completerunning | go live | Aw09
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3 why running? 62 selling footwear
— The Puma Running Philosophy — Ask Questions
— Evaluate The Foot
— Determine Foot Size
6 history —
Determine Foot Type
Determining Biomechanical and
— Puma History Motion Control Needs
— Recommend The Right Running Shoe
— Tips To Remember
18 anatomy —
How To Use Formulas With Customers
FAQ's About Usage and Care of
— Cardinal Body Planes Running Shoes
— Bones, Tendons, Ligaments
— The Foot
— Foot Types, Different Positions,
— The Gait Cycle — Running Injuries
— Pronation—Pronation Velocity, Timing — Running Terms
— Lasts — Puma Technology
32 shoe construction
— The Process of Shoe Development
37 tech Pages
— Road Running
— Track and Field
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Why not? The sport is old, really old, and
therefore time-tested. It is as great for your
schedule and wallet as it is for your body.
Gear-wise, all you need is a good pair of
running shoes and a few breathable outfits,
and you’re good to go. Its convenience
is probably one of the main reasons why
millions of people go for a run every day.
Competitive running is at an all-time high,
and advances in technology and training
theory have lowered times and increased
running’s health benefits.
running is Here to stAY—
As A sport…
A fitness ActivitY…
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the Puma running
Puma is serious about running. Ask
Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt, the 2008
Olympic gold medalist (100m, 200m, and
4x100m) and world's fastest man. Gone are
the days of the nerdy, out-of-style runner.
At Puma, we believe that in every aspect
of life—including running—when you look
better, you feel better. And when you feel
better, you run better. Then running gets
back to what it should be—fun.
Life already has its fair share of unpleasant
activities: paying taxes. walking the dog in
a snowstorm, emptying crumbs out of the
Running, however, should be enjoyable.
We’re doing everything we can to make it
that way, combining bleeding-edge tech-
nology with cool design. Welcome to Puma
Running, the industry’s new standard.
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Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 6
(dAssler brotHers sHoe compAnY)
in HerzogenAurAcH, germAnY.
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1936 1948 1952 1954
Competing at the Berlin Olympic Games, At the time there are basically two sports in Four short years after Puma’s launch, In Yokohama, West Germany’s Heinz Füt-
America’s multi-event hero Jesse Owens Germany: football and track & field. Rudolph Luxembourg’s Josef Barthel wins Puma’s terer breaks the 100-meter world record
wins four Gold medals wearing Dassler Dassler breaks away from the family busi- first Olympic Gold in the 1500 meter run in wearing Puma spikes.
shoes. During the Games, almost every ness to create his own line of athletic shoes. Helsinki. Additionally, the United States’
member of the German football team The company, now widely referred to as women’s 4x100-meter relay team captured
wears Dassler shoes. In total there are Puma, began creating both football boots Olympic gold that year—all wearing Puma.
seven Gold and five Bronze medal winners and track spikes.
in Dasslers, and track athletes wearing
Dassler shoes shatter two world records
and three Olympic records.
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belgium’s gAston roelAnts (3000m steeplecHAse),
1960 greAt britAin’s mArY rAnd (long jump) And etHiopiA’s
Abebe bikilA (mArAtHon) All win gold weAring pumA
At tHe tokYo olYmpic gAmes.
At the 1960 Rome Olympics, Ethiopia’s
Abebe Bikila decided a few hours before the
start of the marathon that his Adidas spikes
were uncomfortable and that he did not want
to risk injury. So Abebe runs the 1960 Rome
Olympic marathon barefoot, setting a world
record time of 2:15 (which would have placed
him 12 in the 2004 Athens Olympics).
Four years later, in his much more comfort-
able Puma shoes, Bikila again wins Olympic
Gold and again brokes the world record,
becoming the only man to ever repeat as
Olympic marathon champion and world
West Germany’s Armin Hary wins the 100m
sprint at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome
wearing Puma track shoes. Puma becomes
the first sports shoe manufacturer to utilize
the technologically advanced vulcanization
production technique in its shoes.
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tHe pumA gold rusH
continues At tHe olYmpic
1968 gAmes in mexico…
with five athletes bringing home the highest
honor in track and field: Tommie Smith in
the 200m; Lee Evans in the open 400-meter
dash and 4x400-meter relay; Willie Dav-
enport in the 110-meter high hurdles; Bob
Seagren in the pole vault; and Jim Hines,
who became the first human to break 10
seconds in the 100-meter dash.
Smith, who won Gold in the 200 meters,
joins teammate and third-place finisher
John Carlos in wearing a black glove on the
podium protesting the fact that he is winning
gold for his country but is not allowed to
share the same bus as his white teammates.
