PUMA Complete Running Kit


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PUMA Complete Running Kit

  1. 1. complete running kit completerunning | go live | Aw09 Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | | 1
  2. 2. 3 why running? 62 selling footwear — The Puma Running Philosophy — Ask Questions — Evaluate The Foot — Determine Foot Size 6 history — — Determine Foot Type Determining Biomechanical and — Puma History Motion Control Needs — Recommend The Right Running Shoe — Tips To Remember 18 anatomy — — How To Use Formulas With Customers FAQ's About Usage and Care of — Cardinal Body Planes Running Shoes — Bones, Tendons, Ligaments — The Foot — Foot Types, Different Positions, Running Styles 70 glossary — The Gait Cycle — Running Injuries — Pronation—Pronation Velocity, Timing — Running Terms — Lasts — Puma Technology 32 shoe construction — The Process of Shoe Development 37 tech Pages — Road Running — Track and Field
  3. 3. wHY running? Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | wHY running? | 3
  4. 4. Why not? The sport is old, really old, and therefore time-tested. It is as great for your schedule and wallet as it is for your body. Gear-wise, all you need is a good pair of running shoes and a few breathable outfits, and you’re good to go. Its convenience is probably one of the main reasons why millions of people go for a run every day. Competitive running is at an all-time high, and advances in technology and training theory have lowered times and increased running’s health benefits. running is Here to stAY— As A sport… A HobbY… A fitness ActivitY… An obsession.. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | wHY running? | 4
  5. 5. the Puma running PhilosoPhy Puma is serious about running. Ask Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt, the 2008 Olympic gold medalist (100m, 200m, and 4x100m) and world's fastest man. Gone are the days of the nerdy, out-of-style runner. At Puma, we believe that in every aspect of life—including running—when you look better, you feel better. And when you feel better, you run better. Then running gets back to what it should be—fun. Life already has its fair share of unpleasant activities: paying taxes. walking the dog in a snowstorm, emptying crumbs out of the toaster. Running, however, should be enjoyable. We’re doing everything we can to make it that way, combining bleeding-edge tech- nology with cool design. Welcome to Puma Running, the industry’s new standard. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | wHY running? | 5
  6. 6. HistorY Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 6
  7. 7. 1924 pumA HistorY foundAtion of Gebrüder dassler schuhfabrik (dAssler brotHers sHoe compAnY) in HerzogenAurAcH, germAnY. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 7
  8. 8. 1936 1948 1952 1954 Competing at the Berlin Olympic Games, At the time there are basically two sports in Four short years after Puma’s launch, In Yokohama, West Germany’s Heinz Füt- America’s multi-event hero Jesse Owens Germany: football and track & field. Rudolph Luxembourg’s Josef Barthel wins Puma’s terer breaks the 100-meter world record wins four Gold medals wearing Dassler Dassler breaks away from the family busi- first Olympic Gold in the 1500 meter run in wearing Puma spikes. shoes. During the Games, almost every ness to create his own line of athletic shoes. Helsinki. Additionally, the United States’ member of the German football team The company, now widely referred to as women’s 4x100-meter relay team captured wears Dassler shoes. In total there are Puma, began creating both football boots Olympic gold that year—all wearing Puma. seven Gold and five Bronze medal winners and track spikes. in Dasslers, and track athletes wearing Dassler shoes shatter two world records and three Olympic records. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 8
  9. 9. belgium’s gAston roelAnts (3000m steeplecHAse), 1960 greAt britAin’s mArY rAnd (long jump) And etHiopiA’s Abebe bikilA (mArAtHon) All win gold weAring pumA At tHe tokYo olYmpic gAmes. At the 1960 Rome Olympics, Ethiopia’s Abebe Bikila decided a few hours before the start of the marathon that his Adidas spikes were uncomfortable and that he did not want to risk injury. So Abebe runs the 1960 Rome Olympic marathon barefoot, setting a world 1964 record time of 2:15 (which would have placed him 12 in the 2004 Athens Olympics). Four years later, in his much more comfort- able Puma shoes, Bikila again wins Olympic Gold and again brokes the world record, becoming the only man to ever repeat as Olympic marathon champion and world record holder. West Germany’s Armin Hary wins the 100m sprint at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome wearing Puma track shoes. Puma becomes the first sports shoe manufacturer to utilize the technologically advanced vulcanization production technique in its shoes. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 9
  10. 10. tHe pumA gold rusH continues At tHe olYmpic 1968 gAmes in mexico… with five athletes bringing home the highest honor in track and field: Tommie Smith in the 200m; Lee Evans in the open 400-meter dash and 4x400-meter relay; Willie Dav- enport in the 110-meter high hurdles; Bob Seagren in the pole vault; and Jim Hines, who became the first human to break 10 seconds in the 100-meter dash. Smith, who won Gold in the 200 meters, joins teammate and third-place finisher John Carlos in wearing a black glove on the podium protesting the fact that he is winning gold for his country but is not allowed to share the same bus as his white teammates. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 10
