PUMA Complete Running Kit
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    PUMA Complete Running Kit PUMA Complete Running Kit Presentation Transcript

    • complete running kit completerunning | go live | Aw09 Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | | 1
    • 3 why running? 62 selling footwear — The Puma Running Philosophy — Ask Questions — Evaluate The Foot — Determine Foot Size 6 history — — Determine Foot Type Determining Biomechanical and — Puma History Motion Control Needs — Recommend The Right Running Shoe — Tips To Remember 18 anatomy — — How To Use Formulas With Customers FAQ's About Usage and Care of — Cardinal Body Planes Running Shoes — Bones, Tendons, Ligaments — The Foot — Foot Types, Different Positions, Running Styles 70 glossary — The Gait Cycle — Running Injuries — Pronation—Pronation Velocity, Timing — Running Terms — Lasts — Puma Technology 32 shoe construction — The Process of Shoe Development 37 tech Pages — Road Running — Track and Field
    • wHY running? Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | wHY running? | 3
    • Why not? The sport is old, really old, and therefore time-tested. It is as great for your schedule and wallet as it is for your body. Gear-wise, all you need is a good pair of running shoes and a few breathable outfits, and you’re good to go. Its convenience is probably one of the main reasons why millions of people go for a run every day. Competitive running is at an all-time high, and advances in technology and training theory have lowered times and increased running’s health benefits. running is Here to stAY— As A sport… A HobbY… A fitness ActivitY… An obsession.. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | wHY running? | 4
    • the Puma running PhilosoPhy Puma is serious about running. Ask Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt, the 2008 Olympic gold medalist (100m, 200m, and 4x100m) and world's fastest man. Gone are the days of the nerdy, out-of-style runner. At Puma, we believe that in every aspect of life—including running—when you look better, you feel better. And when you feel better, you run better. Then running gets back to what it should be—fun. Life already has its fair share of unpleasant activities: paying taxes. walking the dog in a snowstorm, emptying crumbs out of the toaster. Running, however, should be enjoyable. We’re doing everything we can to make it that way, combining bleeding-edge tech- nology with cool design. Welcome to Puma Running, the industry’s new standard. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | wHY running? | 5
    • HistorY Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 6
    • 1924 pumA HistorY foundAtion of Gebrüder dassler schuhfabrik (dAssler brotHers sHoe compAnY) in HerzogenAurAcH, germAnY. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 7
    • 1936 1948 1952 1954 Competing at the Berlin Olympic Games, At the time there are basically two sports in Four short years after Puma’s launch, In Yokohama, West Germany’s Heinz Füt- America’s multi-event hero Jesse Owens Germany: football and track & field. Rudolph Luxembourg’s Josef Barthel wins Puma’s terer breaks the 100-meter world record wins four Gold medals wearing Dassler Dassler breaks away from the family busi- first Olympic Gold in the 1500 meter run in wearing Puma spikes. shoes. During the Games, almost every ness to create his own line of athletic shoes. Helsinki. Additionally, the United States’ member of the German football team The company, now widely referred to as women’s 4x100-meter relay team captured wears Dassler shoes. In total there are Puma, began creating both football boots Olympic gold that year—all wearing Puma. seven Gold and five Bronze medal winners and track spikes. in Dasslers, and track athletes wearing Dassler shoes shatter two world records and three Olympic records. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 8
    • belgium’s gAston roelAnts (3000m steeplecHAse), 1960 greAt britAin’s mArY rAnd (long jump) And etHiopiA’s Abebe bikilA (mArAtHon) All win gold weAring pumA At tHe tokYo olYmpic gAmes. At the 1960 Rome Olympics, Ethiopia’s Abebe Bikila decided a few hours before the start of the marathon that his Adidas spikes were uncomfortable and that he did not want to risk injury. So Abebe runs the 1960 Rome Olympic marathon barefoot, setting a world 1964 record time of 2:15 (which would have placed him 12 in the 2004 Athens Olympics). Four years later, in his much more comfort- able Puma shoes, Bikila again wins Olympic Gold and again brokes the world record, becoming the only man to ever repeat as Olympic marathon champion and world record holder. West Germany’s Armin Hary wins the 100m sprint at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome wearing Puma track shoes. Puma becomes the first sports shoe manufacturer to utilize the technologically advanced vulcanization production technique in its shoes. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 9
    • tHe pumA gold rusH continues At tHe olYmpic 1968 gAmes in mexico… with five athletes bringing home the highest honor in track and field: Tommie Smith in the 200m; Lee Evans in the open 400-meter dash and 4x400-meter relay; Willie Dav- enport in the 110-meter high hurdles; Bob Seagren in the pole vault; and Jim Hines, who became the first human to break 10 seconds in the 100-meter dash. Smith, who won Gold in the 200 meters, joins teammate and third-place finisher John Carlos in wearing a black glove on the podium protesting the fact that he is winning gold for his country but is not allowed to share the same bus as his white teammates. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 10
    • 1972 1973-76 weAring pumA sHoes, AmericA’s dwigHt stones sets tHree world records in At the Munich Olympics, Gold medal winners in Puma shoes include Mary Peters of the In his excitement following his Gold medal in the 400-meter hurdles, Akii-Bua notices tHe men’s USA (pentathlon), John Akii-Bua of Uganda (400-meter hurdles), Randy Williams of the USA (long jump) and Klaus Wolfermann of a spectator in the stands waving a Ugandan flag. John runs to the stands, grabs the flag, and runs a lap waving the flag. John Akii- HigH jump. West Germany (javelin). Bua not only wins Olympic Gold in Munich, he also invents the “victory lap.” Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 11
    • 1984 At the Barcelona Olympics, Puma athletes 1979/81 American track star Sydnee Maree sets Heike Drechsler (long jump) and Dieter Baumann (5000m), both of Germany, and a new 1500 meter world record wearing Great Britain’s Linford Christie (100m) all Puma spikes. collect Gold medals. The United States’ Renaldo Nehemiah, At the Los Angeles Olympic Games, Evelyn wearing Puma spikes, sets three world Ashford of the United States wins two Gold records in the 110m hurdles. medals (100m/4 x 100m) in Puma spikes. 1983 1992 Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 12
    • 1993 1994 1995 1996 At the Track and Field World Champion- Within one hour of each other, Linford Christie Four years after claiming Olympic Gold in ships in Stuttgart, Germany’s Heike sets two indoor sprint records wearing Puma the 100-meter dash in Barcelona, Great Drechsler, Jamaica’s Merlene Ottey, spikes during the 60m (6.47 sec.) and 200m Britain’s Linford Christie makes headlines Linford Christie and Colin Jackson (both (20.25 sec.) races. in a different way at the 1996 Olympics in of UK) together, “Puma’s Fantastic Four,” Atlanta. Reebok paid 40 million dollars to all win Gold medals. Colin Jackson (110m At the World Championships in Göteborg, be the Games’ official sponsor and thus hurdles) also sets a new world record of Great Britain’s Jonathan Edwards clinches banned any logos on shirts or hats at press 12.91 sec. Gold and sets a new world record (18.29m, conferences. So, in a show of extreme brand which still stands) in the triple jump. Merlene loyalty, Christie donned contact lenses with Merlene Ottey and Colin Jackson set indoor Ottey takes Gold home in the 200m sprint. Puma logos embossed on them, firing up world records, over the 50m dash and the a branding controversy and introducing 60m high hurdles respectively. “ambush marketing” to the athletic world. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 13
    • 1999 Two Puma athletes win Gold at the Sydney Olympic Games: Greek sprinter Konstantinos 2004 Puma is, for the first time, one of the main Kenteris (200m) and Kenyan mid-distance sponsors of the Athletic European Champi- specialist Noah Ngeny (1500m). onships in Göteborg, Sweden. Americans and Puma athletes Colin Jackson Puma’s partnership with the Jamacians (60-meter hurdles) and Jamie Baulch (400m) pays its biggest reward when, at the 2004 win their respective races at the IAAF World Olympics in Athens, the women’s 4x100- 2000 2006 Championships held in Maebishi, Japan. meter relay team surprises the world by showing up in the finals in an attractive, Four Puma track and field stars take the one-piece asymmetrical track suit. They title of World Champion in the IAAF World shock the world further by taking home Championships Seville, Spain: Colin Jackson the Gold medal. (110m hurdles); Wilson Kipketer, Denmark (800m); Christopher Kosgei, Kenya (3000m steeplechase); Tsiamita Paraskevi, Greece (triple jump); and Noah Ngeny, Kenya, who broke the world record for the 1000m with a time of 2:11.96. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 14
    • on mAY 31, jAmAicAn sprinter And pumA 2008 AtHlete usain bolt becomes tHe world’s fAstest mAn wHen He clocks A blAzing time of 9.72 seconds in tHe 100 meters in New York City. Bolt will have many more years to lower that time, as his record came at the tender age of 21. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 15
    • 2008 even witH tHe weigHt of tHree gold medAls Around His neck, usAin bolt is A difficult mAn to cAtcH. Jamaica's Usain Bolt produces a stunning performance, smash- ing the 100m (9.69) and 200m (19.30) world records. To add icing to his birthday cake (which he celebrated after his second gold), he leads his Jamaican team to another gold and another world record in the 4x100m relay. Usain sums it up best after the race: "Three gold medals. Three world records. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 16
    • Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | HistorY | 17
    • AnAtomY Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 18
    • we know AnAtomY is A drY topic. we integrAted it becAuse it is tHe bAsis for A proper understAnding of tecHnicAl running products. In gait (a person’s manner of walking or excessively adducted gait results in what eversion The opposite of inversion, ever- cardinal Body running on foot), the foot dorsiflexes in the is referred to as the “pigeon toed” walking sion occurs when the sole tilts away from Planes swing phase, to allow it to clear the ground. People with muscle-wasting diseases expe- pattern. the mid-line of the body. Eversion is com- monly associated with abnormal pronation, Cardinal Body Planes, which divide the hu- rience great difficulty clearing the foot from abduction Abduction occurs when the where eversion is often quite visible. man body into equal halves in three different the ground, often dragging their toes along foot moves away from the vertical mid-line directions, are used to define how the body the support surface. This is because they of the body during gait. It is normal for the moves through space. Each human body part do not have the muscle strength to achieve feet to be slightly abducted, or turned out, has a specific plane, of which there are three dorsiflexion. during gait. types: the sagittal plane, the transverse plane, and the frontal plane. Plantarflexion Plantarflexion , the opposite of dorsiflexion, refers to the foot motion FRONTAL PLANE away from one’s head, increasing the angle between the foot and the leg. Foot plan- An imaginary vertical plane that divides the SAGITTAL PLANE tarflexion is the movement responsible for body into ventral and dorsal (belly and back) An imaginary plane that travels from the top providing the push-off power during gait. sections. to the bottom of the body, dividing it into left and right portions. inversion When the foot bends so that the sole is tilted toward the mid-line of the body, TRANSVERSE (OR AxIAL) PLANE dorsiflexion Dorsiflexion of the foot or inversion occurs. The most common sprain any part of it—for example, the big toe— An imaginary plane that divides the body into is an “inversion sprain,” which is when the refers to the movement that decreases the superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicu- foot bends abnormally at the ankle, injuring angle between the foot and the leg. For lar to the frontal plane. the support ligaments. example, standing up straight and raising your toes toward your nose is dorsiflexion adduction Adduction simply refers to the Inversion is the term most often associated at the ankle joint. movement of the foot or any part of the foot with a supination, when the heel bone is vis- toward the vertical mid-line of the body. An ibly tilted away from the mid-line of the body. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 19