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At the Munich Olympics, Gold medal winners
in Puma shoes include Mary Peters of the
In his excitement following his Gold medal
in the 400-meter hurdles, Akii-Bua notices
USA (pentathlon), John Akii-Bua of Uganda
(400-meter hurdles), Randy Williams of the
USA (long jump) and Klaus Wolfermann of
a spectator in the stands waving a Ugandan
flag. John runs to the stands, grabs the flag,
and runs a lap waving the flag. John Akii-
West Germany (javelin). Bua not only wins Olympic Gold in Munich,
he also invents the “victory lap.”
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At the Barcelona Olympics, Puma athletes
1979/81 American track star Sydnee Maree sets
Heike Drechsler (long jump) and Dieter
Baumann (5000m), both of Germany, and
a new 1500 meter world record wearing
Great Britain’s Linford Christie (100m) all
collect Gold medals.
The United States’ Renaldo Nehemiah, At the Los Angeles Olympic Games, Evelyn
wearing Puma spikes, sets three world Ashford of the United States wins two Gold
records in the 110m hurdles. medals (100m/4 x 100m) in Puma spikes.
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1993 1994 1995 1996
At the Track and Field World Champion- Within one hour of each other, Linford Christie Four years after claiming Olympic Gold in
ships in Stuttgart, Germany’s Heike sets two indoor sprint records wearing Puma the 100-meter dash in Barcelona, Great
Drechsler, Jamaica’s Merlene Ottey, spikes during the 60m (6.47 sec.) and 200m Britain’s Linford Christie makes headlines
Linford Christie and Colin Jackson (both (20.25 sec.) races. in a different way at the 1996 Olympics in
of UK) together, “Puma’s Fantastic Four,” Atlanta. Reebok paid 40 million dollars to
all win Gold medals. Colin Jackson (110m At the World Championships in Göteborg, be the Games’ official sponsor and thus
hurdles) also sets a new world record of Great Britain’s Jonathan Edwards clinches banned any logos on shirts or hats at press
12.91 sec. Gold and sets a new world record (18.29m, conferences. So, in a show of extreme brand
which still stands) in the triple jump. Merlene loyalty, Christie donned contact lenses with
Merlene Ottey and Colin Jackson set indoor Ottey takes Gold home in the 200m sprint. Puma logos embossed on them, firing up
world records, over the 50m dash and the a branding controversy and introducing
60m high hurdles respectively. “ambush marketing” to the athletic world.
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1999 Two Puma athletes win Gold at the Sydney
Olympic Games: Greek sprinter Konstantinos
2004 Puma is, for the first time, one of the main
Kenteris (200m) and Kenyan mid-distance sponsors of the Athletic European Champi-
specialist Noah Ngeny (1500m). onships in Göteborg, Sweden.
Americans and Puma athletes Colin Jackson Puma’s partnership with the Jamacians
(60-meter hurdles) and Jamie Baulch (400m) pays its biggest reward when, at the 2004
win their respective races at the IAAF World Olympics in Athens, the women’s 4x100-
Championships held in Maebishi, Japan. meter relay team surprises the world by
showing up in the finals in an attractive,
Four Puma track and field stars take the one-piece asymmetrical track suit. They
title of World Champion in the IAAF World shock the world further by taking home
Championships Seville, Spain: Colin Jackson the Gold medal.
(110m hurdles); Wilson Kipketer, Denmark
(800m); Christopher Kosgei, Kenya (3000m
steeplechase); Tsiamita Paraskevi, Greece
(triple jump); and Noah Ngeny, Kenya, who
broke the world record for the 1000m with
a time of 2:11.96.
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on mAY 31, jAmAicAn sprinter And pumA
2008 AtHlete usain bolt becomes tHe world’s
fAstest mAn wHen He clocks A blAzing
time of 9.72 seconds in tHe 100 meters
in New York City. Bolt will have many more years to lower that time, as his record came at the tender age of 21.
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even witH tHe
weigHt of tHree
Around His neck,
usAin bolt is A
difficult mAn to
Jamaica's Usain Bolt produces a stunning performance, smash-
ing the 100m (9.69) and 200m (19.30) world records. To add icing
to his birthday cake (which he celebrated after his second gold),
he leads his Jamaican team to another gold and another world
record in the 4x100m relay. Usain sums it up best after the race:
"Three gold medals. Three world records.
