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2 late colonies-to_jackson-2
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2 late colonies-to_jackson-2

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  • 1. THE LATEEIGHTEENTH ANDEARLY NINETEENTHCENTURIES To Jackson
  • 2. EVENTS LEADINGTO THEREVOLUTIONARYWAR(1750-1776)
  • 3. In 1754 thecolonistsconsideredthemselves English
  • 4. ALBANY PLAN OF UNIONIn 1754,representatives fromseven colonies metin Albany
  • 5. Developed byBenjaminFranklin
  • 6. Provided for an inter-colonial governmentand a system forcollecting taxes for thecolonies defense
  • 7. Efforts to unitethe colonies metwith less successthan he hoped
  • 8. Produced“Join or Die” cartoon and flag
  • 9. THE SEVEN YEARS WAR(1754-1763)
  • 10. Lastedten years
  • 11. also called the Frenchand Indian WarThey fought on SAME side
  • 12. Colonists were expandingwestward – Frenchwanted to protect furtradeFrench tried to stopthem by buildingfortified outposts
  • 13. George Washingtonattacked a Frenchoutpost and lost badlyAllowed to return toVirginia, he waswelcomed as a hero!!
  • 14. When the war wasover, England wasthe undisputedcolonial power ofthe continent
  • 15. Many Americansserved in the EnglisharmyEnglish did not makea good impression!
  • 16. Sowed the first seeds of anti-British sentiment in thecoloniesIndians particularlydisliked the English
  • 17. English raised the price ofgoods sold to the IndiansPontiac rallied a groupof tribes in the OhioValley and attackedcolonial outposts
  • 18. British governmentissued the Proclamationof 1763 forbiddingsettlement west of therivers running throughthe Appalachians
  • 19. Settlers had alreadymoved west of theline.The proclamationagitated them
  • 20. THE SUGAR ACT,THE CURRENCY ACT,AND THE STAMP ACTWAR DEBTS
  • 21. Coloniestradition of self-taxation wasbeing usurped
  • 22. Stamp Act affected agroup that wasliterate, persuasive,and argumentative-namely, lawyers
  • 23. James Otis wroteThe Rights of theBritish ColoniesAsserted and Proved
  • 24. Otis put forwardthe "No taxationwithoutrepresentation"argument
  • 25. Otis did not advocate secession
  • 26. Patrick Henrydrafted the VirginiaStamp ActResolves, protestingthe tax
  • 27. THETOWNSHEND ACTS
  • 28. Taxed goods importeddirectly from BritainSome of the tax collectedwas set aside for the theBritish army
  • 29. Patriots weremostly whiteProtestantproperty holders
  • 30. THE DECLARATION OFINDEPENDENCEH/O
  • 31. The rebels were stilllooking for themasterpiece ofpropaganda thatwould rally colonists
  • 32. Guess whocomes on thescene ….
  • 33. They got itin CommonSense
  • 34. In a nation of 2million, most of whomcouldnt read, it soldmore than 100,000copies in its first threemonths
  • 35. (about the same as selling 13million compact discs today).
  • 36. Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence
  • 37. With thedocuments signingon July 4, 1776, theRevolutionary War officially began.
  • 38. Continental Army (as opposedto local militias) had troublerecruiting good soldiersRecruited blacks, and up to 5,000fought on the side of the rebels (inreturn, most of those who had beenslaves were granted their freedom)
  • 39. Franco-AmericanAlliance
  • 40. Helped the colonistsconsiderably.Ultimately, thecolonists won a warof attrition
  • 41. The Treaty of Paris,signed at the end of 1782,granted the United Statesindependence andgenerous territorialrights.
  • 42. CREATING AFUNCTIONINGGOVERNMENT (1776-1800)
  • 43. THE ARTICLES OFCONFEDERATION
  • 44. As soon as the Declaration of Independence wassigned, states began writing their own constitutions
  • 45. In 1777 the ContinentalCongress sent the Articlesof Confederation, the firstnational constitution, tothe colonies forratification
  • 46. FLAWS
  • 47. It did not give thenationalgovernment thepower to tax or toregulate trade
  • 48. Amendments to thearticles required theunanimous consentof all the states
  • 49. OtherProblems
  • 50. Women and blacks hadmade sacrifices in thefight for liberation, andsome expected at least adegree of compensation
  • 51. In 1787 an army of1,500 farmers marchedon Boston to protest anumber of unfairpolicies, both economicand political.