    • SIDE VIEW OF FOOT BONES Bones, tendones, PARTS OF THE FOOT ligaments Structurally, the foot has three main parts: forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot. Navicular Bone The human foot is one of the body’s won- Talus Bone ders. Combining mechanical complexity and The forefoot bears half the body’s weight and Intermediate Cuneiform Bone structural strength, the foot’s ability to not balances pressure on the ball of the foot. It Lateral Cuneiform Bone only support the body’s weight but propel it is composed of the five toes (technical name: Metatarsal Bones forward while running is, well, miraculous. phalanges) and their connecting long bones Phalange Bones With the ankle serving as foundation, shock (metatarsals). Each toe (technical: phalanx) Calcaneus Bone absorber, and propulsion engine, the foot is comprised of several small bones. The can sustain enormous pressure (several tons big toe (also known as the hallux) has two over the course of a one-mile run), providing phalanx bones—distal and proximal. Its one great flexibility and resiliency. joint is called the interphalangeal joint. The Tuberosity of 5th Metatarsal Bone big toe articulates with the head of the first The foot and ankle, by the numbers: metatarsal, creating the first metatarsopha- langeal joint (MTPJ for short). Underneath — 26 bones the first metatarsal head are two tiny, round (one-fourth of the body’s total) bones called sesamoids. The other four toes — 33 joints each have three bones and two joints. The — 100+ muscles, tendons (fibrous tissues phalanges (toes) are connected to the meta- TOP VIEW OF FOOT BONES that connect muscles to bones), and tarsals (long toe bones) by five metatarsal ligaments (fibrous tissues that connect phalangeal joints at the ball of the foot. Intermediate Cuneiform Bone bones to other bones); and Medial Cuneiform Bone — A network of blood vessels, nerves, skin, Clear as mud? Good. Let’s continue. Navicular Bone Proximal Phalanges and soft tissue. The midfoot contains five irregularly shaped Talus Bone Working together in an awe-inspiring tarsal bones, forms the foot’s arch, and manner, this all-star team of components serves as a shock absorber. The midfoot provide the body with support, balance, bones are connected to the forefoot and the and mobility. A structural flaw or malfunc- hindfoot by muscles and the plantar fascia Calcaneus Bone tion in even one of the team members can (arch ligament). develop problems elsewhere in the body. Cuboid Bone Middle Phalanges Conversely, abnormalities in other parts of The hindfoot, composed of three joints, links Metatarsal Bones the body can lead to problems in the feet the midfoot to the ankle (talus). The top of Distal Phalanges and ankles. the talus is connected to the two long bones Lateral Cuneiform Bone of the lower leg (tibia and fibula), forming a hinge that gives the foot its up-and-down Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 20
    • movement. The heel bone (calcaneus) is the Several elastic tissues (tendons) in the foot FRONT VIEW OF FOOT MUSCLES largest bone in the foot, connecting to the connect the foot’s muscles to its bones and talus to form what we call the subtalar joint. joints. The foot’s largest, strongest and best- The bottom of the heel bone is cushioned by known tendon is the Achilles, which extends a layer of fat. And aren’t we all glad about from the calf muscle to the heel. The that… Achilles’ strength and joint function facilitate Peroneus Longus Muscle Tibialis Anterior Muscle running, jumping, walking up stairs, as well as the act of raising the body onto the toes. MUSCLES, TENDONS, AND LIGAMENTS Peroneus Brevis Muscle Ligaments hold the tendons in place and Soleus Muscle A network of muscles, tendons, and ligaments stabilize the joints, the longest of which— supports the bones and joints in the foot. the plantar fascia—forms the arch on the Tibia Bone sole of the foot from the heel to the toes. By Twenty muscles in the foot give the foot stretching and contracting, the plantar fascia Extensor Digitorum its shape by holding the bones in posi- allows the arch to curve or flatten, providing Longus Muscle Extensor Hallucis tion, expanding and contracting to impart balance and giving the foot strength to initi- Longus Muscle movement. The foot’s main muscles—the ate the act of walking. Medial ligaments on muscular all-stars, perhaps—include: the inside and lateral ligaments on outside of the foot stabilize the foot, enabling it to — The anterior tibial, which enables the move up and down. Skin, blood vessels, and foot to move upward nerves give the foot its shape and durabil- Fibula Bone — The posterior tibial, which supports the ity, provide cell regeneration and essential arch muscular nourishment, and control its Superior Extensor Retinaculum — The peroneal tibial, which controls varied movements. Medial Malleolus movement on the outside of the ankle Lateral Malleolus — The extensors, which help the ankle Inferior Extensor Retinaculum Tibialis Anterior Tendon raise the toes to initiate the act of step- ping forward; and Extensor Digitorum Brevis Muscle — And last, but not least, the flexors— Extensor Digitorum Extensor Hallucis which help stabilize the toes against Longus Tendons Longus Tendon Extensor Hallucis the ground. Brevis Tendon Smaller muscles enable the toes to lift and curl and usually end up making beer runs for the larger muscles. Life is so unfair sometimes. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 21
    • SIDE VIEW OF FOOT MUSCLES BACK VIEW OF FOOT MUSCLES Peroneus Longus Muscle Tibalis Anterior Muscle Soleus Muscle Soleus Muscle Peroneus Longus Tendon Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendon Peroneus Brevis Muscle Peroneus Longus Tendon Tibialis Posterior Tendon Flexor Digitorum Longus Tendon Peroneus Brevis Tendon Peroneus Brevis Tendon Posterior Tibial Vein Posterior Tibial Artery Superior Extensor Retinaculum Tibial Nerve Fibula Interior Extensor Retinaculum Medial Malleolus Calcaneal (Achilles) Tendon Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Achilles Tendon Extensor Digitorum Flexor Retinaculum Lateral Malleolus Brevis Muscle Superior Peroneal Retinaculum Lateral Malleolus Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendons Retrocalcaneal Bursa Extensor Hallucis Calcaneal Branch of Peroneal Artery Superior Peroneal Longus Tendons Posterior Tibial Artery Calcaneal Branches of Retinaculum Peroneal Artery Inferior Peroneal Retinaculum Peroneus Tetius 5th Metatarsal Tendon Bone ENERGY MANAGEMENT The metabolic rate during running is around heat loss of 600 kcal so that the runner loses Peroneus Longus Tendon Peroneus Brevis 1 kcal per kg of body weight and km of between 1 and 2.5 liters of water during an Tendon distance. So an 80 kg runner burns ca. 1,200 hour-long run. Because the human body kcal per hour while running at a speed of can only absorb small amounts of water, it 15 km/h. Two-thirds of that energy is heat is very important to continuously refuel with conduction. Sweat provides an evaporative fluids while running. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 22
    • the foot ITS FUNCTIONS FOOT FACTS The foot’s key functions are cushioning, — 25–40% of all Americans have foot prob- stability and flexibility. lems, mostly caused by improperly fitting ITS ANATOMY footwear. cushioning Cushioning is usually the first — 72% of Americans’ shoes don’t fit, the tHe foot function runners ask about when they want majority of those are too short or too wide. to buy a pair of running shoes. The foot al- — One in three cases of foot problems are ready has two natural cushioning elements: treated with surgery, one fifth are treated contAins Fat pads: — Located in the heel and underneath the in other ways and the remainder are untreated. — So-called “flat feet” is the most common neArlY one- forefoot — For shock absorption in the high-impact problem perceived, about five times more common than high-arch feet. fourtH of areas Arches: — Two arches: Longitudinal and transversal — Other common problems vary by age group but include plantar callouses and warts, ingrown toenails, corns, bunions, All tHe — Extremely stable construction — Vertical load is distributed to both sides and hammer toes. — Other than flat or high-arch feet, other bones in foot problems are rare for those under stability In terms of shape and size, every 15 years of age, suggesting that age and foot is different. Stability is the most im- environment are factors in the appear- tHe HumAn portant functionality of the foot for running movement. During every stride the heel, ance of these disorders. — An estimated 4-7% of the adult popula- bodY… first toe and fifth toe—often called the “force tion have foot problems that require triangle” —are almost solely responsible for specially prescribed footwear. That stabilizing the foot. amounts to 10-18 million people for whom standard, off-the-shelf shoes may and can be divided up into three main sections: flexibility Flexibility is the third important not be adequate. hind-foot, midfoot, and forefoot. Muscles in functionality of the human foot. When talking — 1.2 billion pairs of shoes are sold in the the foot provide balance and movement, while about flexibility, one must differentiate U.S. each year by approximately 200,000 tendons connect muscles to bones. Ligaments between active and passive movements, and shoe salespeople employed in more than hold tendons in place and stabilize the joints. where flexibility is needed. 50,000 shoe stores and departments where footwear in available. However, During running, the hind-foot absorbs initial Actively, the foot flexes using the metatar- estimates reflect only 25% of consumers contact, the mid-foot flexes to absorb the sal joints during the push-off movement. can actually remember the last time they shock, and the forefoot grips the surface and Passively, the torsionability of the foot is had their feet measured. helps propel the runner forward. important for the pronation movement. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 23
    • much like the entire sole of the foot. A flat are designed for heel-strikers. With the foot tyPes, foot is usually more flexible and more likely help of a cushioning element in the heel, different Positions, to over-pronate. This excess motion can ultimately cause several different types of these shoes work to reduce the shock during the heel strike (first peak of ground running styles overuse injuries. reaction force). Every time a runner’s foot strikes the forefoot strike Sprinters, in particular, FOOT TYPES ground it receives an impact force nearly run on the front of the foot in an effort to Feet are often categorized by arch height, three times the runner’s body weight. As minimize ground contact and increase their of which there are three: high, normal, and a runner’s speed increases, so does the speed. When running barefoot, forefoot flat. Arches are typically measured using amount of his/her impact on the foot. striking is the natural way of running. Initial a foot imprint test, where someone wets The body absorbs this impact force by contact is with the ball area and after a or inks the bottom of one of their feet and using its muscles to stretch resistively, short contact with the mid-foot, the runner steps on a piece of brown paper. chiefly stretching the quadriceps (or thigh pushes off with the forefoot again. muscles) during heel strike and the calves high-arched foot When the heel and the during push-off. mid-foot strike The mid-foot strike is a forefoot connect with a very narrow band compromise between the heel strike and on a foot imprint test, a foot has high The body also uses joint motion to absorb forefoot strike, combining the advantages arches. High-arched feet are usually more impact forces. During heel strike, the knees of both. Athletes that run faster than ap- rigid and do not typically pronate enough flex and the foot pronates. Foot pronation proximately 14 km/h (finishing a marathon to effectively absorb shock. For this rea- causes internal rotation of the tibia (long in less than 3 hours) will automatically start son, runners with high arches often need leg bone), which in turn facilitates knee striking with the entire sole because the shoes with extra cushioning. High-arched flexion, allowing the quadriceps to act as heel strike would simply take too long. runners often (but not always) supinate in the primary shock absorber during running. their gait. normal foot A foot is considered to be RUNNING STYLES normal when the size of the arch is moder- ate or average. A normal foot leaves an The running world is replete with dialogue imprint that shows the heel and forefoot about which style of running is superior. connected by a wide band. Runners that This kit does not seek to rate any of the have a normal foot usually have a semi- styles, but simply describe them. flexible arch and have a range of running shoe options. heel strike Most long-distance runners (as in normal walking) are heel-strikers. flat foot A foot is flat when there is a very This running style contains the three low or no visible arch. A flat foot leaves phases as described in detail on earlier an imprint that is nearly whole, appearing pages. For this reason, most running shoes Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 24
    • the gait cycle The process that begins when one foot makes contact with the ground and ends when that foot hits the ground again is called the gait cycle. Technically speaking, each cycle begins at initial contact with a stance phase and proceeds through a swing phase until the cycle ends with the limb’s next initial contact. THE STRIKE PHASE THE STANCE PHASE The first stage of the gait cycle is the Strike During this second phase the bodies center Phase. This phase begins when the swinging of gravity travels over the standing leg. The leg is touching the ground. A discussed above foot having full ground contact. Individual you will see Heel striking, midfoot striking differences in the running style like over- and forefoot striking. Depending which part pronation are most visible during this phase. of the foot is touching the ground first. For heel strikers (Heel-striker comprising about In this phase the foot changes from a natural 80% of the population.): During the time of the cushioning system to a lever, preparing to initial ground contact the ankle is in a neutral propel the body forward. position and the toes are fully extended. Loading begins the moment a runner’s heel comes into contact with the running surface. Gradually, the rest of the foot lowers to the ground, slightly rolling inward to absorb shock. This inward roll, known as pronation, provides a natural cushioning system used to reduce the amount of impact force applied to the body while running. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 25
    • THE PUSH-OFF PHASE THE SWING PHASE The propulsion (or push-off-phase) phase The last component is called the Swing begins with the heel rising off the ground. Phase, in which the foot is completely The body’s mass shifts over the forefoot, airborne. and the phase ends in the toe-off. During propulsion the body thrusts itself forward and shifts its weight to the opposite foot. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 26