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Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 18
we know AnAtomY is A drY topic. we
integrAted it becAuse it is tHe bAsis for
A proper understAnding of tecHnicAl
In gait (a person’s manner of walking or excessively adducted gait results in what eversion The opposite of inversion, ever-
cardinal Body running on foot), the foot dorsiflexes in the is referred to as the “pigeon toed” walking sion occurs when the sole tilts away from
Planes swing phase, to allow it to clear the ground.
People with muscle-wasting diseases expe-
pattern. the mid-line of the body. Eversion is com-
monly associated with abnormal pronation,
Cardinal Body Planes, which divide the hu- rience great difficulty clearing the foot from abduction Abduction occurs when the where eversion is often quite visible.
man body into equal halves in three different the ground, often dragging their toes along foot moves away from the vertical mid-line
directions, are used to define how the body the support surface. This is because they of the body during gait. It is normal for the
moves through space. Each human body part do not have the muscle strength to achieve feet to be slightly abducted, or turned out,
has a specific plane, of which there are three dorsiflexion. during gait.
types: the sagittal plane, the transverse
plane, and the frontal plane. Plantarflexion Plantarflexion , the opposite
of dorsiflexion, refers to the foot motion
away from one’s head, increasing the angle
between the foot and the leg. Foot plan- An imaginary vertical plane that divides the
tarflexion is the movement responsible for body into ventral and dorsal (belly and back)
An imaginary plane that travels from the top providing the push-off power during gait. sections.
to the bottom of the body, dividing it into left
and right portions. inversion When the foot bends so that the
sole is tilted toward the mid-line of the body,
TRANSVERSE (OR AxIAL) PLANE
dorsiflexion Dorsiflexion of the foot or inversion occurs. The most common sprain
any part of it—for example, the big toe— An imaginary plane that divides the body into is an “inversion sprain,” which is when the
refers to the movement that decreases the superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicu- foot bends abnormally at the ankle, injuring
angle between the foot and the leg. For lar to the frontal plane. the support ligaments.
example, standing up straight and raising
your toes toward your nose is dorsiflexion adduction Adduction simply refers to the Inversion is the term most often associated
at the ankle joint. movement of the foot or any part of the foot with a supination, when the heel bone is vis-
toward the vertical mid-line of the body. An ibly tilted away from the mid-line of the body.
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SIDE VIEW OF FOOT BONES
Bones, tendones, PARTS OF THE FOOT
ligaments Structurally, the foot has three main parts:
forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot.
Navicular Bone The human foot is one of the body’s won-
Talus Bone ders. Combining mechanical complexity and The forefoot bears half the body’s weight and
Intermediate Cuneiform Bone
structural strength, the foot’s ability to not balances pressure on the ball of the foot. It
Lateral Cuneiform Bone
only support the body’s weight but propel it is composed of the five toes (technical name:
Metatarsal Bones forward while running is, well, miraculous. phalanges) and their connecting long bones
Phalange Bones With the ankle serving as foundation, shock (metatarsals). Each toe (technical: phalanx)
absorber, and propulsion engine, the foot is comprised of several small bones. The
can sustain enormous pressure (several tons big toe (also known as the hallux) has two
over the course of a one-mile run), providing phalanx bones—distal and proximal. Its one
great flexibility and resiliency. joint is called the interphalangeal joint. The
Tuberosity of 5th Metatarsal Bone big toe articulates with the head of the first
The foot and ankle, by the numbers: metatarsal, creating the first metatarsopha-
langeal joint (MTPJ for short). Underneath
— 26 bones the first metatarsal head are two tiny, round
(one-fourth of the body’s total) bones called sesamoids. The other four toes
— 33 joints each have three bones and two joints. The
— 100+ muscles, tendons (fibrous tissues phalanges (toes) are connected to the meta-
TOP VIEW OF FOOT BONES
that connect muscles to bones), and tarsals (long toe bones) by five metatarsal
ligaments (fibrous tissues that connect phalangeal joints at the ball of the foot.
Intermediate Cuneiform Bone bones to other bones); and
Medial Cuneiform Bone
— A network of blood vessels, nerves, skin, Clear as mud? Good. Let’s continue.
Navicular Bone Proximal Phalanges
and soft tissue.
The midfoot contains five irregularly shaped
Working together in an awe-inspiring tarsal bones, forms the foot’s arch, and
manner, this all-star team of components serves as a shock absorber. The midfoot
provide the body with support, balance, bones are connected to the forefoot and the
and mobility. A structural flaw or malfunc- hindfoot by muscles and the plantar fascia
tion in even one of the team members can (arch ligament).
develop problems elsewhere in the body.