  11. 11. 1972 1973-76 weAring pumA sHoes, AmericA’s dwigHt stones sets tHree world records in At the Munich Olympics, Gold medal winners in Puma shoes include Mary Peters of the In his excitement following his Gold medal in the 400-meter hurdles, Akii-Bua notices tHe men’s USA (pentathlon), John Akii-Bua of Uganda (400-meter hurdles), Randy Williams of the USA (long jump) and Klaus Wolfermann of a spectator in the stands waving a Ugandan flag. John runs to the stands, grabs the flag, and runs a lap waving the flag. John Akii- HigH jump. West Germany (javelin). Bua not only wins Olympic Gold in Munich, he also invents the “victory lap.” Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 11
  12. 12. 1984 At the Barcelona Olympics, Puma athletes 1979/81 American track star Sydnee Maree sets Heike Drechsler (long jump) and Dieter Baumann (5000m), both of Germany, and a new 1500 meter world record wearing Great Britain’s Linford Christie (100m) all Puma spikes. collect Gold medals. The United States’ Renaldo Nehemiah, At the Los Angeles Olympic Games, Evelyn wearing Puma spikes, sets three world Ashford of the United States wins two Gold records in the 110m hurdles. medals (100m/4 x 100m) in Puma spikes. 1983 1992 Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 12
  13. 13. 1993 1994 1995 1996 At the Track and Field World Champion- Within one hour of each other, Linford Christie Four years after claiming Olympic Gold in ships in Stuttgart, Germany’s Heike sets two indoor sprint records wearing Puma the 100-meter dash in Barcelona, Great Drechsler, Jamaica’s Merlene Ottey, spikes during the 60m (6.47 sec.) and 200m Britain’s Linford Christie makes headlines Linford Christie and Colin Jackson (both (20.25 sec.) races. in a different way at the 1996 Olympics in of UK) together, “Puma’s Fantastic Four,” Atlanta. Reebok paid 40 million dollars to all win Gold medals. Colin Jackson (110m At the World Championships in Göteborg, be the Games’ official sponsor and thus hurdles) also sets a new world record of Great Britain’s Jonathan Edwards clinches banned any logos on shirts or hats at press 12.91 sec. Gold and sets a new world record (18.29m, conferences. So, in a show of extreme brand which still stands) in the triple jump. Merlene loyalty, Christie donned contact lenses with Merlene Ottey and Colin Jackson set indoor Ottey takes Gold home in the 200m sprint. Puma logos embossed on them, firing up world records, over the 50m dash and the a branding controversy and introducing 60m high hurdles respectively. “ambush marketing” to the athletic world. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 13
  14. 14. 1999 Two Puma athletes win Gold at the Sydney Olympic Games: Greek sprinter Konstantinos 2004 Puma is, for the first time, one of the main Kenteris (200m) and Kenyan mid-distance sponsors of the Athletic European Champi- specialist Noah Ngeny (1500m). onships in Göteborg, Sweden. Americans and Puma athletes Colin Jackson Puma’s partnership with the Jamacians (60-meter hurdles) and Jamie Baulch (400m) pays its biggest reward when, at the 2004 win their respective races at the IAAF World Olympics in Athens, the women’s 4x100- 2000 2006 Championships held in Maebishi, Japan. meter relay team surprises the world by showing up in the finals in an attractive, Four Puma track and field stars take the one-piece asymmetrical track suit. They title of World Champion in the IAAF World shock the world further by taking home Championships Seville, Spain: Colin Jackson the Gold medal. (110m hurdles); Wilson Kipketer, Denmark (800m); Christopher Kosgei, Kenya (3000m steeplechase); Tsiamita Paraskevi, Greece (triple jump); and Noah Ngeny, Kenya, who broke the world record for the 1000m with a time of 2:11.96. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 14
  15. 15. on mAY 31, jAmAicAn sprinter And pumA 2008 AtHlete usain bolt becomes tHe world’s fAstest mAn wHen He clocks A blAzing time of 9.72 seconds in tHe 100 meters in New York City. Bolt will have many more years to lower that time, as his record came at the tender age of 21. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 15
  16. 16. 2008 even witH tHe weigHt of tHree gold medAls Around His neck, usAin bolt is A difficult mAn to cAtcH. Jamaica's Usain Bolt produces a stunning performance, smash- ing the 100m (9.69) and 200m (19.30) world records. To add icing to his birthday cake (which he celebrated after his second gold), he leads his Jamaican team to another gold and another world record in the 4x100m relay. Usain sums it up best after the race: "Three gold medals. Three world records. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 16
  17. 17. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 17
  18. 18. AnAtomY Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 18