    • Pronation— PRONATION OVER-PRONATION UNDER-PRONATION (SUPINATION) Pronation velocity, timing ( left foot ) ( left foot ) ( left foot ) Pronation is simply a normal foot in motion, Over-pronators generally land in a pronated Under-pronators generally land in a signifi- from foot-strike on the outside of the heel position and continue to roll significantly cantly supinated position and experience through the inward roll of the foot. Every inward as they go from heel strike to toe off. very little pronation, meaning that from runner pronates, and the initial pronation They exhibit excessive inward motion and are impact to toe-off their foot rolls inward less is considered an important and healthy best served with stability or motion-control that the norm. They do not have enough in- response to the intense amount of shock shoes, which assist in controlling the exces- ward motion and therefore can benefit from imposed upon the foot. Pronation is also sive inward motion of the shoe. cushioned-based shoes and lightweight integral in propelling the runner forward. If performance shoes, which allow the foot to the foot pronates too much or too little and follow the natural pronation movement. A does so frequently, several biomechanical lot of times Supinators are associated with problems may result that may decrease a more rigid foot (arch) which goes hand in performance quality and increase the likeli- hand with the need for a more cushioned hood of injury. shoe model. See the Glossary at the end of this book for an A-Z guide to running injuries. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 27
    • lasts last measurements WIDE WIDTH AND NARROW SHOES (from 2A to 6e) women’s shoe widths ( exAmples ) In considering the diversity of human feet, SHOE LASTS AA Narrow Puma recognizes that properly fitting run- B Standard All shoes are constructed over a wood or ning shoes means multiple widths, not just D Wide composite form called a “last.” The last is Breast Line multiple sizes. That’s why the Puma lineup EE x Wide the plastic form around which the footwear Cuboid Area includes shoe widths for every runner’s EEEE xx Wide is built. It is drafted of the natural foot shape Break of Ball feet—whether they are wide, narrow, high- because it determines, together with the arched, hammer-toed, or bunioned. Here’s Inside Outside pattern and the choice of materials, how the the run-down: finished shoe will fit later on. Knowing this men’s shoe widths fact, it is quiet obvious why every develop- Cuboid Designed for — In general, the standard shoe widths are Boot Last ment of athletic footwear starts with the “D” for men, and “B” for women. AA x Narrow Cuboid Ball development of a specific last. With this in — If the majority of shoes a runner buys B Narrow Cuboid Designed for D Sandard mind, Puma has developed different lasts for fit fine, then these are the widths he/ Low Topline Pump EE Wide different foot types and usages. she should select. If the shoes she owns Cross Section of Last EEEE x Wide All Cuboid Area tend to be wide or feel spacious in width, EEEEEE xx Wide Backseam Tack then she should consider selecting a Throat Opening Instep Girth narrower width. Conversely, if the shoes a runner owns tend to be narrow or feel Instep Point snug in width, he/she should consider Kid’s shoe widths Vamp Point selecting a wider width. M Medium Heel Point W Wide Short Heel Girth EEEE x Wide Long Heel Girth Instep Girth Waist Girth Toe Point Ball Girth Stick Length Vamp Length Vamp Point Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 28
    • COMFORT LAST Comfort Last Cross sections PERFORMANCE LAST Standard Built to fit the majority of runners, the Built to offer more midfoot support, the per- comfort last is straighter, which provides formance last is semi-curved with a rounded an easy toe-off, and provides more volu- bottom, providing a snug fit. me in the midfoot. (New in AW09) The straight bottom edges make the use of PERFORMANCE The comfort last has increased volume, es- orthotics easier. It also allows for a more pecially in the midfoot; this makes the shoe accurate assembly process. fit a much broader group of runners. Performance comfort COMFORT RACING LAST The racing last is built for just that - racing. It's lower, curved toe-spring provides a very Higher toespring built into the last makes snug fit. the toe-off phase more natural. RACING The "turning point" of the last sits further back on the shoe, making the heel-to-toe transition much smoother for heel strikers. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 29
    • LAST TYPES heel width insteP height toe Box dePth forefoot width FOR WOMEN Comfort Last Standard Standard High Wide Performance Last Narrow Standard Standard Narrow Racing Last Narrow Low Low Narrow FOR MEN Comfort Last Standard Standard High Wide Performance Last Narrow Standard Standard Narrow Racing Last Narrow Low Low Narrow Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | AnAtomY | 30
    • sHoe construction Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | sHoe construction | 31
    • AtHletic sHoes HAve tHree mAin sections, wHicH Are similAr to tHe tHree mAin sections of An Automobile. UPPER Protection, ventilation, and style MIDSOLE (WITH CUSHIONING SYSTEM) Cushioning and stability OUTSOLE Traction and durability Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | sHoe construction | 32
    • shoe. Outsoles also have design features to The heel counter, which wraps around the ATHLETIC FOOTWEAR OUTSOLE ATHLETIC FOOTWEAR UPPERS provide other benefits. Some outsole design back of the heel, provides stability and moti- The outsole provides durability by resisting features make a shoe lighter, others help The primary function of the shoe’s upper is on control upon impact. The heel counter is wear, providing traction, and absorbing a a shoe flex correctly, and some enhance a to supply support, protection, and breatha- often made from TPU. small amount of shock. Outsole materials shoe’s traction and durability properties. bility, all while maintaining light weight. provide durability, and the pattern that has Additionally, the upper adds stylistic fun and TPU: been integrated into the outsole gives the individuality. — Is frequently used in uppers as a light- running shoe its traction. weight support structure for increased ATHLETIC FOOTWEAR MIDSOLE Uppers are often made with a significant support and protection. A running shoe‘s outsole needs to be const- Midsoles provide cushioning and stability. amount of a lightweight mesh, drastically — Can be either suppler or more firm as ructed of a durable material to take the wear Midsoles are generally made from foam-like reducing the weight of the shoe while needed. of a variety of harsh running surfaces. Trail substances, such as ethylene vinyl acetate providing exceptional breath ability, and — Provides the critical support in a shoe‘s running shoes need additional grip for use (EVA), phylon, and polyurethane (PU). increased comfort. heel counter, which is the tough insert on wet and uneven surfaces. that reinforces the heel cup of a shoe. eva A resilient foam material that provides Mesh allows air to circulate through the TPU anchors the foot in the shoe, pre- The most common material by far used in shock protection, is often die-cut into shape shoe and allowing moisture to evaporate. venting slippage and stabilizing the foot running outsoles is carbon rubber. in a process that looks like using a cookie Increased moisture creates the conditions during footstrike. cutter. for increased instances of blistering. Using specialized materials, traction When the upper of a running shoe fits well patterns, and design features, outsoles Polyurethane (Pu) A firmer, heavier, Mesh is made from nylon or polyester fibers there should be limited movement of the are usually made from a combination and more durable foam material than EVA and is preferred in shoes that need to be foot. Excess movement inside a running of synthetic rubber and natural rubber. and Phylon. PU is used in midsoles when lightweight and breathable. shoe can irritate or cause injury. Natural rubber is softer and provides better durability and stability are more important traction; synthetic rubber is harder and factors in a shoe‘s design than light weight Despite its numerous advantages, mesh Double-lasting is another important materi- provides better durability. and cushioning. alone does not provide a running shoe al in the upper. A shoe is double-lasted when with the stability or support that it needs. the upper is wrapped around the midsole Gum rubber is a commonly-used rubber Midsoles often contain a cushioning system, Synthetic Leather overlays often provide to meet the outsole, usually in the forefoot. combination yielding softer, stickier traction. such as duo-CELL and Id-CELL, as well as this support. Double-lasted shoes create a snug foot to Made from 60% natural rubber and 40% extra devices that provide other benefits. foot-bed relationship for a better fitting synthetic, gum rubber can be altered with One such device is a Shank Plate, which Leather and synthetic leathers offer better leather construction. additives or processing. increases the torsional rigidity of a shoe. support, protection, and stability. This increases a shoes‘ stability without ad- Sometimes rubber, called Brown Rubber, ding much weight. TPU Shank and ArchTec The toe box—the upper of the shoe that is made less dense by incorporating tiny plates are made from a hard plastic called surrounds the toes—differs slightly from shoe air pockets. These alterations change the TPU, or thermalplastic urethane. to shoe. Runners who are prone to blistering durability and the traction properties of or who have bunions should make sure the the rubber. Traction patterns are the lines toe box provides enough room for the forefoot and bumps you see on the bottom of a and toes to move and flex during running. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | sHoe construction | 33
    • The team‘s research and observations are as an idea in a designer’s head is now well on the Process of shoe ADVANCED RESEARCH then compiled into a brief, which helps the its way to becoming the next breakthrough develoPment Before an idea for a new running shoe is conceived, teams of experts conduct re- team identify a target runner for a specific season. Designers can then begin visualizing running shoe. Because of the diversity and complexity of search into the newest materials, biomecha- an initial footwear design. human feet, a Puma running shoe’s develop- nical questions and breakthroughs in order TESTING ment is equally as complex. This is because to launch Puma into the footwear future. we set out to provide a perfect-fitting shoe These initial research projects and studies We now have our first “testable” prototype of DESIGN that utilizes the most cutting-edge technolo- are vital in determining what precisely is the new Puma trainer. Testing can take up to gies and stylistic features—for every runner. needed next in an already saturated athletic Because we believe runners who look better 12 months to complete. Initial samples are As one who sells these shoes, you should shoe market. perform better, the design process is a vital made and distributed to four different areas know how it all works. component of the shoe construction process. for testing: The design phase typically features three pumA rounds: first sketches, form design, and finely — the Puma lab DISCOVERY detailed digital files. Inspiration for initial — biomechanical testing Every Puma running shoe begins with a sketches can come from anywhere: a sleek — Athletes and Weartesters running discovery process. Design teams seek inspi- ration from any number of places: chats with sports car, the contour of the human body, a particularly unique building, or a moving — Specialty running store owners design athletes, consultation from running magazi- sculpture. design improvements It’s important nes, and feedback from Puma weartesters, to to remember that at any point along the name a few. From the sketchbook, an initial design morphs production timeline, Puma will make major teAms Puma running shoes are designed and mo- into a more technical rendering. A footwear developer (or Puma engineer) then joins the changes in a shoe’s design or structure if an improvement can be made. All the data from begin witH dified with the world’s best athletes in mind. designer to turn the 2D technical drawings the various tests are collected and analyzed. Puma brings a steady stream of athletes from and dimensions into 3D models. Designers and developers review the input all over the globe to Puma World Headquar- and make changes to the shoe design and a A discoverY ters, studies them, and learns from them. Design teams listen to runners‘ likes and dislikes in footwear and analyze their findings. They add construction details, select mate- rials and finishes, and identify performance criteria. All this information is sent to the new generation of samples is created. Samples are resubmitted to the lab for speci- process. Every idea is on the table—what works and what doesn‘t in athletes‘ current footwear. development center to build the first sample based on technical drawings. From here, fic testing in the areas of change. Athletes are given the updated product. the “shoe” goes through several rounds of The initial discovery stage also involves a revisions to 3D model print-outs. Testing can be repeated for several rounds great deal of long-range planning. We ask as designers fine-tune specific attributes of questions like, “Where is Puma going as The first physical model of the shoe gives the shoe. Until a shoe reaches store shelves, a brand?” Our answers determine which development engineers an opportunity to it can be altered or scrapped and re-started. products we update when. tweak aspects of the shoe’s fit and look, and Puma stops at nothing to make sure every basically perfect the shoe’s upper. What began running shoe is the very best it can be. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | sHoe construction | 34