Cuboid Bone Middle Phalanges Conversely, abnormalities in other parts of The hindfoot, composed of three joints, links
the body can lead to problems in the feet the midfoot to the ankle (talus). The top of
Distal Phalanges and ankles. the talus is connected to the two long bones
Lateral Cuneiform Bone
of the lower leg (tibia and fibula), forming
a hinge that gives the foot its up-and-down
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movement. The heel bone (calcaneus) is the Several elastic tissues (tendons) in the foot
FRONT VIEW OF FOOT MUSCLES
largest bone in the foot, connecting to the connect the foot’s muscles to its bones and
talus to form what we call the subtalar joint. joints. The foot’s largest, strongest and best-
The bottom of the heel bone is cushioned by known tendon is the Achilles, which extends
a layer of fat. And aren’t we all glad about from the calf muscle to the heel. The
that… Achilles’ strength and joint function facilitate Peroneus Longus Muscle Tibialis Anterior Muscle
running, jumping, walking up stairs, as well
as the act of raising the body onto the toes.
MUSCLES, TENDONS, AND LIGAMENTS Peroneus Brevis Muscle
Ligaments hold the tendons in place and Soleus Muscle
A network of muscles, tendons, and ligaments stabilize the joints, the longest of which—
supports the bones and joints in the foot. the plantar fascia—forms the arch on the
sole of the foot from the heel to the toes. By
Twenty muscles in the foot give the foot stretching and contracting, the plantar fascia
its shape by holding the bones in posi- allows the arch to curve or flatten, providing Longus Muscle Extensor Hallucis
tion, expanding and contracting to impart balance and giving the foot strength to initi- Longus Muscle
movement. The foot’s main muscles—the ate the act of walking. Medial ligaments on
muscular all-stars, perhaps—include: the inside and lateral ligaments on outside
of the foot stabilize the foot, enabling it to
— The anterior tibial, which enables the move up and down. Skin, blood vessels, and
foot to move upward nerves give the foot its shape and durabil-
— The posterior tibial, which supports the ity, provide cell regeneration and essential
arch muscular nourishment, and control its Superior Extensor Retinaculum
— The peroneal tibial, which controls varied movements.
movement on the outside of the ankle Lateral Malleolus
— The extensors, which help the ankle
Inferior Extensor Retinaculum Tibialis Anterior Tendon
raise the toes to initiate the act of step-
ping forward; and Extensor Digitorum
— And last, but not least, the flexors— Extensor Digitorum
which help stabilize the toes against Longus Tendons
Smaller muscles enable the toes to lift and
curl and usually end up making beer runs
for the larger muscles. Life is so unfair
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SIDE VIEW OF FOOT MUSCLES BACK VIEW OF FOOT MUSCLES
Peroneus Longus Muscle Tibalis Anterior Muscle Soleus Muscle Soleus Muscle
Peroneus Longus Tendon Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendon
Peroneus Brevis Muscle
Peroneus Longus Tendon
Tibialis Posterior Tendon
Flexor Digitorum Longus Tendon Peroneus Brevis Tendon
Peroneus Brevis Tendon
Posterior Tibial Vein
Posterior Tibial Artery
Superior Extensor Retinaculum Tibial Nerve
Fibula Interior Extensor Retinaculum Medial Malleolus Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon
Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon
Achilles Tendon Extensor Digitorum Flexor Retinaculum Lateral Malleolus
Superior Peroneal Retinaculum
Extensor Hallucis Calcaneal Branch of Peroneal Artery
Superior Peroneal Longus Tendons Posterior Tibial Artery
Calcaneal Branches of
Retinaculum Peroneal Artery
Peroneus Tetius 5th Metatarsal
Tendon Bone ENERGY MANAGEMENT
The metabolic rate during running is around heat loss of 600 kcal so that the runner loses
Peroneus Longus Tendon Peroneus Brevis 1 kcal per kg of body weight and km of between 1 and 2.5 liters of water during an
distance. So an 80 kg runner burns ca. 1,200 hour-long run. Because the human body
kcal per hour while running at a speed of can only absorb small amounts of water, it
15 km/h. Two-thirds of that energy is heat is very important to continuously refuel with
conduction. Sweat provides an evaporative fluids while running.