  19. 19. we know AnAtomY is A drY topic. we integrAted it becAuse it is tHe bAsis for A proper understAnding of tecHnicAl running products. In gait (a person’s manner of walking or excessively adducted gait results in what eversion The opposite of inversion, ever- cardinal Body running on foot), the foot dorsiflexes in the is referred to as the “pigeon toed” walking sion occurs when the sole tilts away from Planes swing phase, to allow it to clear the ground. People with muscle-wasting diseases expe- pattern. the mid-line of the body. Eversion is com- monly associated with abnormal pronation, Cardinal Body Planes, which divide the hu- rience great difficulty clearing the foot from abduction Abduction occurs when the where eversion is often quite visible. man body into equal halves in three different the ground, often dragging their toes along foot moves away from the vertical mid-line directions, are used to define how the body the support surface. This is because they of the body during gait. It is normal for the moves through space. Each human body part do not have the muscle strength to achieve feet to be slightly abducted, or turned out, has a specific plane, of which there are three dorsiflexion. during gait. types: the sagittal plane, the transverse plane, and the frontal plane. Plantarflexion Plantarflexion , the opposite of dorsiflexion, refers to the foot motion FRONTAL PLANE away from one’s head, increasing the angle between the foot and the leg. Foot plan- An imaginary vertical plane that divides the SAGITTAL PLANE tarflexion is the movement responsible for body into ventral and dorsal (belly and back) An imaginary plane that travels from the top providing the push-off power during gait. sections. to the bottom of the body, dividing it into left and right portions. inversion When the foot bends so that the sole is tilted toward the mid-line of the body, TRANSVERSE (OR AxIAL) PLANE dorsiflexion Dorsiflexion of the foot or inversion occurs. The most common sprain any part of it—for example, the big toe— An imaginary plane that divides the body into is an “inversion sprain,” which is when the refers to the movement that decreases the superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicu- foot bends abnormally at the ankle, injuring angle between the foot and the leg. For lar to the frontal plane. the support ligaments. example, standing up straight and raising your toes toward your nose is dorsiflexion adduction Adduction simply refers to the Inversion is the term most often associated at the ankle joint. movement of the foot or any part of the foot with a supination, when the heel bone is vis- toward the vertical mid-line of the body. An ibly tilted away from the mid-line of the body. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 19
  20. 20. SIDE VIEW OF FOOT BONES Bones, tendones, PARTS OF THE FOOT ligaments Structurally, the foot has three main parts: forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot. Navicular Bone The human foot is one of the body’s won- Talus Bone ders. Combining mechanical complexity and The forefoot bears half the body’s weight and Intermediate Cuneiform Bone structural strength, the foot’s ability to not balances pressure on the ball of the foot. It Lateral Cuneiform Bone only support the body’s weight but propel it is composed of the five toes (technical name: Metatarsal Bones forward while running is, well, miraculous. phalanges) and their connecting long bones Phalange Bones With the ankle serving as foundation, shock (metatarsals). Each toe (technical: phalanx) Calcaneus Bone absorber, and propulsion engine, the foot is comprised of several small bones. The can sustain enormous pressure (several tons big toe (also known as the hallux) has two over the course of a one-mile run), providing phalanx bones—distal and proximal. Its one great flexibility and resiliency. joint is called the interphalangeal joint. The Tuberosity of 5th Metatarsal Bone big toe articulates with the head of the first The foot and ankle, by the numbers: metatarsal, creating the first metatarsopha- langeal joint (MTPJ for short). Underneath — 26 bones the first metatarsal head are two tiny, round (one-fourth of the body’s total) bones called sesamoids. The other four toes — 33 joints each have three bones and two joints. The — 100+ muscles, tendons (fibrous tissues phalanges (toes) are connected to the meta- TOP VIEW OF FOOT BONES that connect muscles to bones), and tarsals (long toe bones) by five metatarsal ligaments (fibrous tissues that connect phalangeal joints at the ball of the foot. Intermediate Cuneiform Bone bones to other bones); and Medial Cuneiform Bone — A network of blood vessels, nerves, skin, Clear as mud? Good. Let’s continue. Navicular Bone Proximal Phalanges and soft tissue. The midfoot contains five irregularly shaped Talus Bone Working together in an awe-inspiring tarsal bones, forms the foot’s arch, and manner, this all-star team of components serves as a shock absorber. The midfoot provide the body with support, balance, bones are connected to the forefoot and the and mobility. A structural flaw or malfunc- hindfoot by muscles and the plantar fascia Calcaneus Bone tion in even one of the team members can (arch ligament). develop problems elsewhere in the body. Cuboid Bone Middle Phalanges Conversely, abnormalities in other parts of The hindfoot, composed of three joints, links Metatarsal Bones the body can lead to problems in the feet the midfoot to the ankle (talus). The top of Distal Phalanges and ankles. the talus is connected to the two long bones Lateral Cuneiform Bone of the lower leg (tibia and fibula), forming a hinge that gives the foot its up-and-down Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 20