    • PRODUCTION The final phase of development begins in overseas factories, where a shoe that was once only a sketch is built and reproduced on a larger scale. Puma shoe designers and developers go to the factory to oversee initial stamPing stitching production, and as the first few shoes roll off the assembly line, they quickly and perso- nally check the quality of the shoe. Once the footwear passes inspection, any revisions are passed along to the factory, where it where it is cleared for production on a larger scale. The product design is now final, including detailing, colorways, predicted cost, and final materials. Shipments from factories begin arriving in distribution centers throughout the world. Within the month, the new shoe starts appea- ring on store shelves. last comPleted uPPer Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | sHoe construction | 35
    • tecH pAges Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 36
    • control issues). These runners require a — Suitable for the average runner who over-pronating runner a smooth, light ride road running cushioned shoe with medial support, like does not have severe motion control while controlling the velocity and degree of M2D in the midsole of Puma shoes (or Duo- problems,who requires a shoe with some pronation. max for Asics and ProModerator for Adidas), medial support. NEUTRAL which allows the foot to pronate naturally. models include Puma Complete Concinnity, These shoes have excellent shock absorpti- models include Puma Complete Vectana, Puma Complete Magnetist, Puma Complete on and are usually built with a semi-curved The extra medial support means the shoe Puma Complete Spectana, Mizuno Wave Tenos, Adidas Supernova Competition, Asics shape on a slip last construction. They are compresses at a slower rate and supports Nirvana; Adidas Supernova Control; Adidas DS Trainer. designed to promote normal foot motion, the foot better than a shoe without the adistar Control, Asics Kayano; Reebok which is good for under-pronators. reinforcement. Premier Road Plus: Mizuno Wave Inspire, Mizuno Elixir, Asics 2130, Asics 1130. TRAIL Neutral shoes are built for slight- to Cushioning and stability are not separate medium-build runners who may have shoe characteristics. The amount of support Trail shoes are the equivalent of mud tires. higher, more rigid arches. The semi-curved provided by a running shoe is referred to as They're built for runners who spend a lot LIGHTWEIGHT construction encourages natural foot its stability. Pediatric research indicates that of time off the pavement, on the trails. motion. Although heavier runners need good a healthy range of pronation between 12 and Lightweight shoes are more responsive and, They have better traction and more durable cushioning too, they usually require more 18 degrees should occur during footstrike. obviously, lighter weight. They're designed uppers. Some are even water resistant. Trail support from features included in stability Stability devices correct the gait where for racing and fast-paced training. They shoes are built to fit most of the categories - shoes. pronation occurs to a more extreme degree. provide more cushioning and support than Neutral, Stability, and Lightweight. ultra-lightweight competition racing flats — Suitable for the efficient runner who does A hard midsole increases the velocity of and, as such, last longer. models include Puma Complete Vectana not overpronate and does not need any pronation at the loading phase (which is GTx or WTR, Nike Pegasus TR, Asics extra medial support. bad) but decreases the maximum degree of Often in this category the choice of shoe is 2130 TR, Brooks Adrenaline ASR, Adidas pronation during midstance (which is good). determined by the runner's comfort and Supernova TR, Adidas Response TR. models include Puma Velosis, Puma Hard midsoles do not deform or collapse style preferences… or by race performance. Phasis, Asics Nimbus, Asics Cumulus, during medial loading. Mizuno Wave Creation; Mizuno Wave Rider: — Not suitable for the heavier runner. Adidas Supernova Cushion, Adidas adistar Soft midsoles decrease the velocity of prona- CSH Nike Pegasus; Brooks Glycerine; tion (which is good) but increase the degree of models include Mizuno Wave Idaten; Mizuno Wave Rider; Reebok Premier Ultra pronation (which is bad). The midsole deforms Adidas Adistar Competition; Adidas Adios DMx; Mizuno Wave Mustang; Nike Vomero; medially and, in effect, just keeps rolling. Lightstrike; Nike Marathoner. Mizuno Nemesis. Stability running shoes combine a soft mid- sole on the lateral side and a harder, denser LIGHTWEIGHT STABILITY midsole material on the medial side. This STABILITY combination, often called medial posting, Similar to the Lightweight category, these Stability shoes are for the runner with a both reduces the velocity of pronation and shoes feature a medial support element neutral running style (i.e., no severe motion limits the degree of pronation. (M2D) to emphasize stability. They give an Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 37
    • NEUTRAL STABILITY LIGHTWEIGHT STABILITY LIGHTWEIGHT everyday–training Built with maximum everyday–training Designed to guide raceday–speed Lightweight trainer for raceday–speed Lightweight trainer or rac- cushioning in mind for underpronators to into the natural foostrike for runners who speed runs or races from 5k to mara- ing shoes for distances from 5K to marathon. mild overpronators. It helps these runners pronate more than normal. thon. For lightweight runners with mild who do not absorb the shock naturally overpronation. through pronation. High velosis sPectana magnetist 2 eutoPia Mid Phasis vectana tenos 6 caliBus 2 Entry teronis Kijana concinnity 3 roadracer 3 Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 38
    • velosis Profile flexiBility (70) staBility (90) shocK aBsorPtion (90) runners weight (50–85kg) The all new flagship neutral running shoe in the range. offers exceptional fit and comfort while still being very stable due to the wider platform it is built on. enhanced midsole technologies provide a plush road feel and very smooth transition. The first instep comfort is top of its class due to the choice of highest quality materials like ortholite sockliner, stretch lining and everfoam in the heel. Built for neutral runners and supinators with a low to high arch searching for maximum cushion and comfort for their daily training runs. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Neutral LAST Comfort Shoe sits in the upper price point Neutral trainer SIZERUN MEN 6.5–14 segment. Main Competitors are Asics Gel Nimbus, SIZERUN WOMEN 3.5–10.5 Adidas adistar CSH, Brooks Glycerine, Nike GENDER Male / Female MEN COLORS 183969 01 White / snorkel blue / Vomero, Saucony Triumph. black / silver metallic 183969 02 Silver metallic / russet orange / black WHAT’S NEW WOMEN COLORS 183970 01 White / fuchsia purple / black / silver metallic Completely new for AU2009. First introduction in 183970 02 Silver metallic / dandelion / black the NEW Neutral segment. More shoes to follow in WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B the Neutral everyday trainer segment. WEIGHT Men’s: 362.87 g. / 12.8 oz. Women’s: 294.83 g. / 10.4 oz. CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 PRICE $ 120 / € 140 FEATURES & BENEFITS archtec Support for the arch of the foot. Increases id-cell Board in the heel Proven EVA replace- everride Blown outsole rubber for improved reflectives For more security at dawn and night. the functional firmness and saves weight. ment for the standard brand-sole for additional forefoot cushioning, roll off and weight saving. comfort and shock absorption in the heel. otholite sockliner Comfort sockliner consists id-cell EVA based cushioning material for everfoam in the heel Special slow recovery of two layers for maximum fit and comfort, fast improved shock absorption in the heel crash zone evertrack High abrasion resistant rubber. Long foam heel construction for a heel fit which is material regeneration, optimized air circulation. and as a full length top layer. lasting rubber composite used in outsole areas with perfectly adjusting to the heel contour. Locks you Antimicrobial. strong wear-off. in and avoids heel slippage. eva-Board in the forefoot Proven EVA replace- duo-cell Long lasting CELL insert in the heel ment for the standard brand-sole for additional Kms lite Lightweight midsole EVA foam for sandwich-mesh Special upper mesh material for improved shock absorption. comfort and cushioning. weight saving while maintaining same cushioning with a high degree of breathability. Lowers the properties. risk for blisters. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 39
    • caliBus 2 Profile flexiBility (80) staBility (50) shocK aBsorPtion (80) runners weight (50–85kg) The lightweight trainer for the light- to midweight runner with a normal to high arch. excellent cushioning properties, while still having a good feeling for the ground. feels lightweight and very flexible in the forefoot. Socklike instep feeling. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Lightweight LAST Performance The shoe is positioned in the main midprice light- SIZERUN MEN UK 5-12,13,14,15 weight segment. The shoe stands out due to its SIZERUN WOMEN UK 3–10.5 narrower last shape and more natural heel-to-toe GENDER Male / Female MEN COLORS 184020 03 White / silver metallic / transition. sweet grape 184019 04 Silver metallic / jasmine green / black WHAT’S NEW WOMEN COLORS 184020 03 White / silver metallic / sweet grape Was all new shoe in AU08. Compared to the Phasis 184020 04 Silver metallic / dandelion / black- white it is way more flexible in the midfoot and forfoot WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B area. The volume inside the shoe stays the same WEIGHT Men’s: 294.83 g. / 10.4 oz compared to the Phasis due to the same last. Women’s: 272.15 g. / 9.6 oz CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 PRICE $ 95 / € 120 FEATURES & BENEFITS archtec Support for the arch of the foot. Increases id-cell in the heel Proven EVA replacement for everride Blown outsole rubber for improved reflectives For more security at dawn and night. the functional firmness and saves weight. the standard brand-sole for additional comfort and forefoot cushioning, roll off and weight saving. shock absorption in the heel. otholite sockliner Comfort sockliner consists id-cell EVA based cushioning material for everfoam in the heel Special slow recovery of two layers for maximum fit and comfort, fast improved shock absorption in the heel crash zone evertrack High abrasion resistant rubber. Long foam heel construction for a heel fit which is material regeneration, optimized air circulation. and as a full length top layer. lasting rubber composite used in outsole areas with perfectly adjusting to the heel contour. Locks you Antimicrobial. strong wear-off. in and avoids heel slippage. eva-Board in the forefoot Proven EVA replace- duo-cell Long lasting CELL insert in the heel ment for the standard brand-sole for additional Kms lite Lightweight midsole EVA foam for sandwich-mesh Special upper mesh material for improved shock absorption. comfort and cushioning. weight saving while maintaining same cushioning with a high degree of breathability. Lowers the properties. risk for blisters. texcare Bamboo lining Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 40
    • roadracer 3 Profile flexiBility (100) staBility (10) shocK aBsorPtion (40) runners weight (50–85kg) The update of the roadracer sits between a pure racer and a lightweight trainer. it's meant for runners who are searching for a light shoe to run any race from a 5K to the marathon. The upper is sock-like, yet supportive, meaning the shoe can be worn barefoot. The shoe offers very little stability in the heel and is for lighter runners who don't expect much support in this type of shoe; they need a shoe for their faster training sessions and road races. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Lightweight The shoe is positioned in between the Lightweight LAST Racing SIZERUN UK 3-13 trainer and the racing flat category. It has more GENDER Unisex substance to it than the classical racing shoes, but COLORS 183846 04 Blazing yellow / silver is less stable than the standard lightweight trainer. metallic / black WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WEIGHT 204.11 g. / 7.2 oz. WHAT’S NEW CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 The update now offers a softer and more flexible PRICE $ 90 / € 110 ride due to the use of EVER-Lite instead of EverRide (i.e., no more clicking on the road!). The upper has no heel counter making it fit more like a sock. Additionally, having a full airmesh upper allows for more airflow, which helps to keep your feet cool, especially when racing. FEATURES & BENEFITS archtec Support for the arch of the foot. In- evertrack High abrasion resistant rubber. Long everride Blown rubber outsole for improved creases the functional firmness and saves weight. lasting rubber composite used in outsole areas cushioning properties and smooth and quiet roll off. with strong wear-off. id-cell EVA based cushioning material for improved shock absorption in the heel crash zone sandwich-mesh Special upper mesh material and as a full length top layer. with a high degree of breathability. Lowers the risk for blisters. eva-Board Proven EVA replacement for the standard brand-sole for additional comfort and sockliner Lightweight EVA for weight saving. cushioning. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 41