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the foot ITS FUNCTIONS FOOT FACTS
The foot’s key functions are cushioning, — 25–40% of all Americans have foot prob-
stability and flexibility. lems, mostly caused by improperly fitting
cushioning Cushioning is usually the first — 72% of Americans’ shoes don’t fit, the
function runners ask about when they want majority of those are too short or too wide.
to buy a pair of running shoes. The foot al- — One in three cases of foot problems are
ready has two natural cushioning elements: treated with surgery, one fifth are treated
contAins Fat pads:
— Located in the heel and underneath the
in other ways and the remainder are
— So-called “flat feet” is the most common
neArlY one- forefoot
— For shock absorption in the high-impact
problem perceived, about five times
more common than high-arch feet.
fourtH of areas
— Two arches: Longitudinal and transversal
— Other common problems vary by age
group but include plantar callouses and
warts, ingrown toenails, corns, bunions,
All tHe — Extremely stable construction
— Vertical load is distributed to both sides
and hammer toes.
— Other than flat or high-arch feet, other
foot problems are rare for those under
stability In terms of shape and size, every 15 years of age, suggesting that age and
foot is different. Stability is the most im- environment are factors in the appear-
tHe HumAn portant functionality of the foot for running
movement. During every stride the heel,
ance of these disorders.
— An estimated 4-7% of the adult popula-
first toe and fifth toe—often called the “force tion have foot problems that require
triangle” —are almost solely responsible for specially prescribed footwear. That
stabilizing the foot. amounts to 10-18 million people for
whom standard, off-the-shelf shoes may
and can be divided up into three main sections: flexibility Flexibility is the third important not be adequate.
hind-foot, midfoot, and forefoot. Muscles in functionality of the human foot. When talking — 1.2 billion pairs of shoes are sold in the
the foot provide balance and movement, while about flexibility, one must differentiate U.S. each year by approximately 200,000
tendons connect muscles to bones. Ligaments between active and passive movements, and shoe salespeople employed in more than
hold tendons in place and stabilize the joints. where flexibility is needed. 50,000 shoe stores and departments
where footwear in available. However,
During running, the hind-foot absorbs initial Actively, the foot flexes using the metatar- estimates reflect only 25% of consumers
contact, the mid-foot flexes to absorb the sal joints during the push-off movement. can actually remember the last time they
shock, and the forefoot grips the surface and Passively, the torsionability of the foot is had their feet measured.
helps propel the runner forward. important for the pronation movement.
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much like the entire sole of the foot. A flat are designed for heel-strikers. With the
foot tyPes, foot is usually more flexible and more likely help of a cushioning element in the heel,
different Positions, to over-pronate. This excess motion can
ultimately cause several different types of
these shoes work to reduce the shock
during the heel strike (first peak of ground
running styles overuse injuries. reaction force).
Every time a runner’s foot strikes the forefoot strike Sprinters, in particular,
ground it receives an impact force nearly run on the front of the foot in an effort to
Feet are often categorized by arch height, three times the runner’s body weight. As minimize ground contact and increase their
of which there are three: high, normal, and a runner’s speed increases, so does the speed. When running barefoot, forefoot
flat. Arches are typically measured using amount of his/her impact on the foot. striking is the natural way of running. Initial
a foot imprint test, where someone wets The body absorbs this impact force by contact is with the ball area and after a
or inks the bottom of one of their feet and using its muscles to stretch resistively, short contact with the mid-foot, the runner
steps on a piece of brown paper. chiefly stretching the quadriceps (or thigh pushes off with the forefoot again.
muscles) during heel strike and the calves
high-arched foot When the heel and the during push-off. mid-foot strike The mid-foot strike is a
forefoot connect with a very narrow band compromise between the heel strike and
on a foot imprint test, a foot has high The body also uses joint motion to absorb forefoot strike, combining the advantages
arches. High-arched feet are usually more impact forces. During heel strike, the knees of both. Athletes that run faster than ap-
rigid and do not typically pronate enough flex and the foot pronates. Foot pronation proximately 14 km/h (finishing a marathon
to effectively absorb shock. For this rea- causes internal rotation of the tibia (long in less than 3 hours) will automatically start
son, runners with high arches often need leg bone), which in turn facilitates knee striking with the entire sole because the
shoes with extra cushioning. High-arched flexion, allowing the quadriceps to act as heel strike would simply take too long.
runners often (but not always) supinate in the primary shock absorber during running.
normal foot A foot is considered to be
normal when the size of the arch is moder-
ate or average. A normal foot leaves an The running world is replete with dialogue
imprint that shows the heel and forefoot about which style of running is superior.
connected by a wide band. Runners that This kit does not seek to rate any of the
have a normal foot usually have a semi- styles, but simply describe them.
flexible arch and have a range of running
shoe options. heel strike Most long-distance runners
(as in normal walking) are heel-strikers.
flat foot A foot is flat when there is a very This running style contains the three
low or no visible arch. A flat foot leaves phases as described in detail on earlier
an imprint that is nearly whole, appearing pages. For this reason, most running shoes
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the gait cycle
The process that begins when one foot makes
contact with the ground and ends when that
foot hits the ground again is called the gait
cycle. Technically speaking, each cycle begins
at initial contact with a stance phase and
proceeds through a swing phase until the cycle
ends with the limb’s next initial contact.