  21. 21. movement. The heel bone (calcaneus) is the Several elastic tissues (tendons) in the foot FRONT VIEW OF FOOT MUSCLES largest bone in the foot, connecting to the connect the foot’s muscles to its bones and talus to form what we call the subtalar joint. joints. The foot’s largest, strongest and best- The bottom of the heel bone is cushioned by known tendon is the Achilles, which extends a layer of fat. And aren’t we all glad about from the calf muscle to the heel. The that… Achilles’ strength and joint function facilitate Peroneus Longus Muscle Tibialis Anterior Muscle running, jumping, walking up stairs, as well as the act of raising the body onto the toes. MUSCLES, TENDONS, AND LIGAMENTS Peroneus Brevis Muscle Ligaments hold the tendons in place and Soleus Muscle A network of muscles, tendons, and ligaments stabilize the joints, the longest of which— supports the bones and joints in the foot. the plantar fascia—forms the arch on the Tibia Bone sole of the foot from the heel to the toes. By Twenty muscles in the foot give the foot stretching and contracting, the plantar fascia Extensor Digitorum its shape by holding the bones in posi- allows the arch to curve or flatten, providing Longus Muscle Extensor Hallucis tion, expanding and contracting to impart balance and giving the foot strength to initi- Longus Muscle movement. The foot’s main muscles—the ate the act of walking. Medial ligaments on muscular all-stars, perhaps—include: the inside and lateral ligaments on outside of the foot stabilize the foot, enabling it to — The anterior tibial, which enables the move up and down. Skin, blood vessels, and foot to move upward nerves give the foot its shape and durabil- Fibula Bone — The posterior tibial, which supports the ity, provide cell regeneration and essential arch muscular nourishment, and control its Superior Extensor Retinaculum — The peroneal tibial, which controls varied movements. Medial Malleolus movement on the outside of the ankle Lateral Malleolus — The extensors, which help the ankle Inferior Extensor Retinaculum Tibialis Anterior Tendon raise the toes to initiate the act of step- ping forward; and Extensor Digitorum Brevis Muscle — And last, but not least, the flexors— Extensor Digitorum Extensor Hallucis which help stabilize the toes against Longus Tendons Longus Tendon Extensor Hallucis the ground. Brevis Tendon Smaller muscles enable the toes to lift and curl and usually end up making beer runs for the larger muscles. Life is so unfair sometimes. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 21
  22. 22. SIDE VIEW OF FOOT MUSCLES BACK VIEW OF FOOT MUSCLES Peroneus Longus Muscle Tibalis Anterior Muscle Soleus Muscle Soleus Muscle Peroneus Longus Tendon Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendon Peroneus Brevis Muscle Peroneus Longus Tendon Tibialis Posterior Tendon Flexor Digitorum Longus Tendon Peroneus Brevis Tendon Peroneus Brevis Tendon Posterior Tibial Vein Posterior Tibial Artery Superior Extensor Retinaculum Tibial Nerve Fibula Interior Extensor Retinaculum Medial Malleolus Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Achilles Tendon Extensor Digitorum Flexor Retinaculum Lateral Malleolus Brevis Muscle Superior Peroneal Retinaculum Lateral Malleolus Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendons Retrocalcaneal Bursa Extensor Hallucis Calcaneal Branch of Peroneal Artery Superior Peroneal Longus Tendons Posterior Tibial Artery Calcaneal Branches of Retinaculum Peroneal Artery Inferior Peroneal Retinaculum Peroneus Tetius 5th Metatarsal Tendon Bone ENERGY MANAGEMENT The metabolic rate during running is around heat loss of 600 kcal so that the runner loses Peroneus Longus Tendon Peroneus Brevis 1 kcal per kg of body weight and km of between 1 and 2.5 liters of water during an Tendon distance. So an 80 kg runner burns ca. 1,200 hour-long run. Because the human body kcal per hour while running at a speed of can only absorb small amounts of water, it 15 km/h. Two-thirds of that energy is heat is very important to continuously refuel with conduction. Sweat provides an evaporative fluids while running. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 22
  23. 23. the foot ITS FUNCTIONS FOOT FACTS The foot’s key functions are cushioning, — 25–40% of all Americans have foot prob- stability and flexibility. lems, mostly caused by improperly fitting ITS ANATOMY footwear. cushioning Cushioning is usually the first — 72% of Americans’ shoes don’t fit, the tHe foot function runners ask about when they want majority of those are too short or too wide. to buy a pair of running shoes. The foot al- — One in three cases of foot problems are ready has two natural cushioning elements: treated with surgery, one fifth are treated contAins Fat pads: — Located in the heel and underneath the in other ways and the remainder are untreated. — So-called “flat feet” is the most common neArlY one- forefoot — For shock absorption in the high-impact problem perceived, about five times more common than high-arch feet. fourtH of areas Arches: — Two arches: Longitudinal and transversal — Other common problems vary by age group but include plantar callouses and warts, ingrown toenails, corns, bunions, All tHe — Extremely stable construction — Vertical load is distributed to both sides and hammer toes. — Other than flat or high-arch feet, other bones in foot problems are rare for those under stability In terms of shape and size, every 15 years of age, suggesting that age and foot is different. Stability is the most im- environment are factors in the appear- tHe HumAn portant functionality of the foot for running movement. During every stride the heel, ance