    • vectana Profile flexiBility (60) staBility (90) shocK aBsorPtion (90) runners weight (50–85kg) Comfortable and durable this new addition to the newly created Stability segment. This all new daily work- horse for runners with a low to high arch who are searching a stable companion. it offers an exceptional first instep and performance with extra medial stability for runners running with overpronation. it offers all the features which you expect from such a kind of shoe: Arch-Tec, ldCell, duoCell, ortholite sockliner, everfoam you name it. on a price point that makes this the “Go To” shoe for everybody! COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Stability LAST Comfort Shoe sits in the middle price point stability seg- SIZERUN MEN 6.5-14 ment. Main competitors are Asics 2130, Adidas SIZERUN WOMEN 3.5-11.5 Supernova CTL, Nike Structure Triax, Brooks GENDER Male / Female MEN COLORS 183972 01 White / silver metallic / Adrenaline GTS, Saucony Guide. (The Vectana Puma red / black has more tech features than the 2130—OrthLite 183972 02 Silver metallic / snorkel blue / white sockliner vs. EVA, Full layered forefoot ldCELL vs. 183972 03 Black / silver metallic / small gel insert.) Puma red WOMEN COLORS 183974 01 White / blue mist / silver metallic / black WHAT’S NEW 183974 02 Silver metallic / sweet grape / white Completely new for AU2009. First introduction in WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WEIGHT Men’s: 362.87 g. / 12.8 oz. the NEW Stability segment. More shoes to follow in Women’s: 294.83 g. / 10.4 oz. the Stability everyday trainer segment. CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 PRICE $ 95 / € 125 FEATURES & BENEFITS archtec Support for the arch of the foot. Increases id-cell Board in the heel Proven EVA replace- everride Blown outsole rubber for improved reflectives For more security at dawn and night. the functional firmness and saves weight. ment for the standard brand-sole for additional forefoot cushioning, roll off and weight saving. comfort and shock absorption in the heel. otholite sockliner Comfort sockliner consists id-cell EVA based cushioning material for everfoam in the heel Special slow recovery foam of two layers for maximum fit and comfort, fast improved shock absorption in the heel crash zone evertrack High abrasion resistant rubber. Long heel construction for a heel fit which is perfectly material regeneration, optimized air circulation. and as a full length top layer. lasting rubber composite used in outsole areas adjusting to the heel contour. Locks you in and Antimicrobial. with strong wear-off. avoids heel slippage. m2d Firmer midsole EVA foam on the medial side duo-cell Long lasting CELL insert in the heel for to help stabilize the shoe on the medial side. Kms lite Lightweight midsole EVA foam for sandwich-mesh Special upper mesh material improved shock absorption. weight saving while maintaining same cushioning with a high degree of breathability. Lowers the risk properties. for blisters. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 42
    • vectana gtx Profile flexiBility (60) staBility (90) shocK aBsorPtion (90) runners weight (50–85kg) Comfortable and durable this new addition to the newly created Stability segment. This all new daily workhorse for runners with a low to high arch who are searching a stable companion in rough terrain and unpleasant weath- ers. it offers an exceptional first instep and performance with extra medial stability for runners running with overpronation. it offers all the features which you expect from such a kind of shoe: Arch-Tec, ldCell, duoCell, ortholite sockliner, everfoam you name it. on a price point that makes this the “Go To” shoe for everybody! COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Stability LAST Comfort Shoe sits in the middle price point stability seg- SIZERUN MEN 6.5-14 ment. Main competitors are Asics 2130 TR, Adidas SIZERUN WOMEN 3.5-11.5 Wanaka, Nike Pegasus Trail. GENDER Male / Female MEN COLORS 184150 01 Black / russet orange / silver metallic WOMEN COLORS 184152 01 Black / dark shadow / WHAT’S NEW silver metallic / blue mist WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B Completely new for AU2009. First introduction WEIGHT Men’s: 430.91 g. / 15.2 oz. in the NEW Stability segment. Compared to the Women’s: 340.19 g. / 12 oz. CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel “standard” Vectana it has a modified outsole which AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 is more trial like and offering additional traction in PRICE $ 120 / € 140 difficult terrain. More shoes to follow in the stabil- ity everyday trainer segment. FEATURES & BENEFITS archtec Support for the arch of the foot. Increases id-cell Board in the heel Proven EVA replace- Kms lite Lightweight midsole EVA foam for reflectives For more security at dawn and night. the functional firmness and saves weight. ment for the standard brand-sole for additional weight saving while maintaining same cushioning comfort and shock absorption in the heel. properties. otholite sockliner Comfort sockliner consists id-cell EVA based cushioning material for of two layers for maximum fit and comfort, fast improved shock absorption in the heel crash zone evertrack High abrasion resistant rubber. Long goretex Proven Gore-Tex technology is making material regeneration, optimized air circulation. and as a full length top layer. lasting rubber composite used in outsole areas with the shoe waterproof while still keeping it somehow Antimicrobial. strong wear-off. breathable. m2d Firmer midsole EVA foam on the medial side duo-cell Long lasting CELL insert in the heel to help stabilize the shoe on the medial side. evergrip Wet traction rubber outsole in the fore- sandwich-mesh Special upper mesh material for improved shock absorption. foot for improved traction on slippery grounds. with a high degree of breathability. Lowers the risk for blisters. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 43
    • vectana tr Profile flexiBility (60) staBility (90) shocK aBsorPtion (90) runners weight (50–85kg) Comfortable and durable this new addition to the newly created Stability segment. This all new daily workhorse for runners with a low to high arch who are searching a stable companion in rough terrain and unpleasant weath- ers. it offers an exceptional first instep and performance with extra medial stability for runners running with overpronation. it offers all the features which you expect from such a kind of shoe: Arch-Tec, ldCell, duoCell, ortholite sockliner, everfoam you name it. on a price point that makes this the “Go To” shoe for everybody! COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Stability LAST Comfort Shoe sits in the middle price point stability seg- SIZERUN MEN 6.5-14 ment. Main competitors are Asics 2130 H20, Adidas SIZERUN WOMEN 3.5-11.5 Supernova WTR, Nike Pegasus Trail. GENDER Male/ Female MEN COLORS 184149 01 Black / white / russet orange WOMEN COLORS 184151 01 Gray violet / silver WHAT’S NEW metallic / blue mist WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B Completely new for AU2009. First introduction WEIGHT 385.55 g. / 13.6 oz. in the NEW Stability segment. Compared to the CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 “standard” Vectana it has a modified outsole PRICE $ 95 / € 125 which is more trial like and offering additional traction in difficult terrain. More shoes to follow in the Stability everyday trainer segment. FEATURES & BENEFITS archtec Support for the arch of the foot. Increases m2d Firmer midsole EVA foam on the medial side evergrip Wet traction rubber outsole in the fore- reflectives For more security at dawn and night. the functional firmness and saves weight. to help stabilize the shoe on the medial side. foot for improved traction on slippery grounds. sandwich-mesh Special upper mesh material id-cell EVA based cushioning material for evertrack High abrasion resistant rubber. Long Kms lite Lightweight midsole EVA foam for with a high degree of breathability. Lowers the improved shock absorption in the heel crash zone lasting rubber composite used in outsole areas with weight saving while maintaining same cushioning risk for blisters. and as a full length top layer. strong wear-off. properties. duo-cell Long lasting CELL insert in the heel id-cell Board in the heel Proven EVA replace- everfoam in the heel Special slow recovery foam otholite sockliner Comfort sockliner consists for improved shock absorption. ment for the standard brand-sole for additional heel construction for a heel fit which is perfectly of two layers for maximum fit and comfort, fast comfort and shock absorption in the heel. adjusting to the heel contour. Locks you in and material regeneration, optimized air circulation. thinsulate lining For added comfort in coolder avoids heel slippage. Antimicrobial. winter conditions. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 44
    • magnetist 2 Profile flexiBility (60) staBility (70) shocK aBsorPtion (70) runners weight (50–85kg) The Magnetist update is built for people who are searching for a lightweight stability shoe which is low to the ground and flexible in the forefoot. it’s a lightweight training shoe for the lightweight to midweight runner with a high to normal arch. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Lightweight Stability LAST Performance Shoe sits in the upper price point lightweight sta- SIZERUN MEN UK 5-12,13,14,15 bility segment. The shoe sits lower to the ground SIZERUN WOMEN UK 3-9 than it competitors and has a more flexible ride in GENDER Male/ Female MEN COLORS 183706 04 White / jasmine green / the forefoot. black WOMEN COLORS 183707 03 Silver metallic / blue mist / black WHAT’S NEW WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WEIGHT Men’s: 317.51 g. / 11.2 oz. New upper on the existing bottom unit in SP2009. Women’s: 272.155 g. / 9.6 oz. CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel The upper is using a full airmesh construction AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 which makes it more breathable. The lacing is PRICE $ 120 / € 140 centered now. No bamboo lining anymore. FEATURES & BENEFITS archtec Support for the arch of the foot. Increases evertrack High abrasion resistant rubber. Long spherical heel construction Rounded and flared reflectives For more security at dawn and night. the functional firmness and saves weight. lasting rubber composite used in outsole areas with heel outsole/midsole geometry in combination strong wear-off. with flexgrooves for a smooth first impact and roll duo-cell Long lasting CELL insert in the heel id-cell EVA based cushioning material for off from heel to toe. Lowers the pronation velocity for improved shock absorption. improved shock absorption in the heel crash zone memory foam heel fit Special memory foam heel and the degree of pronation. and as a full length top layer. construction for a heel fit which is perfectly adjust- ing to the heel contour. sockliner-2layer Comfort sockliner consists eva-Board Proven EVA replacement for the of three layers for maximum fit and comfort, fast standard brand-sole for additional comfort and sandwich-mesh Special upper mesh material material regeneration, optimized air circulation. cushioning. with a high degree of breathability. Lowers the Antimicrobial. risk for blisters. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 45
    • tenos 6 Profile flexiBility (80) staBility (70) shocK aBsorPtion (60) runners weight (50–85kg) The stability lightweight trainer for the light- to midweight runner with a high to normal arch. With a good feeling for the ground. feels lightweight and very flexible in the forefoot. Sock like instep feeling. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Lightweight Stability LAST Performance The shoe is positioned in the main midprice SIZERUN MEN UK 5-12,13,14,15 SIZERUN WOMEN UK 3-9 lightweight stability segment. People searching GENDER Male/ Female for a lightweight stability trainer searching for the MEN COLORS 183844 04 White / black / right mix of cushioning, stability and still a proper blazing yellow / silver metallic WOMEN COLORS 183845 03 White / fuchsia feel for the ground. purple / silver metallic WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WEIGHT Men’s: 294.83 g. / 10.4 oz WHAT’S NEW Women’s: 249.47 g. / 8.8 oz CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel Update of the Tenos IV offering a more flexible AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 PRICE $ 95 / € 125 forefoot construction plus a more flexible midfoot. Additional blown rubber in the forefoot helps for a softer and smoother roll off. FEATURES & BENEFITS archtec Support for the arch of the foot. Increases Blown rubber forefoot Lighter and more respon- sandwich-mesh Special upper mesh material sockliner-3layer Comfort sockliner consists the functional firmness and saves weight. sive rubber outsole for a softer ride and toe off. with a high degree of breathability. Lowers the of three layers for maximum fit and comfort, fast risk for blisters. material regeneration, optimized air circulation. id-cell EVA based cushioning material for evertrack High abrasion resistant rubber. Long Antimicrobial. improved shock absorption in the heel crash zone lasting rubber composite used in outsole areas with reflectives For more security at dawn and night. and as a full length top layer. strong wear-off. duo-cell Long lasting CELL insert in the heel spherical heel construction Rounded and flared for improved shock absorption. eva-Board Proven EVA replacement for the memory foam heel fit Special memory foam heel heel outsole/midsole geometry in combination standard brand-sole for additional comfort and construction for a heel fit which is perfectly adjust- with flexgrooves for a smooth first impact and roll texcare Bamboo lining cushioning. ing to the heel contour. off from heel to toe. Lowers the pronation velocity and the degree of pronation. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 46