THE STRIKE PHASE THE STANCE PHASE
The first stage of the gait cycle is the Strike During this second phase the bodies center
Phase. This phase begins when the swinging of gravity travels over the standing leg. The
leg is touching the ground. A discussed above foot having full ground contact. Individual
you will see Heel striking, midfoot striking differences in the running style like over-
and forefoot striking. Depending which part pronation are most visible during this phase.
of the foot is touching the ground first. For
heel strikers (Heel-striker comprising about In this phase the foot changes from a natural
80% of the population.): During the time of the cushioning system to a lever, preparing to
initial ground contact the ankle is in a neutral propel the body forward.
position and the toes are fully extended.
Loading begins the moment a runner’s heel
comes into contact with the running surface.
Gradually, the rest of the foot lowers to the
ground, slightly rolling inward to absorb shock.
This inward roll, known as pronation, provides
a natural cushioning system used to reduce
the amount of impact force applied to the body
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THE PUSH-OFF PHASE THE SWING PHASE
The propulsion (or push-off-phase) phase The last component is called the Swing
begins with the heel rising off the ground. Phase, in which the foot is completely
The body’s mass shifts over the forefoot, airborne.
and the phase ends in the toe-off. During
propulsion the body thrusts itself forward
and shifts its weight to the opposite foot.
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Pronation— PRONATION OVER-PRONATION UNDER-PRONATION (SUPINATION)
( left foot )
( left foot )
( left foot )
Pronation is simply a normal foot in motion, Over-pronators generally land in a pronated Under-pronators generally land in a signifi-
from foot-strike on the outside of the heel position and continue to roll significantly cantly supinated position and experience
through the inward roll of the foot. Every inward as they go from heel strike to toe off. very little pronation, meaning that from
runner pronates, and the initial pronation They exhibit excessive inward motion and are impact to toe-off their foot rolls inward less
is considered an important and healthy best served with stability or motion-control that the norm. They do not have enough in-
response to the intense amount of shock shoes, which assist in controlling the exces- ward motion and therefore can benefit from
imposed upon the foot. Pronation is also sive inward motion of the shoe. cushioned-based shoes and lightweight
integral in propelling the runner forward. If performance shoes, which allow the foot to
the foot pronates too much or too little and follow the natural pronation movement. A
does so frequently, several biomechanical lot of times Supinators are associated with
problems may result that may decrease a more rigid foot (arch) which goes hand in
performance quality and increase the likeli- hand with the need for a more cushioned
hood of injury. shoe model.
See the Glossary at the end of this book for
an A-Z guide to running injuries.
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lasts last measurements
WIDE WIDTH AND NARROW SHOES
(from 2A to 6e) women’s shoe widths
( exAmples )
In considering the diversity of human feet,
SHOE LASTS AA Narrow
Puma recognizes that properly fitting run-
All shoes are constructed over a wood or ning shoes means multiple widths, not just D Wide
composite form called a “last.” The last is Breast Line multiple sizes. That’s why the Puma lineup EE x Wide
the plastic form around which the footwear Cuboid Area includes shoe widths for every runner’s EEEE xx Wide
is built. It is drafted of the natural foot shape Break of Ball
feet—whether they are wide, narrow, high-
because it determines, together with the arched, hammer-toed, or bunioned. Here’s
pattern and the choice of materials, how the the run-down:
finished shoe will fit later on. Knowing this men’s shoe widths
fact, it is quiet obvious why every develop- Cuboid Designed for — In general, the standard shoe widths are
ment of athletic footwear starts with the “D” for men, and “B” for women. AA x Narrow
development of a specific last. With this in — If the majority of shoes a runner buys B Narrow
Cuboid Designed for D Sandard
mind, Puma has developed different lasts for fit fine, then these are the widths he/
Low Topline Pump EE Wide
different foot types and usages. she should select. If the shoes she owns
Cross Section of Last EEEE x Wide
All Cuboid Area tend to be wide or feel spacious in width, EEEEEE xx Wide
Backseam Tack then she should consider selecting a
Instep Girth narrower width. Conversely, if the shoes
a runner owns tend to be narrow or feel
Instep Point snug in width, he/she should consider
Kid’s shoe widths
selecting a wider width.