  • 52. They were armed and veryangry, and they gave the eliteclass the wake-up call that therevolution might not be overyet. Shays Rebellion helpedconvince some that a strongercentral government wasnecessary
  • 53. Northwest Ordinanceof 1787 contained a billof rights, abolishedslavery in theNorthwest territories
  • 54. A NEWCONSTITUTION
  • 55. The Virginia Plan, largelythe brainchild of JamesMadison, called for anentirely new governmentbased on the principle ofchecks and balances.
  • 56. Only three of the 42delegates refused to signthe finished document(two because it did notinclude a bill of rights)
  • 57. Opposition forcesportrayed the federalgovernment underthe Constitution as anall-powerful beast
  • 58. Anti-Federalists,were particularlyappalled by theabsence of a bill ofrights
  • 59. Federalist position wasforcefully and persuasivelyargued in the FederalistPapers, anonymouslyauthored by JamesMadison, AlexanderHamilton, and John Jay
  • 60. The Constitutionwent into effect in1789; the Bill ofRights was added in1791.
  • 61. THEWASHINGTONPRESIDENCY
  • 62. Created agovernment madeup of the bestminds of his time
  • 63. Thomas Jefferson asSecretary of State andAlexander Hamiltonas Secretary of theTreasury H/O
  • 64. These two menstrongly disagreedabout the properrelationship betweenthe federal governmentand state governments
  • 65. Hamilton proposed a National Bank --Jefferson and JamesMadison argued that theConstitution allowedCongress only those powersspecifically granted to it
  • 66. Hamiltons plancalled for the federalgovernment toassume the statesdebts
  • 67. Plan clearly favoredNorthern banksNorthern states alsohad more remainingdebt than Southernstates
  • 68. FrenchRevolution tookplace during theWashingtonadministration
  • 69. Thomas Paine supported it.Jefferson wanted tosupport the revolution andits republican idealsHamilton had aristocraticleanings and so disliked therevolutionaries
  • 70. France and England resumedhostilities Even Jefferson agreed that neutrality was the correct course to follow
  • 71. American supporters of therevolution held enthusiasticralliesRallies were organized byDemocratic-Republican societies,which evolved into theDemocratic-Republican politicalparty
  • 72. Development of politicalparties troubled the framersof the ConstitutionWashington even accusedthe Democratic-Republicansocieties of instigating theWhiskey Rebellion
  • 73. Armed rebels acrossPennsylvania, Maryland, andVirginia defied governmentefforts to collect the new taxWashington sent a largetroop detachment todisperse the rebels
  • 74. Washington sent John Jay toEngland to negotiate a treatyconcerning free tradeCongress attempted towithhold funding to enforcethe treaty
  • 75. The House ofRepresentatives askedWashington to submitall documentspertinent to the treaty
  • 76. Washingtonrefused,establishing theprecedent ofexecutive privilege
  • 77. THE ADAMSPRESIDENCY
  • 78. Electoral college selectedJohn Adams, aFederalist, asWashingtons successorSecond-place candidatebecame vice-president
  • 79. So Adams vice-president was theDemocratic-Republican ThomasJefferson
  • 80. Adams greatestachievement wasavoiding war withFrance
  • 81. XYZ AffairAfter the U.S. signed the JayTreaty with Britain, Francebegan seizing American ships …
  • 82. Adams sent three diplomats toParis, where French officialsdemanded a huge bribe beforethey would allow negotiationsAdams published their writtenreport in the newspapers
  • 83. He deleted the Frenchofficials names andreplaced them with theletters X, Y, and ZPublic becamevehemently anti-French
  • 84. Alien and Sedition Acts,allowed the government toforcibly expel foreignersand to jail newspapereditors for "scandalousand malicious writing."