    • concinnity 3 Profile flexiBility (90) staBility (40) shocK aBsorPtion (70) runners weight (50–85kg) Same name. New shoe. The new Concinnity is built for light to midweight runners with high to normal arches searching for a light and flexible shoe for faster training runs. it can also be used as an everyday trainer for lighter runners. The shoe offers outstanding flexibility and a smooth heel-to-toe transition. it has a small medial post (M2D) in the heel, which makes it suitable for runners who need extra support in the heel, especially on a long run. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Lightweight Stability LAST Performance The shoe sits in the Lightweight trainer segment. SIZERUN MEN UK 5-12,13,14,15 Next to one of the most famous shoes in the SIZERUN WOMEN UK 3-9 category. Compared to most shoes in this category GENDER Male/ Female MEN COLORS 183844 04 White / black / it is way more flexible heel to toe, medial to lateral blazing yellow / silver metallic side and offers a more generous fit. WOMEN COLORS 183845 03 White / fuchsia purple / silver metallic WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WEIGHT Men’s: 294.83 g. / 10.4 oz WHAT’S NEW Women’s: 249.47 g. / 8.8 oz CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel Blown rubber in the lateral forefoot for a softer AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 ride. Improved heel bevel geometry for a softer PRICE $ 95 / € 125 touchdown. Visible Arch-tec in the shank. Centered lacing. Full length padded tongue foam. Full airmesh upper for improved breath ability. Softer synthetic materials allover are making the fit more socklike. FEATURES & BENEFITS archtec Support for the arch of the foot. Increases evertrack High abrasion resistant rubber. Long reflectives For more security at dawn and night. sockliner-3layer Comfort sockliner consists the functional firmness and saves weight. lasting rubber composite used in outsole areas with of three layers for maximum fit and comfort, fast strong wear-off. spherical heel construction Rounded and flared material regeneration, optimized air circulation. id-cell EVA based cushioning material for heel outsole/midsole geometry in combination Antimicrobial. improved shock absorption in the heel crash zone memory foam heel fit Special memory foam heel with flexgrooves for a smooth first impact and roll and as a full length top layer. construction for a heel fit which is perfectly adjust- off from heel to toe. Lowers the pronation velocity texcare Bamboo lining ing to the heel contour. and the degree of pronation. eva-Board Proven EVA replacement for the standard brand-sole for additional comfort and sandwich-mesh Special upper mesh material duo-cell Long lasting CELL insert in the heel cushioning. with a high degree of breathability. Lowers the for improved shock absorption. risk for blisters. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 47
    • eutoPia Profile flexiBility (80) staBility (50) shocK aBsorPtion (80) runners weight (50–85kg) The premium everyday neutral lightweight trainer for the light- to midweight runner. excellent cush- ioning properties, while still having a good feeling for the ground. feels lightweight and very flexible in the forefoot. Socklike instep feeling for runners with normal to high arches. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Lightweight LAST Performance The shoe is positioned in the highprice Lightweight SIZERUN MEN UK 5-12,13,14,15 / Performance segment. The shoe stands out due SIZERUN WOMEN UK 3-9 to different last shape and the more direct and GENDER Male/ Female MEN COLORS 182813 10 White / Puma red / flexible ride, feeling heel to toe. black WOMEN COLORS 182814 11 White / blue mist / dark shadow WHAT’S NEW WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WEIGHT Men’s: 317.51 g. / 11.2 oz All new shoe for SP08. Start for the Puma Women’s: 249.47 g. / 8.8 oz CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel premium neutral cushion category. Full length AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 ld-CELL foam and duo-CELL in the heel for PRICE Men’s: $ 110 / € 140 maximum cushioning. Women’s: $ 115 / € 140 FEATURES & BENEFITS archtec Support for the arch of the foot. Increases evertrack High abrasion resistant rubber. Long spherical heel construction Rounded and flared duo-cell Long lasting CELL insert in the heel the functional firmness and saves weight. lasting rubber composite used in outsole areas with heel outsole/midsole geometry in combination for improved shock absorption. strong wear-off. with flexgrooves for a smooth first impact and roll id-cell EVA based cushioning material for off from heel to toe. Lowers the pronation velocity texcare Bamboo lining improved shock absorption in the heel crash zone memory foam heel fit Special memory foam heel and the degree of pronation. and as a full length top layer. construction for a heel fit which is perfectly adjust- ing to the heel contour. sockliner-3layer Comfort sockliner consists eva-Board Proven EVA replacement for the of three layers for maximum fit and comfort, fast standard brand-sole for additional comfort and reflectives For more security at dawn and night. material regeneration, optimized air circulation. cushioning. Antimicrobial. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 48
    • tech matrix VELOSIS VECTANA MAGNETIST TENOS CONCINNITY EUTOPIA CALIBUS ROADRACER EverFoam x x x x x OrthoLite 1 x x OrthoLite 2 Layer x x IdCELL Lasting Heel x x x x x x x IdCELL Lasting Forefoot x x x x x x x x EVA Lasting x x x x x IdCELL Fullayer x x x x IdCELL Heel x x x x x x x x IdCELL Layer Forefoot x x x x x x duoCELL Small x x x x x x x duoCELL Large x x x x x x ArchTEC external x x x ArchTEC internal x EVERgrip EVERride EVERtrack KMSLite Midsole EVA Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 49
    • out of the blocks until reaching the finish waterfall start, that is, a gently curved white the most important features of distance tracK and field line, he or she has to be “on.“ line beginning on the finish line in lane one, footwear. then swinging ahead. The shortest of the races, the 100-meter Is there a more exciting sport on the planet dash, has a standard start while the 200- Middles distance events include runs of 800, than track and field? The arduous training. RELAYS and 400-meter races require a staggered 1500 and 1600 meters. Most middle-distance The build-up. The thrill of competition in start due to the curving of the track. The footwear features spikes from the heel to the The relay events are about teamwork. Four front of screaming grandstands. The joy of hurdle events (100-, 110- and 400-meter forefoot, as runners in these races typically runners unite to finish one distance, each victory; the agony of defeat. hurdles) add a series of 10 hurdles to a set settle into a traditional heel-strike gait cycle. racing a quarter of it. The one leading off will sprint distance. Starting blocks are used for take to the track first, the second and third tHe sport is all sprint and hurdle events. LONG DISTANCES maintain and the anchor finishes the job. The baton is passed to the next runner at the in A leAgue Spiked footwear is required for sprinters end of each leg. and hurdlers. Because sprinters typically If long-distance running was a reality show, propel using their forefoot, their footwear it’d be called “Survivor.” These events— The relay events typically include the 4x100- bY itself. features long spikes near the toe of the shoe and minimal to no traction on the heel. Often times, spikes are able to be screwed ranging from the 2000-meter steeplechase to the 3000-, 5000- and 10,000-meter races—test not only endurance, but heart. and the 4x400-meter races. Various other relays—including the sprint medley relay, distance medley relay, and shuttle hurdle One of the most exciting aspects of the sport in and out for easy replacement and post- relay—exist in certain track and field meets, is the diversity among its events. Track and race comfort. Sprint spikes also feature a To an already grueling track distance, the but are more rare. field features three categories of running minimalist upper construction for flexibility steeplechase adds additional challenge: events: sprints, middle-distance and long- and lighter weight. three wooden barriers, one of them with a Sprint spikes are worn in most relay events, distance. In addition, there are throwing and sizeable water pit on the other side. This except those that feature legs of 800 meters jumping field events and the two multi-event makes for a or longer. competitions—the heptathlon and decathlon. track and field event with perhaps more MIDDLE DISTANCES Already, we can see that a one-size-fits-all thrills—and spills—than any other. Most approach to track and field shoes and gear Middle-distance events test both speed certainly not for the faint of heart. JUMPING EVENTS simply won’t do. and endurance and are generally considered some of the sport’s most Because distance runners are running at Competitors explore the outer limits of what difficult competitions. Runners alternate top speeds for upwards of a half an hour, it means to jump the highest or longest. The between curves and straightaways, devising their race footwear needs are unique jumping events include the high jump, long SPRINTS AND HURDLES strategies—when to lead, when to follow, and of utmost importance. Distance jump, triple jump and pole vault. Speed and power are the operative concepts how fast to start out and how much to save footwear most often features short in these events. With distances no farther for the end. The 800-meter run begins spikes spanning the length of the shoe, In each event, the athlete is given three than 400 meters and the difference between with a standard start and after 100 meters, except in the 10,000-meter races, when attempts and in the long and triple jump, glory and “oh-so-close” determined by competitors break into the inner lanes athletes may choose to wear a lightweight only the best lengths are recorded. In the milliseconds, these races yield no room for and jockey for position. In the 1500- and flat. Breathability, stability, and—in the high jump and pole vault, the athlete is error. From the moment a sprinter explodes 1600-meter runs, runners begin with a steeplechase—the ability to dry quickly are eliminated after failing to clear the height Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 50
    • after three attempts. points overall is the champion. The multi- event champion is commonly called the Jumpers and vaulters wear spiked footwear, “world’s best athlete.” with some triple jumpers opting for high-top spikes for added stability. The multi-event competitions include the: — decathlon for men — heptathlon for women THROWING EVENTS The decathlon consists of 10 events for men: Throwing is not just about strength—it‘s 100-meter dash, the long jump, the shot about technique. In each of the throwing put, the high jump, the 400-meter run, the events, the athlete is given three 110-meter hurdle race, the discus throw, opportunities to achieve maximum distance the pole vault, the javelin throw, and the throwing a shot (a heavy sphere), a discus 1500-meter run. (a plate-like object), a hammer (a shot on the end of a chain) or a javelin (a spear-like Women compete in the heptathlon, object). Distance is then determined by consisting of 7 events: the 60-meter dash, measuring from where the object lands back the long jump, the shot put, the high jump, to the front of the throwing area. the 60-meter hurdle race, the pole vault, and the 1000-meter run. The throwing events are: shot put, discus, hammer, javelin. The shot, discus, and Decathletes and heptathletes change their hammer require shoes with both traction footwear from event to event. and the ability to pivot well. Because the javelin run-up is made of the same rubberized material as the track, its footwear features spikes for traction. MULTI EVENTS For those that excel at all types of track and field events, there are the multi-disciplined events, a two-day marathon of sheer will. A predetermined number of points are awarded to the winners of each event and the individual with the highest amount of Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 51
    • LONG DISTANCE MIDDLE DISTANCE SPRINT FIELD haramBee tfx miler theseus jumP tfx distance tfx sPrint tf allround 2 Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 52
    • haramBee Profile Premium long distance spike designed for all distances longer than the mile. Built to be light, cushioned and offer traction. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Long Distance Japan Thunder, Adidas Beijing LD. LAST Performance SIZERUN UK 5-12 GENDER Unisex UNISEx 183440 02 Puma silver / black / WHAT’S NEW acacia New for SP08. WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WEIGHT 181.43 g. / 6.4 oz. CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 PRICE $ 70 / € 100 FEATURES & BENEFITS 6 steel receptacles on the outer surface of the plate full length eva layer full length tPu plate tPu plate very soft Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 53
    • tfx distance Profile Designed having the high school distance runner in mind, this full airmesh entry price long distance spike with all the features you expect from your spike. it has a very sock-like upper with no heel counter. it has a big eVA heel wedge for shock absorption and a full layer of 2mm running full length. The plate is tuned to be the softest in the TfX range. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Long Distance The TFx entry price spikes are positioned against LAST Performance SIZERUN UK 3-15 the main competitors. Weather most competitors GENDER Unisex focus on maximum “blink blink” on the upper of UNISEx 183831 01 sky diver / Puma the shoes we designed the shoes around maximum silver / black / blazing yellow instep comfort. 183831 02 Puma red / black / white WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WHAT’S NEW WEIGHT 204.11 g. / 7.2 oz. CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel All new for SP09. AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 PRICE $ 50 / € 75 FEATURES & BENEFITS 7 steel receptacles on the outer surface of the plate full airmesh upper construction for maximum breathability and comfort solid rubber outsole full length thin padded tongue for extra comfort eva wedge heel socklike construction full length additional eva layer tPu plate very soft Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 54
    • tf allround 2 Profile This full airmesh entry price middle distance spike with all the features you expect from your spike. it has a very sock-like upper with no heel counter. it has a big eVA heel wedge for shock absorption. The plate is tuned to sit between the distance and the sprint TfX spike. Designed for multi-event competitors who seek the responsive feel of a sprint shoe with the cushioning of a distance shoe. A durable TPU spike plate, eVA midsole, and a synthetic leather upper reinforcements. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Long Distance The TFx entry price spikes are positioned against LAST Performance SIZERUN UK 5-12 the main competitors. Weather most competitors GENDER Unisex focus on maximum “blink blink” on the upper of UNISEx 182878 05 high risk / white / the shoes we designed the shoes around maximum metallic silver instep comfort. 182879 06 white / new team royal / black WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WHAT’S NEW WEIGHT 181.43 g. / 6.4 oz. CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel All new for SP09. AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 PRICE $ 40 / € 60 FEATURES & BENEFITS 7 steel receptacles on the outer surface of the plate full airmesh upper construction for maximum breathability and comfort solid rubber outsole full length thin padded tongue for extra comfort eva wedge heel socklike construction full length additionall eva layer tPu plate very soft Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 55