Short Heel Girth
EEEE x Wide
Long Heel Girth
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COMFORT LAST Comfort Last Cross sections PERFORMANCE LAST
Built to fit the majority of runners, the Built to offer more midfoot support, the per-
comfort last is straighter, which provides formance last is semi-curved with a rounded
an easy toe-off, and provides more volu- bottom, providing a snug fit.
me in the midfoot. (New in AW09)
The straight bottom edges make the use of PERFORMANCE
The comfort last has increased volume, es-
orthotics easier. It also allows for a more
pecially in the midfoot; this makes the shoe
accurate assembly process.
fit a much broader group of runners.
The racing last is built for just that - racing.
It's lower, curved toe-spring provides a very
Higher toespring built into the last makes
the toe-off phase more natural.
The "turning point" of the last sits further
back on the shoe, making the heel-to-toe
transition much smoother for heel strikers.
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heel width insteP height toe Box dePth forefoot width
Comfort Last Standard Standard High Wide
Performance Last Narrow Standard Standard Narrow
Racing Last Narrow Low Low Narrow
Comfort Last Standard Standard High Wide
Performance Last Narrow Standard Standard Narrow
Racing Last Narrow Low Low Narrow
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AtHletic sHoes HAve tHree mAin sections,
wHicH Are similAr to tHe tHree mAin sections
of An Automobile.
Protection, ventilation, and style
MIDSOLE (WITH CUSHIONING SYSTEM)
Cushioning and stability
Traction and durability
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shoe. Outsoles also have design features to The heel counter, which wraps around the
ATHLETIC FOOTWEAR OUTSOLE ATHLETIC FOOTWEAR UPPERS
provide other benefits. Some outsole design back of the heel, provides stability and moti-
The outsole provides durability by resisting features make a shoe lighter, others help The primary function of the shoe’s upper is on control upon impact. The heel counter is
wear, providing traction, and absorbing a a shoe flex correctly, and some enhance a to supply support, protection, and breatha- often made from TPU.
small amount of shock. Outsole materials shoe’s traction and durability properties. bility, all while maintaining light weight.
provide durability, and the pattern that has Additionally, the upper adds stylistic fun and TPU:
been integrated into the outsole gives the individuality. — Is frequently used in uppers as a light-
running shoe its traction. weight support structure for increased
ATHLETIC FOOTWEAR MIDSOLE
Uppers are often made with a significant support and protection.
A running shoe‘s outsole needs to be const- Midsoles provide cushioning and stability. amount of a lightweight mesh, drastically — Can be either suppler or more firm as
ructed of a durable material to take the wear Midsoles are generally made from foam-like reducing the weight of the shoe while needed.
of a variety of harsh running surfaces. Trail substances, such as ethylene vinyl acetate providing exceptional breath ability, and — Provides the critical support in a shoe‘s
running shoes need additional grip for use (EVA), phylon, and polyurethane (PU). increased comfort. heel counter, which is the tough insert
on wet and uneven surfaces. that reinforces the heel cup of a shoe.
eva A resilient foam material that provides Mesh allows air to circulate through the TPU anchors the foot in the shoe, pre-
The most common material by far used in shock protection, is often die-cut into shape shoe and allowing moisture to evaporate. venting slippage and stabilizing the foot
running outsoles is carbon rubber. in a process that looks like using a cookie Increased moisture creates the conditions during footstrike.
cutter. for increased instances of blistering.
Using specialized materials, traction When the upper of a running shoe fits well
patterns, and design features, outsoles Polyurethane (Pu) A firmer, heavier, Mesh is made from nylon or polyester fibers there should be limited movement of the
are usually made from a combination and more durable foam material than EVA and is preferred in shoes that need to be foot. Excess movement inside a running
of synthetic rubber and natural rubber. and Phylon. PU is used in midsoles when lightweight and breathable. shoe can irritate or cause injury.
Natural rubber is softer and provides better durability and stability are more important
traction; synthetic rubber is harder and factors in a shoe‘s design than light weight Despite its numerous advantages, mesh Double-lasting is another important materi-
provides better durability. and cushioning. alone does not provide a running shoe al in the upper. A shoe is double-lasted when
with the stability or support that it needs. the upper is wrapped around the midsole
Gum rubber is a commonly-used rubber Midsoles often contain a cushioning system, Synthetic Leather overlays often provide to meet the outsole, usually in the forefoot.
combination yielding softer, stickier traction. such as duo-CELL and Id-CELL, as well as this support. Double-lasted shoes create a snug foot to
Made from 60% natural rubber and 40% extra devices that provide other benefits. foot-bed relationship for a better fitting
synthetic, gum rubber can be altered with One such device is a Shank Plate, which Leather and synthetic leathers offer better leather construction.
additives or processing. increases the torsional rigidity of a shoe. support, protection, and stability.