  • 85. Acts were purelypolitical, aimed atdestroying theDemocratic-Republicans,
  • 86. Jefferson led the oppositionTogether withMadison, he drafted theVirginia and KentuckyResolutions
  • 87. Argued that thestates had the rightto judge theconstitutionality offederal laws
  • 88. Later referred to as nullificationJefferson used the laws andthe resolutions as key issuesin his 1800 campaign for thepresidency
  • 89. THE ELECTION OF 1800
  • 90. Federalist party was splitclearing the way to thepresidency for theDemocratic-Republicans
  • 91. Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burreach received an equal number ofvotes in the Electoral College,which meant that the Federalist-dominated House ofRepresentatives was required tochoose a president from betweenthe two
  • 92. Alexander Hamiltonswallowed hard andcampaigned for Jefferson,with whom he disagreed onmost issues and whom hepersonally disliked, because hebelieved Burr to be "a mostunfit and dangerous man."
  • 93. Burr laterprovedHamilton rightby killing him
  • 94. For the second time in asmany elections, a presidentwas saddled with a vice-president he did not wantRemedied in 1804 withthe Twelfth Amendmentto the Constitution
  • 95. THEJEFFERSONIAN REPUBLIC (1800-1823)
  • 96. JEFFERSONSFIRST TERMAdams was so upset about theelection that he left thecapital before Jefferson tookoffice
  • 97. Before he lefttown, however, he made anumber of "midnightappointments," filling asmany governmentpositions with Federalistsas he could
  • 98. Jeffersons response wasto refuse to recognizethose appointmentsUpon taking office, Jefferson alsoimmediately pardoned all thoseconvicted under the Alien and SeditionActs, then persuaded Congress, nowcontrolled by his party, to repeal thelaws
  • 99. Jeffersons refusal to acceptAdams midnight appointmentsresulted in a number of lawsuitsMarbury v. Madison,reached the SupremeCourt in 1803
  • 100. William Marbury, one ofAdams last-minuteappointees, had suedSecretary of State JamesMadison for refusing tocertify his appointment tothe federal bench
  • 101. Chief Justice JohnMarshall was a FederalistMarshall was not certainthat the court could forceJefferson to acceptMarburys appointment
  • 102. Court ruled that Marbury didindeed have a right to hisjudgeship, but that the courtcould not enforce his rightAlthough the power to do so hadbeen granted to the SupremeCourt in the Judiciary Act of1789, Marshall now declared itunconstitutional
  • 103. Majoraccomplishment ofJeffersons firstterm was theLouisiana Purchase
  • 104. Jefferson sent JamesMonroe to France to buyNew Orleans for $2 millionThe French offered to sellMonroe the whole Louisianaterritory for $15 million
  • 105. Ironically, Jeffersonthe anti-federalist hadundertaken the largestfederal action in thenations brief history
  • 106. Jefferson sent explorersAll returned with favorablereports, causing manypioneers to turn theirattentions westward
  • 107. JEFFERSONSSECOND TERM
  • 108. War of 1812In 1805 the Britishand French were atwar
  • 109. British began stoppingAmerican ships andimpressing those sailors whomight have deserted theBritish navyJefferson responded with aboycott, biding his time whileincreasing military and navalappropriations
  • 110. Jefferson lobbied for and wonthe Embargo Act of 1807Shut down Americasimport and export business,with disastrous economicresults
  • 111. Jefferson repealed theunsuccessful EmbargoAct in the final days ofhis presidency
  • 112. MADISONS PRESIDENCY AND THE WAR OF 1812
  • 113. Madison, seeking a solution toAmericas trade problems,reopened trade with both Franceand England. He promised thatif either of the countries wouldrenounce its interference withAmerican trade, he would cut offtrade with the other one
  • 114. Napoleon made that promiseBritish, angry at the newembargo, stepped uptheir attacks onAmerican ships
  • 115. Native Americans alignedthemselves with the BritishThe British capturedWashington, D.C., in 1814and set the White House onfire
  • 116. Federalists, opposed to thewar and not aware that itsend was coming, met in theHartford Convention toconsider a massive overhaulof the Constitution or,failing that, secession
  • 117. When English-Frenchhostilities ended (withNapoleons defeat), manyof the issues that hadcaused the war evaporated
  • 118. War had one clearpositive resultIt spurredAmericanmanufacturing
  • 119. "Henry ClaysAmerican System."Combination of programs thatincluded protective tariffs onimports, improvements tointerstate roads and the re-chartering of the National Bank
  • 120. Clay’s American System wasviewed by many as anattempt at centralization ofpower and as a threat to StateSovereigntyAbraham Lincoln wasa “Clay disciple”
  • 121. MONROESPRESIDENCY
  • 122. Demise of the Federalistsbriefly left the U.S withonly one political party.This period of unity isreferred to as "the Eraof Good Feelings."