    • tfx miller Profile This full airmesh entry price middle distance spike with all the features you expect from your spike. it has a very sock-like upper with no heel counter. it has a big eVA heel wedge for shock absorption. The plate is tuned to sit between the distance and the sprint TfX spike. Designed for multi-event competitors who seek the responsive feel of a sprint shoe with the cushioning of a distance shoe. A durable TPU spike plate, eVA midsole, and a synthetic leather upper reinforcements. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Middle Distance The TFx entry price spikes are positioned against LAST Performance SIZERUN UK 3-15 the main competitors. Weather most competitors GENDER Unisex focus on maximum “blink blink” on the upper of UNISEx 184191 01 black / azalea / the shoes we designed the shoes around maximum silver metallic instep comfort. 183830 02 white / flame orange / black 183830 03 white / black / WHAT’S NEW blazing yellow WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B All new for SP09. WEIGHT 181.43 g. / 6.4 oz. CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 PRICE $ 40 / € 60 FEATURES & BENEFITS 7 steel receptacles on the outer surface of the plate eva wedge heel 7 spikes pin shape full airmesh upper construction for maximum breathability and comfort wrench full length thin padded tongue for extra comfort solid rubber outsole socklike construction Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 56
    • theseus Profile Designed for elite sprinters who expect the best from their spikes. Synthetic leather upper for a snug fit. The Pebax plate ensures performance, durability and lightweight. Built for elite sprinters like Usain Bolt. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Sprint Competitor shoes are the Asics Lite Ning, Adidas LAST Performance SIZERUN UK 4-12 DeMolisher. GENDER Unisex UNISEx 183442 02 Puma silver / black / accacia WHAT’S NEW WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WEIGHT 204.11 g. / 7.2 oz. All new for SP08. CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 PRICE $ 100 / € 120 FEATURES & BENEFITS 8 steel receptacles full length Pebax spike plate 8 spikes pin shape enhaces sprinting efficency due to stiffness of material, highly durable wrench socklike construction synthetic lether/airmesh upper construction for maximum breathability and support Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 57
    • tfx sPrint Profile Designed having sprinters and hurdlers in mind this fleet, versatile spike. A TPU spike plate and solid rubber outsole increase traction and speed. The synthetic leather/mesh upper adds support and comfort. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Sprint The TFx entry price spikes are positioned against LAST Performance SIZERUN UK 3-15 the main competitors. Weather most competitors GENDER Unisex focus on maximum “blink blink” on the upper of UNISEx 183829 01 Puma red / black / the shoes we designed the shoes around maximum white instep comfort. 183829 02 black / Puma silver / liquid blue 184190 01 white / azalea / black WHAT’S NEW WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WEIGHT 181.43 g. / 6.4 oz. All new for SP09. CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 PRICE $ 50 / € 65 FEATURES & BENEFITS 7 steel receptacles on the outer surface of the plate rubber heel socklike construction solid rubber outsole full length additionall eva layer tPu plate firm 7 spikes pin shape synthetic lether/airmesh upper construction for maximum breathability and support wrench full length thin padded tongue for extra comfort Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 58
    • jumP Profile A premium spike designed for long jumpers, triple jumpers and pole vaulters of all abilities. features a higher eVA midsole for improved shock absorbtion (triple jump) and take off (pole vault). COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Field Positioned against shoes like the Asics Turbo LAST Performance SIZERUN UK 3-15 Jump. A more affordable jumping spike. GENDER Unisex UNISEx 183443 02 Puma silver / black / accacia WHAT’S NEW WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B WEIGHT 249.47 g. / 8.8 oz. Exisisting spike. CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 PRICE $ 65 / € 65 FEATURES & BENEFITS 7 steel receptacles on the outer surface of the plate- full length additionall eva layer 7 spikes pin shape synthetic lether/airmesh upper construction for maximum breathability and support wrench full length thin padded tongue for extra comfort rubber heel tPu plate firm Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 59
    • ngong xc Profile The fastest Cross Country spike, spikeless, and spiked is engineered for speed, protection, and stability. With an extremely lightweight and breathable upper and a wider base for greater stability, this versatile shoe is perfect for cross country and track. And it looks as good as it feels. Weight 6.9 ounces. COLLECTION Complete Running MARKET POSITIONING CATEGORY Cross Country The NGONG xC update is positioned against the LAST Performance SIZERUN UK 3.5-14 main competitors in the game. Nike Waffle Racer, GENDER Unisex Saucony Kilkenny. UNISEx 183981 01 white / silver metallic / Puma red 183981 02 russet orange / WHAT’S NEW dark shadow / black WIDTHS Men’s: D Women’s: B New upper for AW09. Safes weight improved breath WEIGHT 204.11 g. / 7.2 oz. ability due to use of sandwich mesh and a quantum CONSTRUCTION EVA / Strobel leap in terms of fit make this model a true competi- AVAILABILITY 06/01/09 tor again. PRICE $ 45 / € 60 FEATURES & BENEFITS compession molded Midsole EVA for lightweight sandwich mesh Upper construction for increased cushion in the midsole. breathability and lightweight socklike fit. eva insole full length tongue padding For an extra soft fit. 6 steel receptacles (only spikeless version) For wrench (only spiked version) added grip on deeper slippery grounds. solid rubber outsole For maximum durability and protection. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecH pAges | 60
    • selling footweAr Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | selling footweAr | 61
    • Every runner’s feet are unique from the next. Imprint this on your psyche when selling running shoes, for this is the most important thing to remember. Pay close attention to any existing conditions as well as the athletic habits of each customer. Investigate details about a customer’s level of exertion, athletic experience, past complications, injuries and other problems. Evaluate the entire body— not just the foot. And of course remember that in the end, customers—not you—decide whether the fit and performance of the shoe merits a purchase. Learn to live with their final decision. i’m in tHe mArket for some running sHoes. We love this question, because it’s what we at PUMA do best. When you hear this question, here’s what to do. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | selling footweAr | 62
    • sport specific socks. It’s not a bad idea better fit with socks, insoles or a different asK Questions evaluate the foot to keep a basket of clean running socks lacing pattern. in the store for customers who are not — With respect to feel… a runner’s heel Interviewing your customers to understand After you have gathered information on your wearing them. should fit snuggly with no slipping; the their running needs is just as important as customer's running needs, evaluate their feet — Manufacturers vary in their sizing, so a midfoot of the shoe under the arch and measuring their shoe size. Some questions to for: size 8 measurement on the Brannock over the top of the foot should be snug but ask include: Device does not mean the customer will not tight; there should always be enough — Foot morphology, or the foot‘s size and wear an 8 in every brand or every style. room in the toe box to wiggle one’s toes. — How many miles do you run each week? type — Consider the fact that people's feet tend to — Feet always swell during the day, so — Where do you typically run? — Biomechanical and motion control needs swell about one shoe size, or 5%, over the encourage runners to try shoes on later in — How would you describe your running — and any other special considerations course of a day, or during running. Shoes the day when their feet are at their larg- goals? need to be about one finger's width longer est. — Do you have any foot problems or recent than the person's foot to provide adequate — People are more than twice as likely to injuries? room for swelling. buy a shoe that is too small than too big. The answers to these questions will help you determine foot size Here are some clues that shoes are too measure the heel-to-toe length to find small or narrow: a runner’s feet cramp determine the general type of running shoe the customer's overall foot length and the while running or just after running; their your customer needs. THE BRANNOCK DEVICE heel-to-ball length for arch length. Compare feet fall asleep while running; they get The Brannock Device is the standard for the size indicated on the Brannock device blisters and calluses between or on the Broadly speaking, all running footwear can accurately measuring feet in almost all for foot length and arch length. The larger of toes. be classified as either competition or training retail footwear stores worldwide. The device the two sizes is the correct shoe size. Finally, — PUMA shoes are made to fit directly out of footwear. properly measures three basic dimensions measure the width of the foot. the box (they do not need to be broken in). of the foot: foot length, arch length, and foot — Feet typically get bigger with age. Encour- width. All three measurements are needed to Instep height and overall foot volume also age runners to have their feet measured COMPETITION FOOTWEAR provide your customer with the best fit. cannot be measured objectively. Look at your every year. Competition footwear is built for race day and customer's feet for high insteps or overall — Many times women's feet increase by a includes track spikes, racing flats and cross- Some important tips to remember when volume and select shoes that will give them half-size (or more) after pregnancy. country footwear. using the Brannock Device: more room and flexibility. Different lacing techniques may also be used to improve the measure both feet Feet often come in diffe- shoe's fit. The left and right foot may differ in size by as TRAINING FOOTWEAR rent sizes. Fitting the customer in the larger much as a full size. Always measure and try Training footwear is by far the most common of the two sizes ensures a more comfortable shoes on both feet and buy shoes to fit the type of running footwear and can be loosely fit. larger foot. ADDITIONAL SIZING TIPS categorized into four groups, or silos: Neu- tral, Stability and Motion Control, Lightweight — Have the customer remove his/her shoes, — If a customer seems to be “between" Training, and Trail shoes. but keep their running socks on. Accuracy sizes and can't decide which size to can be improved by up to 10 percent if the select, suggest that they go with a larger runner's foot is measured while wearing size. They can make adjustments for a Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | selling footweAr | 63
    • determine foot tyPe from tHe imprint You cAn determine if Your A person's arches can vary greatly—from flat to high. An easy way to determine arch type is to perform a "Wet Test.” Wet the bottom of the customer's foot with water or ink, and have them step firmly onto a flat surface and customer HAs flAt, medium, or HigH ArcHes. apply their full bodyweight. A brown paper bag or cardboard is a good surface to use. FLExIBLE NEUTRAL RIGID low-arched ( flAt ) medium-arched ( normAl ) high-arched Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | selling footweAr | 64
    • Worn Tread The foot is generally supinated or under- FLAT FOOT TYPE: pronated. OVERPRONATOR / MOTION CONTROL Low arch and flexible foot which flattens The foot does not pronate enough and is out leaving a print that looks like the not an effective shock absorber. complete sole of foot. Best shoes Cushioned shoes which are Overpronated foot which strikes on outside flexible to encourage foot motion. and rolls excessively inwards. Best shoes Motion control shoes. ALTERNATIVE METHOD over-Pronate Another common method to determine footstrike is examining the wear patterns NORMAL FOOT TYPE: of your customer‘s old running shoes. This NEUTRAL / STABILITY SHOES method is not reliable and has become Have a medium arch which leaves a less so in recent years. To determine a foot footprint where the forefoot and heel are type or running gait is by looking at one of connected by a broad band. their used pair of shoes. Place the shoes side by side on a table, toes pointing away Foot lands on outside and rolls inwards to from you. Look at the shoes from eye-level absorb shock. and you should be able to see one of three scenarios… neutral Runner is biomechanically efficient. — If the shoes have a slight or significant Best shoes Stability shoes with moderate inward tilt, then the customer exhibits control features. an over-pronation running gait. — If the shoes have a slight or significant outward tilt, then the customer exhibits an under-pronation (supination) run- HIGH ARCHED FOOT TYPE: ning gait. UNDERPRONATOR / CUSHION SHOES LEFT SHOE, BOTTOM VIEW — If the shoes appear to be neutral and A high arched and rigid foot often has a tilt neither inward nor out, then the high instep showing a footprint with a very customer exhibits a pronation-neutral under-Pronate narrow band or no band at all connecting running gait. Pronation-neutral forefoot and heel. runners have the full range of shoe options available and typically choose based on individual preference. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | selling footweAr | 65