of these disorders. — An estimated 4-7% of the adult popula- bodY… first toe and fifth toe—often called the “force tion have foot problems that require triangle” —are almost solely responsible for specially prescribed footwear. That stabilizing the foot. amounts to 10-18 million people for whom standard, off-the-shelf shoes may and can be divided up into three main sections: flexibility Flexibility is the third important not be adequate. hind-foot, midfoot, and forefoot. Muscles in functionality of the human foot. When talking — 1.2 billion pairs of shoes are sold in the the foot provide balance and movement, while about flexibility, one must differentiate U.S. each year by approximately 200,000 tendons connect muscles to bones. Ligaments between active and passive movements, and shoe salespeople employed in more than hold tendons in place and stabilize the joints. where flexibility is needed. 50,000 shoe stores and departments where footwear in available. However, During running, the hind-foot absorbs initial Actively, the foot flexes using the metatar- estimates reflect only 25% of consumers contact, the mid-foot flexes to absorb the sal joints during the push-off movement. can actually remember the last time they shock, and the forefoot grips the surface and Passively, the torsionability of the foot is had their feet measured. helps propel the runner forward. important for the pronation movement. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 23
  24. 24. much like the entire sole of the foot. A flat are designed for heel-strikers. With the foot tyPes, foot is usually more flexible and more likely help of a cushioning element in the heel, different Positions, to over-pronate. This excess motion can ultimately cause several different types of these shoes work to reduce the shock during the heel strike (first peak of ground running styles overuse injuries. reaction force). Every time a runner’s foot strikes the forefoot strike Sprinters, in particular, FOOT TYPES ground it receives an impact force nearly run on the front of the foot in an effort to Feet are often categorized by arch height, three times the runner’s body weight. As minimize ground contact and increase their of which there are three: high, normal, and a runner’s speed increases, so does the speed. When running barefoot, forefoot flat. Arches are typically measured using amount of his/her impact on the foot. striking is the natural way of running. Initial a foot imprint test, where someone wets The body absorbs this impact force by contact is with the ball area and after a or inks the bottom of one of their feet and using its muscles to stretch resistively, short contact with the mid-foot, the runner steps on a piece of brown paper. chiefly stretching the quadriceps (or thigh pushes off with the forefoot again. muscles) during heel strike and the calves high-arched foot When the heel and the during push-off. mid-foot strike The mid-foot strike is a forefoot connect with a very narrow band compromise between the heel strike and on a foot imprint test, a foot has high The body also uses joint motion to absorb forefoot strike, combining the advantages arches. High-arched feet are usually more impact forces. During heel strike, the knees of both. Athletes that run faster than ap- rigid and do not typically pronate enough flex and the foot pronates. Foot pronation proximately 14 km/h (finishing a marathon to effectively absorb shock. For this rea- causes internal rotation of the tibia (long in less than 3 hours) will automatically start son, runners with high arches often need leg bone), which in turn facilitates knee striking with the entire sole because the shoes with extra cushioning. High-arched flexion, allowing the quadriceps to act as heel strike would simply take too long. runners often (but not always) supinate in the primary shock absorber during running. their gait. normal foot A foot is considered to be RUNNING STYLES normal when the size of the arch is moder- ate or average. A normal foot leaves an The running world is replete with dialogue imprint that shows the heel and forefoot about which style of running is superior. connected by a wide band. Runners that This kit does not seek to rate any of the have a normal foot usually have a semi- styles, but simply describe them. flexible arch and have a range of running shoe options. heel strike Most long-distance runners (as in normal walking) are heel-strikers. flat foot A foot is flat when there is a very This running style contains the three low or no visible arch. A flat foot leaves phases as described in detail on earlier an imprint that is nearly whole, appearing pages. For this reason, most running shoes Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 24
