-1940Percentage of Population Foreign Born, 1850-1990
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Xenophobia and Racial Unrest Communist International 3rd International Goal (1919): promote worldwide communism Red Scare Palmer Raids (1920)Police arrest“suspectedReds” inChicago,1920 A. Mitchell Palmer’s Home bombed, 1920
•Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheaval…U.S. “scared out of their wits". •"Reds” as they were called, "Anarchists” or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Attorney General Agitators” (Communists). Mitchell Palmer•Anti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution.•6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S. •No due process was followed
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Xenophobia and Racial Unrest Sacco & VanzettiNicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, 1921 IS THIS THE EMBLEM? HAVE A CHAIR! from The Daily Worker from The Daily Worker
Sacco and Vanzetti Case2 shoe-factory workers were murdered androbbed of company payrollNicola Sacco, a shoemaker, and BartolomeoVanzetti, a fish peddler Italian immigrants arrested on flimsy evidence • Anarchists and immigrantsFound guilty, sentenced to death, executedanti-immigrant sentiments led Congress tochange immigration laws
SOCIAL & CULTURAL CONFLICTS: Xenophobia and Racial Unrest Birth of a Nation - D.W. Griffith “new” Ku Klux Klan “American-ism”Ku Klux Klan initiation, 1923. The Klan opposed all who were not “true Americans”.(c) 2000 IRC (Picture Research Consultants & Archives)
BUSINESS – FRIENDLYGOVERNMENT Warren G. Harding “Return to normalcy” Herbert Hoover Andrew Mellon The “Ohio Gang” Harding with Laddie, June 13, 1922 Teapot Dome Scandal Albert B. Fall (left)
The 1920 Election Wilson’s idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren Harding… US turned inward and feared anything that was European…
The 1920 ElectionThe Ohio Gang: President Warren Harding (front row, third from right), Vice-President Calvin Coolidge (front row, second from right), and members of the cabinet.
Republican PoliciesHarding’s Return to "normalcy" tariffs raised corporate, income taxes cut spending cutsGovernment-business cooperation “The business of government, is business”Return to “isolation”
BUSINESS – FRIENDLYGOVERNMENT Calvin Coolidge “The business of America is business”President Calvin Coolidge Coolidge throwing out first pitch 1924
The 1924 ElectionCalvin Coolidge served asPresident from 1923 to 1929.“Silent Cal”.Republican president
• Secretary of the Interior, AlbertB. Fall leased naval reserve oil landin Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and ElkHills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny •Fall had received a bribe of $100,000 from Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair.•Fall found guilty of taking a bribe. •Sinclair and Doheny were acquitted of charges.
Harding and CoolidgeRepublican presidents appeal to Fall Secretary of the Interior, Albert B.traditional American oil land in Teapot leased naval reserve values Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills,years. California,Harding dies in office after 2 Edward L. to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and DohenyScandals break after his death Fall had received a bribe of $100,000 from Teapot Dome Scandal Doheny and about three times that amountCalvin Sinclair. becomes President after from CoolidgeHarding’s death inof taking a bribe. Fall found guilty 1923.
REPUBLICAN ECONOMY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE AND BIG BUSINESS……….Lower Taxes + Less Federal Spending + Higher Tariffs = $ Strong National Economy Fordney-McCumber Tariff---1923 Hawley-Smoot Tariff ---1930 raised the tariff to an unbelievable 60%!!!