This increases a shoes‘ stability without ad-
Sometimes rubber, called Brown Rubber, ding much weight. TPU Shank and ArchTec The toe box—the upper of the shoe that
is made less dense by incorporating tiny plates are made from a hard plastic called surrounds the toes—differs slightly from shoe
air pockets. These alterations change the TPU, or thermalplastic urethane. to shoe. Runners who are prone to blistering
durability and the traction properties of or who have bunions should make sure the
the rubber. Traction patterns are the lines toe box provides enough room for the forefoot
and bumps you see on the bottom of a and toes to move and flex during running.
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The team‘s research and observations are as an idea in a designer’s head is now well on
the Process of shoe ADVANCED RESEARCH
then compiled into a brief, which helps the its way to becoming the next breakthrough
develoPment Before an idea for a new running shoe is
conceived, teams of experts conduct re-
team identify a target runner for a specific
season. Designers can then begin visualizing
Because of the diversity and complexity of search into the newest materials, biomecha- an initial footwear design.
human feet, a Puma running shoe’s develop- nical questions and breakthroughs in order
ment is equally as complex. This is because to launch Puma into the footwear future.
we set out to provide a perfect-fitting shoe These initial research projects and studies We now have our first “testable” prototype of
that utilizes the most cutting-edge technolo- are vital in determining what precisely is the new Puma trainer. Testing can take up to
gies and stylistic features—for every runner. needed next in an already saturated athletic Because we believe runners who look better 12 months to complete. Initial samples are
As one who sells these shoes, you should shoe market. perform better, the design process is a vital made and distributed to four different areas
know how it all works. component of the shoe construction process. for testing:
The design phase typically features three
rounds: first sketches, form design, and finely — the Puma lab
detailed digital files. Inspiration for initial — biomechanical testing
Every Puma running shoe begins with a sketches can come from anywhere: a sleek — Athletes and Weartesters
running discovery process. Design teams seek inspi-
ration from any number of places: chats with
sports car, the contour of the human body,
a particularly unique building, or a moving
— Specialty running store owners
athletes, consultation from running magazi- sculpture. design improvements It’s important
nes, and feedback from Puma weartesters, to to remember that at any point along the
name a few. From the sketchbook, an initial design morphs production timeline, Puma will make major
teAms Puma running shoes are designed and mo-
into a more technical rendering. A footwear
developer (or Puma engineer) then joins the
changes in a shoe’s design or structure if an
improvement can be made. All the data from
dified with the world’s best athletes in mind. designer to turn the 2D technical drawings the various tests are collected and analyzed.
Puma brings a steady stream of athletes from and dimensions into 3D models. Designers and developers review the input
all over the globe to Puma World Headquar- and make changes to the shoe design and a
A discoverY ters, studies them, and learns from them.
Design teams listen to runners‘ likes and
dislikes in footwear and analyze their findings.
They add construction details, select mate-
rials and finishes, and identify performance
criteria. All this information is sent to the
new generation of samples is created.
Samples are resubmitted to the lab for speci-
process. Every idea is on the table—what works and
what doesn‘t in athletes‘ current footwear.
development center to build the first sample
based on technical drawings. From here,
fic testing in the areas of change. Athletes are
given the updated product.
the “shoe” goes through several rounds of
The initial discovery stage also involves a revisions to 3D model print-outs. Testing can be repeated for several rounds
great deal of long-range planning. We ask as designers fine-tune specific attributes of
questions like, “Where is Puma going as The first physical model of the shoe gives the shoe. Until a shoe reaches store shelves,
a brand?” Our answers determine which development engineers an opportunity to it can be altered or scrapped and re-started.
products we update when. tweak aspects of the shoe’s fit and look, and Puma stops at nothing to make sure every
basically perfect the shoe’s upper. What began running shoe is the very best it can be.
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The final phase of development begins in
overseas factories, where a shoe that was
once only a sketch is built and reproduced
on a larger scale. Puma shoe designers and
developers go to the factory to oversee initial
production, and as the first few shoes roll off
the assembly line, they quickly and perso-
nally check the quality of the shoe. Once the
footwear passes inspection, any revisions are
passed along to the factory, where it where
it is cleared for production on a larger scale.
The product design is now final, including
detailing, colorways, predicted cost, and final
Shipments from factories begin arriving in
distribution centers throughout the world.
Within the month, the new shoe starts appea-
ring on store shelves.
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