  25. 25. the gait cycle The process that begins when one foot makes contact with the ground and ends when that foot hits the ground again is called the gait cycle. Technically speaking, each cycle begins at initial contact with a stance phase and proceeds through a swing phase until the cycle ends with the limb’s next initial contact. THE STRIKE PHASE THE STANCE PHASE The first stage of the gait cycle is the Strike During this second phase the bodies center Phase. This phase begins when the swinging of gravity travels over the standing leg. The leg is touching the ground. A discussed above foot having full ground contact. Individual you will see Heel striking, midfoot striking differences in the running style like over- and forefoot striking. Depending which part pronation are most visible during this phase. of the foot is touching the ground first. For heel strikers (Heel-striker comprising about In this phase the foot changes from a natural 80% of the population.): During the time of the cushioning system to a lever, preparing to initial ground contact the ankle is in a neutral propel the body forward. position and the toes are fully extended. Loading begins the moment a runner’s heel comes into contact with the running surface. Gradually, the rest of the foot lowers to the ground, slightly rolling inward to absorb shock. This inward roll, known as pronation, provides a natural cushioning system used to reduce the amount of impact force applied to the body while running. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 25
  26. 26. THE PUSH-OFF PHASE THE SWING PHASE The propulsion (or push-off-phase) phase The last component is called the Swing begins with the heel rising off the ground. Phase, in which the foot is completely The body’s mass shifts over the forefoot, airborne. and the phase ends in the toe-off. During propulsion the body thrusts itself forward and shifts its weight to the opposite foot. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 26
  27. 27. Pronation— PRONATION OVER-PRONATION UNDER-PRONATION (SUPINATION) Pronation velocity, timing ( left foot ) ( left foot ) ( left foot ) Pronation is simply a normal foot in motion, Over-pronators generally land in a pronated Under-pronators generally land in a signifi- from foot-strike on the outside of the heel position and continue to roll significantly cantly supinated position and experience through the inward roll of the foot. Every inward as they go from heel strike to toe off. very little pronation, meaning that from runner pronates, and the initial pronation They exhibit excessive inward motion and are impact to toe-off their foot rolls inward less is considered an important and healthy best served with stability or motion-control that the norm. They do not have enough in- response to the intense amount of shock shoes, which assist in controlling the exces- ward motion and therefore can benefit from imposed upon the foot. Pronation is also sive inward motion of the shoe. cushioned-based shoes and lightweight integral in propelling the runner forward. If performance shoes, which allow the foot to the foot pronates too much or too little and follow the natural pronation movement. A does so frequently, several biomechanical lot of times Supinators are associated with problems may result that may decrease a more rigid foot (arch) which goes hand in performance quality and increase the likeli- hand with the need for a more cushioned hood of injury. shoe model. See the Glossary at the end of this book for an A-Z guide to running injuries. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 27
  28. 28. lasts last measurements WIDE WIDTH AND NARROW SHOES (from 2A to 6e) women’s shoe widths ( exAmples ) In considering the diversity of human feet, SHOE LASTS AA Narrow Puma recognizes that properly fitting run- B Standard All shoes are constructed over a wood or ning shoes means multiple widths, not just D Wide composite form called a “last.” The last is Breast Line multiple sizes. That’s why the Puma lineup EE x Wide the plastic form around which the footwear Cuboid Area includes shoe widths for every runner’s EEEE xx Wide is built. It is drafted of the natural foot shape Break of Ball feet—whether they are wide, narrow, high- because it determines, together with the arched, hammer-toed, or bunioned. Here’s Inside Outside pattern and the choice of materials, how the the run-down: finished shoe will fit later on. Knowing this men’s shoe widths fact, it is quiet obvious why every develop- Cuboid Designed for — In general, the standard shoe widths are Boot Last ment of athletic footwear starts with the “D” for men, and “B” for women. AA x Narrow Cuboid Ball development of a specific last. With this in — If the majority of shoes a runner buys B Narrow Cuboid Designed for D Sandard mind, Puma has developed different lasts for fit fine, then these are the widths he/ Low Topline Pump EE Wide different foot types and usages. she should select. If the shoes she owns Cross Section of Last EEEE x Wide All Cuboid Area tend to be wide or feel spacious in width, EEEEEE xx Wide Backseam Tack then she should consider selecting a Throat Opening Instep Girth narrower width. Conversely, if the shoes a runner owns tend to be narrow or feel Instep Point snug in width, he/she should consider Kid’s shoe widths Vamp Point selecting a wider width. M Medium Heel Point W Wide Short Heel Girth EEEE x Wide Long Heel Girth Instep Girth Waist Girth Toe Point Ball Girth Stick Length Vamp Length Vamp Point Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 28
  29. 29. COMFORT LAST Comfort Last Cross sections PERFORMANCE LAST Standard Built to fit the majority of runners, the Built to offer more midfoot support, the per- comfort last is straighter, which provides formance last is semi-curved with a rounded an easy toe-off, and provides more volu- bottom, providing a snug fit. me in the midfoot. (New in AW09) The straight bottom edges make the use of PERFORMANCE The comfort last has increased volume, es- orthotics easier. It also allows for a more pecially in the midfoot; this makes the shoe accurate assembly process. fit a much broader group of runners. Performance comfort COMFORT RACING LAST The racing last is built for just that - racing. It's lower, curved toe-spring provides a very Higher toespring built into the last makes snug fit. the toe-off phase more natural. RACING The "turning point" of the last sits further back on the shoe, making the heel-to-toe transition much smoother for heel strikers. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 29