  • 123. Chief Justice JohnMarshalls rulingscontinued tostrengthen the federalgovernment and itsprimacy
  • 124. McCulloch v.Maryland thestates could not taxthe National Bank
  • 125. a financial scarecalled the Panic of1819 threw theAmerican economyinto turmoil
  • 126. panic followed aperiod of economicgrowth, inflation, andland speculation, all ofwhich had destabilizedthe economy
  • 127. National bankcalled in its loans,many borrowerscouldnt repaythem
  • 128. no nationally organizedpolitical oppositionresulted from thepanic, and Monroeeasily won reelection in1820
  • 129. Secretary of State underMonroe, John QuincyAdams negotiated anumber of treaties thatfixed U.S. borders, openednew territories, andacquired Florida
  • 130. revolutions in CentralAmerica and South America(against Europeanimperialism)US recognized thenew nations
  • 131. they decided that Americashould assert its authorityover the Western HemisphereMonroe Doctrine
  • 132. Claimed Americasright to interveneanywhere in its ownhemisphere, if it felt itssecurity wasthreatened
  • 133. new period ofexpansion alsoresulted in a nationaldebate over slavery
  • 134. Eleven states allowedslavery, elevenprohibited itMissouris applicationfor statehood, however,threatened the balance
  • 135. 3/5 rule ---REAL Lincoln--- etc.
  • 136. MissouriCompromise(1) admittedMissouri as a slavestate
  • 137. (2) carved off a pieceof Massachusetts,called it Maineadmitted Maine asa free state
  • 138. (3) established thesouthern border ofMissouri as thenorthernmost point inwhich slavery would beallowed in the westernterritories
  • 139. BEGINNINGS OFMODERNAMERICANDEMOCRACY(1824-1844)
  • 140. THE ELECTION OF 1824 ANDJOHN QUINCY ADAMS PRESIDENCY
  • 141. turning point inpresidential elections …majority of states nowallowed voters to choosetheir presidentialelectors directly
  • 142. Congressional caucuses hadchosen their partiesnominee in earlier electionsWith more people voting directlyfor electors, however, the caucusnominee was no longerguaranteed to represent hisparty
  • 143. Democratic-Republican caucuschose William H. CrawfordOthers--among them JohnQuincy Adams, HenryClay, and AndrewJackson--decided tochallenge the nomination
  • 144. Of the four, AndrewJackson received thegreatest number ofpopular votes andelectoral votes
  • 145. But none of the four hadwon a majority, so …….the election wasdecided in the House ofRepresentatives
  • 146. Clay threw his support toAdams, thereby handingAdams the victory… and Clay wasnamed Secretary ofState (importance of this ..)
  • 147. Opponentsreferred to Claysappointment asthe "corruptbargain."
  • 148. RememberClay’s AmericanSystem?
  • 149. Contrary CongressMore congressmenhad initiallysupported Jacksonthan Adams
  • 150. Adams was also handicapped with an obnoxious personality(It ran in the Family)
  • 151. He had been aFederalistcongressman andwas the son of aFederalist president
  • 152. His effort to strengthen thecentral government was thusviewed with deep suspicionJacksons supportersstrongly favoredstates rights

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