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1 early colonies-1 1 early colonies-1 Presentation Transcript

  • THE SEVENTEENTHAND EARLYEIGHTEENTHCENTURIES
  • NATIVEAMERICANS INPRE-COLUMBIANNORTH AMERICA
  • Between 1 millionand 5 million NativeAmericans lived inmodern Canada andthe United States
  • Tribes wereindependent of eachother and oftencompeted for thesame naturalresources
  • Difficult tounite againstEuropeans
  • THE EARLYCOLONIAL ERA:SPAIN COLONIZESTHE NEW WORLD
  • Columbus returned toSpain and reported theexistence of a rich NewWorld with easy-to-subjugate natives
  • During the nextcentury, Spainwas the colonialpower
  • Advancedweaponry andincredibleruthlessness of theconquistadors
  • Spanish Armadamade it difficult forother countries tosend their ownexpeditions.
  • conquistadors enslavedthe natives andattempted to erase theirculture and supplant itwith Catholicism
  • Europeans were"carriers" ofsmall pox
  • THE ENGLISHARRIVE
  • The “LostColony”
  • Sir Walter Raleighsponsored asettlement onRoanoke Island
  • By 1590 thecolony haddisappeared
  • In 1607 theysettledJamestown
  • joint-stock company: agroup of investors whobought the right toestablish New Worldplantations from theking
  • company wascalled theVirginiaCompany
  • Englishgentlemen, were ill-suited to the manyadjustments life in theNew World required
  • Captain JohnSmith imposedharsh martiallaw
  • "He who willnot work shallnot eat."
  • During the starvingtime of 1609 and1610, someresorted tocannibalism
  • PowhatanConfederacy taughtthe English whatcrops to plant andhow to plant them
  • 1614, Pocahontas,the daughter of thechief, marriedplanter John Rolfe
  • English forgot theirdebt to thePowhatan as soonas they neededmore land
  • PowhatanConfederacy wasdestroyed byEnglish in 1644.
  • John Rolfeintroduced thecash crop oftobacco
  • Indiansshowed himhow
  • Tobacco’s successlargelydetermined thefate of theVirginia region
  • Area came to beknown as theChesapeake(named after thebay)
  • Whyemigrate?
  • Overpopulation inEngland had led towidespread famine,disease, and poverty
  • Opportunityprovided byindenturedservitude
  • Indentured servantsreceived a small piece ofproperty with theirfreedom, thus enablingthem (1) to survive, and (2)to vote
  • In 1619 Virginiaestablished the Houseof Burgesses, in whichany property-holding, white malecould vote
  • THE PILGRIMS ANDTHEMASSACHUSETTSBAY COMPANY
  • Protestantmovement calledPuritanism arose inEngland
  • Wanted to purifythe corruptAnglican Church
  • One Puritan groupcalled Separatists leftEngland and went toHolland
  • In 1620 they set sail for VirginiaMayflower, went offcourse and theylanded in modern-dayMassachusetts
  • Mayflower Compactcreated a legal authority and anassembly. It asserted that thegovernments power derivesfrom the consent of thegoverned
  • Pilgrims receivedlife-savingassistance fromlocal NativeAmericans
  • 1629: a larger and morepowerful colony calledMassachusetts Bay wasestablished byCongregationalists (Puritanswho wanted to reform theAnglican church from within )
  • Separatists and theCongregationalists did nottolerate religious freedomin their colonies, eventhough both hadexperienced and fledreligious persecution.
  • Roger Williams, a teacher in theSalem Bay settlement, taught thatchurch and state should beseparatePuritans banished Williams
  • He moved tomodern-day RhodeIsland and foundeda new colony
  • Anne Hutchinson wasa prominentproponent ofantinomianism
  • antinomianismfaith and Gods gracesuffice to earn one aplace among the"elect."
  • She was tried forheresy, convicted,and banished
  • The death ofCromwell(1658)
  • English settlers inNew England andthe Chesapeakedifferedconsiderably
  • New Englanderswere definitelymore religious
  • OTHER EARLYCOLONIES
  • ConnecticutValley, a fertileregion with lots ofaccess to the sea
  • Pequots attacked asettlement inWakefield and killednine colonists
  • Massachusetts BayColony retaliated byburning the main Pequotvillage, killing 400, manyof them women andchildren
  • This was the“PequotWar”
  • Proprietorships: ownedby one person, whousually received the landas a gift from the kingConnecticut was one suchcolony
  • Maryland wasanother, granted toCecilius Calvert,Lord Baltimore
  • Maryland became ahaven of religioustolerance for allChristians, and it becamethe first major Catholicenclave in the New World
  • New York was also a royal giftSome of the area wasa Dutch settlementcalled NewNetherland
  • The Quakers received theirown colony. William Penn,a Quaker, was a closefriend of King Charles II,and Charles granted Pennwhat became Pennsylvania
  • Carolina was also aproprietary colony,which ultimatelysplit in two
  • North Carolina, whichwas settled byVirginians, developedinto a Virginia-likecolony
  • South Carolina wassettled by thedescendants ofEnglishmen who hadcolonized Barbados
  • Their arrival trulymarked thebeginning of theslave era in thecolonies.
  • Triangular traderoutesSlaves to sugar plantations,sugar to distillers in colonies,rum and such to Europe
  • Eventually, most of theproprietary colonieswere converted to royalcolonies (owned by thecrown)
  • THE AGE OFSALUTARY NEGLECT(1650 TO 1750)Also “Benign Neglect”
  • British too busywith otherproblems to keepclose rein oncolonies
  • ENGLISH REGULATIONOF COLONIAL TRADEMercantilists believed thateconomic power was rooted in afavorable balance of trade.American colonies were seenprimarily as markets for British andWest Indian goods.
  • Navigation Acts requiredthe colonists to buy goodsonly from England andprohibited the coloniesfrom manufacturing anumber of goods thatEngland already produced
  • MAJOR EVENTSOF THE PERIODConsult your “laundry list”
  • LIFE IN THE COLONIESPopulation in 1700was 250,000; by 1750,that number was1,250,000
  • Over 90 percent-livedin rural areasChildren and women werecompletely subordinate tomen! (Great Idea!!)
  • Childrens educationhad to be fit inaround their workschedules
  • Married womenwere not allowed tovote, own property,draft a will, ortestify in court.
  • Slaves often developedextended-kinship ties andstrong communal bonds tocope with the misery ofservitude and the possibilitythat their nuclear familiesmight be separated by sale
  • New Englandsociety centered ontrade. Boston wasthe colonies majorport city
  • The middle colonies-New York,Pennsylvania, NewJersey-had more fertileland and so focusedprimarily on farming
  • The lower South(the Carolinas)concentrated onsuch cash crops astobacco and rice
  • Majority ofSoutherners weresubsistence farmerswho had no slaves
  • Colonies on theChesapeakecombined features ofthe middle coloniesand the lower South
  • Colonies were hardlya unified whole asthey approached theevents that led themto rebel