  30. 30. LAST TYPES heel width insteP height toe Box dePth forefoot width FOR WOMEN Comfort Last Standard Standard High Wide Performance Last Narrow Standard Standard Narrow Racing Last Narrow Low Low Narrow FOR MEN Comfort Last Standard Standard High Wide Performance Last Narrow Standard Standard Narrow Racing Last Narrow Low Low Narrow Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 30
  31. 31. sHoe construction Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | sHoe construction | 31
  32. 32. AtHletic sHoes HAve tHree mAin sections, wHicH Are similAr to tHe tHree mAin sections of An Automobile. UPPER Protection, ventilation, and style MIDSOLE (WITH CUSHIONING SYSTEM) Cushioning and stability OUTSOLE Traction and durability Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | sHoe construction | 32
  33. 33. shoe. Outsoles also have design features to The heel counter, which wraps around the ATHLETIC FOOTWEAR OUTSOLE ATHLETIC FOOTWEAR UPPERS provide other benefits. Some outsole design back of the heel, provides stability and moti- The outsole provides durability by resisting features make a shoe lighter, others help The primary function of the shoe’s upper is on control upon impact. The heel counter is wear, providing traction, and absorbing a a shoe flex correctly, and some enhance a to supply support, protection, and breatha- often made from TPU. small amount of shock. Outsole materials shoe’s traction and durability properties. bility, all while maintaining light weight. provide durability, and the pattern that has Additionally, the upper adds stylistic fun and TPU: been integrated into the outsole gives the individuality. — Is frequently used in uppers as a light- running shoe its traction. weight support structure for increased ATHLETIC FOOTWEAR MIDSOLE Uppers are often made with a significant support and protection. A running shoe‘s outsole needs to be const- Midsoles provide cushioning and stability. amount of a lightweight mesh, drastically — Can be either suppler or more firm as ructed of a durable material to take the wear Midsoles are generally made from foam-like reducing the weight of the shoe while needed. of a variety of harsh running surfaces. Trail substances, such as ethylene vinyl acetate providing exceptional breath ability, and — Provides the critical support in a shoe‘s running shoes need additional grip for use (EVA), phylon, and polyurethane (PU). increased comfort. heel counter, which is the tough insert on wet and uneven surfaces. that reinforces the heel cup of a shoe. eva A resilient foam material that provides Mesh allows air to circulate through the TPU anchors the foot in the shoe, pre- The most common material by far used in shock protection, is often die-cut into shape shoe and allowing moisture to evaporate. venting slippage and stabilizing the foot running outsoles is carbon rubber. in a process that looks like using a cookie Increased moisture creates the conditions during footstrike. cutter. for increased instances of blistering. Using specialized materials, traction When the upper of a running shoe fits well patterns, and design features, outsoles Polyurethane (Pu) A firmer, heavier, Mesh is made from nylon or polyester fibers there should be limited movement of the are usually made from a combination and more durable foam material than EVA and is preferred in shoes that need to be foot. Excess movement inside a running of synthetic rubber and natural rubber. and Phylon. PU is used in midsoles when lightweight and breathable. shoe can irritate or cause injury. Natural rubber is softer and provides better durability and stability are more important traction; synthetic rubber is harder and factors in a shoe‘s design than light weight Despite its numerous advantages, mesh Double-lasting is another important materi- provides better durability. and cushioning. alone does not provide a running shoe al in the upper. A shoe is double-lasted when with the stability or support that it needs. the upper is wrapped around the midsole Gum rubber is a commonly-used rubber Midsoles often contain a cushioning system, Synthetic Leather overlays often provide to meet the outsole, usually in the forefoot. combination yielding softer, stickier traction. such as duo-CELL and Id-CELL, as well as this support. Double-lasted shoes create a snug foot to Made from 60% natural rubber and 40% extra devices that provide other benefits. foot-bed relationship for a better fitting synthetic, gum rubber can be altered with One such device is a Shank Plate, which Leather and synthetic leathers offer better leather construction. additives or processing. increases the torsional rigidity of a shoe. support, protection, and stability. This increases a shoes‘ stability without ad- Sometimes rubber, called Brown Rubber, ding much weight. TPU Shank and ArchTec The toe box—the upper of the shoe that is made less dense by incorporating tiny plates are made from a hard plastic called surrounds the toes—differs slightly from shoe air pockets. These alterations change the TPU, or thermalplastic urethane. to shoe. Runners who are prone to blistering durability and the traction properties of or who have bunions should make sure the the rubber. Traction patterns are the lines toe box provides enough room for the forefoot and bumps you see on the bottom of a and toes to move and flex during running. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | sHoe construction | 33
  34. 34. The team‘s research and observations are as an idea in a designer’s head is now well on the Process of shoe ADVANCED RESEARCH then compiled into a brief, which helps the its way to becoming the next breakthrough develoPment Before an idea for a new running shoe is conceived, teams of experts conduct re- team identify a target runner for a specific season. Designers can then begin visualizing running shoe. Because of the diversity and complexity of search into the newest materials, biomecha- an initial footwear design. human feet, a Puma running shoe’s develop- nical questions and breakthroughs in order TESTING ment is equally as complex. This is because to launch Puma into the footwear future. we set out to provide a perfect-fitting shoe These initial research projects and studies We now have our first “testable” prototype of DESIGN that utilizes the most cutting-edge technolo- are vital in determining what precisely is the new Puma trainer. Testing can take up to gies and stylistic features—for every runner. needed next in an already saturated athletic Because we believe runners who look better 12 months to complete. Initial samples are As one who sells these shoes, you should shoe market. perform better, the design process is a vital made and distributed to four different areas know how it all works. component of the shoe construction process. for testing: The design phase typically features three pumA rounds: first sketches, form design, and finely — the Puma lab DISCOVERY detailed digital files. Inspiration for initial — biomechanical testing Every Puma running shoe begins with a sketches can come from anywhere: a sleek — Athletes and Weartesters running discovery process. Design teams seek inspi- ration from any number of places: chats with sports car, the contour of the human body, a particularly unique building, or a moving — Specialty running store owners design athletes, consultation from running magazi- sculpture. design improvements It’s important nes, and feedback from Puma weartesters, to to remember that at any point along the name a few. From the sketchbook, an initial design morphs production timeline, Puma will make major teAms Puma running shoes are designed and mo- into a more technical rendering. A footwear developer (or Puma engineer) then joins the changes in a shoe’s design or structure if an improvement can be made. All the data from begin witH dified with the world’s best athletes in mind. designer to turn the 2D technical drawings the various tests are collected and analyzed. Puma brings a steady stream of athletes from and dimensions into 3D models. Designers and developers review the input all over the globe to Puma World Headquar- and make changes to the shoe design and a A discoverY ters, studies them, and learns from them. Design teams listen to runners‘ likes and dislikes in footwear and analyze their findings. They add construction details, select mate- rials and finishes, and identify performance criteria. All this information is sent to the new generation of samples is created. Samples are resubmitted to the lab for speci- process. Every idea is on the table—what works and what doesn‘t in athletes‘ current footwear. development center to build the first sample based on technical drawings. From here, fic testing in the areas of change. Athletes are given the updated product. the “shoe” goes through several rounds of The initial discovery stage also involves a revisions to 3D model print-outs. Testing can be repeated for several rounds great deal of long-range planning. We ask as designers fine-tune specific attributes of questions like, “Where is Puma going as The first physical model of the shoe gives the shoe. Until a shoe reaches store shelves, a brand?” Our answers determine which development engineers an opportunity to it can be altered or scrapped and re-started. products we update when. tweak aspects of the shoe’s fit and look, and Puma stops at nothing to make sure every basically perfect the shoe’s upper. What began running shoe is the very best it can be. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | sHoe construction | 34
  35. 35. PRODUCTION The final phase of development begins in overseas factories, where a shoe that was once only a sketch is built and reproduced on a larger scale. Puma shoe designers and developers go to the factory to oversee initial stamPing stitching production, and as the first few shoes roll off the assembly line, they quickly and perso- nally check the quality of the shoe. Once the footwear passes inspection, any revisions are passed along to the factory, where it where it is cleared for production on a larger scale. The product design is now final, including detailing, colorways, predicted cost, and final materials. Shipments from factories begin arriving in distribution centers throughout the world. Within the month, the new shoe starts appea- ring on store shelves. last comPleted uPPer Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | sHoe construction | 35
  36. 36. tecH pAges Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 36