    • determining recommend the right Biomechanical running shoe and motion Consider these factors before giving your control needs expert recommendation: As we‘ve seen, a customer‘s foot type as bio- — Even a large degree of pronation does not mechanical implications for their footstrike. warrant a prescription for motion control Runners with low arches are more likely to footwear. overpronate and runners with high arches — A runner with all the classic signs of typically don‘t pronate enough. overpronation may not need motion control shoes, due to the flexibility of the A good method to determine the runners gait runner's joints. A good indicator the run- is to have your customer run a short distance ner needs motion control is the presence and carefully observe the customer‘s gait of knee pain when running. from the back for signs of overpronation or — A customer with flat feet who overpro- supination. Additionally, look for signs off nates should wear a stability shoe with a inward rotation (endorotation) and outward straight last and motion control features rotation (exorotation) of the toes. that give maximum support to the foot and guide the foot through the footstrike. Instead, have your customer run a short di- — A customer with normal arches and a stance and carefully observe the customer‘s neutral footstrike should try shoes with a gait from the back for signs of overpronation semi-curved last and a blend of cushio- or supination. ning and stability. — A customer with high-arched feet who Signs of overpronation include: underpronates needs a highly cushioned — Heels that tilt inward through the midstance shoe with a curved last and the least — Outward rotated running style of feet amount of medial support. (exorotation) — An estimated 85% of runners are heels- — Flat arches trikers. If your customer is a midfoot or — Large bunions forefoot striker, recommend shoes that — Abnormally large calluses under the first, have good cushioning, especially in the second, and third toes forefoot. Supinators have heels that tilt outward and, high, rigid arches. They tend to get calluses along the outer edge of the foot. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | selling footweAr | 66
    • tiPs to rememBer how to use formulas When selling athletic footwear, use these tips: with customers If your customer is looking for a running, — Tell the customer that they shouldn’t walking or women‘s training shoe, choose a running shoe based on color or design. The physiological elements to a — Start by asking questions to find out what running shoe determine which pair will their stability needs are. ultimately fit them the best. — Have your customer try on shoes with dif- — Bring out more than one box. To reduce ferent amounts of cushioning to see what the time you spend going back and forth, he or she prefers. bring out various sizes and colors. — Measure your customer‘s feet, if neces- — Close the box on rejects. When a cus- sary, to determine width. tomer decides they are not interested in one of the styles you brought out, close Use common sense with this new system—a the box and move it out of the way. customer‘s personal preference will always — Stay at the customer's eye level. Kneel take precedence over any formula. when they customer sits and stand when they stand. If your store doesn‘t carry a shoe with the — Check for a good fit. Leave about a exact formula a customer chose, offer them a thumb's width in front of the big toe when shoe with a similar formula based upon what the customer is standing in the shoe. they consider the most important attribute. — Try on both shoes. Suggest the customer walk or run around the store in them. — Make sure you have the right sock. The sock should be the same type of sock they will use. Pointing this out to the customer as you explain what the different materi- als do will help the customer select the right shoe. — There's no real trick to determining a cus- tomer's shoe width. When it comes to fit, the best rule of thumb is "if the shoe fits, wear it." If there is any question in your mind, measure the customer's foot width with a Brannock device. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | selling footweAr | 67
    • ting them might be a good idea to let each cushioning and lightness. Finally, it‘s important to understand that faQs aBout usage pair dry out better. midsoles usually deteriorate before outsoles. and care of running Q: i got more than 500 miles out of one pair Q: how does a shoe’s weight factor into its durability? In other words, don‘t stick with a pair of shoes just because the outsoles seem fine. If the shoes of shoes but only 375 out of another. what’s midsoles are shot, it‘s time for new shoes. up with that? A: Generally, a very light shoe (less than 10 1/2 ounces) is less durable than a heavier Q: what else can i do? A: Don’t sweat it. Because different shoes are shoe. That‘s one reason racing shoes are not With runners of all experience and knowledge made from different materials, some running nearly as durable as training shoes. A: Mileage isn‘t everything, but some runners levels walking into your store, be prepared shoes are more durable than others. More use their training logs to track how many to field a variety of questions. For instance, durable shoes are made of more durable Q: are there other factors to consider? miles they run in each pair of shoes they own. here are some common inquiries relating to materials. This accounts for the different Not a bad idea. Other runners write the date running shoe care and usage: mileage on your shoes. A: All the other factors are related to indivi- of purchase somewhere on the shoe. That dual running attributes and habits. If you‘re way, they know when several months have Q: what can i do to extend the life of my The two most important components of any a big runner who trains primarily on roads, passed and it‘s time to start thinking about a running shoes? shoe are the midsole and outsole. Midsoles your shoe‘s midsoles and outsoles won‘t last new pair. are made from either ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) as long as those of a light runner using the A: Take good care of them. Don‘t store shoes or polyurethane. EVA is used in most running same shoe who trains primarily on grass Q: how many miles can i reasonably expect in cold areas (like an unheated garage or shoes because it‘s lighter and has a more and soft trails. Similarly, the more a runner out of my running shoes? porch) during the winter or in direct sunlight cushioned feel than polyurethane. But poly- overpronates (when feet roll too far inward during the summer. Also, running shoes urethane is denser and more durable than upon impact), the more stress they put on the A: Again, there are so many variables. But, should be singular in use, so don‘t wear your EVA. Different companies embed a variety of midsole and upper, and the quicker the shoes you should get at least 350 miles from a trainers around town or for other sports. air bags (duo-CELL), gels, plastic devices and will break down. solid training shoe, and a regular runner can After running in wet weather, be sure to dry viscous solution in their midsoles; these can reasonably expect another 100 or 200 miles. your running shoes (including the insoles) also affect midsole durability because they Q: how do i know when its time for a new Lightweight trainers will give fewer miles and thoroughly by placing them near a heat replace midsole foam. pair of shoes? far fewer from racing shoes. Some runners, source (but not in a dryer). particularly those who have efficient running Outsoles are made from either blown rubber A: For the reasons mentioned above, it‘s form, get as much as 700 to 800 miles from Q: will my shoes last longer if i alternate or carbon rubber. Blown rubber is lighter, difficult to give an exact mileage guide. But their training shoes. Alternating shoes and two pairs? cushionier and less durable than carbon rub- here are some things runners can do: (1) keeping exact mileage records will give a pair ber. Several shoes use blown rubber in the stick a finger into the midsole to see if it feels of shoes its most efficient lifespan. A: Yes, foam needs 48 hours to recover to full forefoot (for added cushioning) and carbon brittle or compressed; (2) place the shoes height. If you run every day you never let it rubber in the high-wear areas of the heel (for on a table and check them for imbalances, recover to full height and lose cushion. Shoes better durability). such as worn areas or tilting to one side or are made of foam and rubber, and daily use the other; (3) listen to their aches and pains does significantly affect their durability. Two The most durable shoe has a polyurethane —they often mean it‘s time for a new pair exceptions: if you run twice a day, or if you midsole and a carbon-rubber outsole. But of shoes, look for cracks in the midsole and frequently get your shoes wet, then alterna- don‘t expect this shoe to deliver maximum outsole materials. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | selling footweAr | 68
    • glossArY Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 69
    • more pressure, which results in additional most common being a person’s hereditary delayed onset muscle soreness (doms) running injuries pain. Properly fitted shoes with at least a half foot type (30 percent of the time). Another Delayed onset muscle soreness is quite com- an inch of room in the toebox will significantly cause of bunions is faulty foot mechanics mon, especially if you rarely use the affected a reduce the chances of getting a black toenail. (such as over-pronation). The more pressure muscles. DOMS is also quite common after that the ball of the foot is exposed to the more particularly intense runs. The bad news is Blisters Blisters form as a result of the of a chance a person has in developing a bu- that worst discomfort generally lasts for repetitive rubbing, or friction, over a small nion. Ill-fitting shoes, such as shoes that are two days. The good news is that it usually amenorrhea The absence of menstrual area of the skin, causing the skin layers to too tight, do not cause bunions to develop but subsides over the next few. periods. separate and create a void that fills with fluid they can accelerate their growth and cause f or blood. Correctly-fitted shoes with few extreme discomfort to runners with existing anterior Knee Pain Women have a signi- seams or areas that rub, as well as Dri-Fit bunions. Treatment ranges from simply being ficantly higher incidence of anterior knee socks that wick moisture away from the foot, fit for orthotics, to a more extreme procedure pain (patellofemoral syndrome) than male will reduce the risk of blistering. such as surgery. Wearing shoes with a wider runners. toebox for all running and daily activities can flat arch height A foot is considered to be Bone spurs A bone spur is a bony growth often prevent the condition. flat when there is a very low or no visible anti-blister Blisters occur as a result of or extra bone formed on a normal bone. arch. A flat foot leaves an imprint that is c friction caused by skin-sock-shoe contact. An It is usually smooth, but can cause pain if nearly complete, and looks much like the Anti-blister sock uses a special friction-free it presses or rubs on other bones or soft entire sole of the foot. Typically more flexible material that allows the foot and shoe to tissues such as ligaments or tendons in the and more likely to over-pronate, a flat foot’s move together, meaning the rubbing occurs body. Common places for bone spurs include excess motion can ultimately cause several between the sock and the shoe rather than the spine, shoulders, hands, hips, knees, and calluses Calluses are thickened areas different types of overuse injuries. the sock and your foot. And its ultra-thin style feet. of skin that form as a result of repeated g doesn‘t add bulk, which makes it perfect for amounts of pressure and friction. Calluses racing or training runs. Bonk Another term like “hitting the wall“; a are the body’s way of protecting the foot’s state of exhaustion when glycogen stores are skin, and the structures beneath it, from B depleted, blood glucose (sugar) levels are low injury. Typically painless, calluses serve and the only exercise that can be performed more as an annoyance than anything. gluteus medius strain Many women have is slow running; typically occurs at around the If persistent, orthotics can be used to significant issues with shoe fit and stability, 20 mile point in the marathon. redistribute the weight equally, allowing probably because the female heel is typically Black toenails Black toenails are typically them to heal. more narrow than the forefoot compared to caused by repeated impact the toes endure Bunions A bunion is a condition where the men. This may lead to gluteus medius (butt) d while running, so they are often an inevitable big toe angles towards the smaller toes, and strains. part of life for many runners. The repeated the bone at the base of the big toe protru- impact causes friction between the runner’s des outward. The bunion appears to be an toenail and the nail bed, eventually causing a enlargement, a bump, or a bone growth, but separation. A fluid mixed with blood accumu- it is actually an indication of a misalignment dehydration Lack of sufficient fluids in lates in the space between the nail and nail or partial dislocation of the joint. Bunions the body, characterized by extreme thirst, bed. The more fluid that accumulates, the appear for a variety of different reasons, the weakness, or sleepiness. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 70
    • h o kneecap. This may explain why women have ligaments in the arch become flatter and twice as much anterior knee pain as men. less supportive. l lower Back Pain The result of the narro- hammertoes Hammertoe is when one wer heel-forefoot relationship can be heel overheating A condition where a runner has or both joints of the second, third, fourth, slippage and reduced stability for women been exposed to abnormally high tempera- or fifth (little) toes bends or curls. This who may be wearing downsized men’s tures or has lost an excess of fluid (water) abnormal curl can put pressure on the toe lactate threshold The running intensity shoes. This can cause female runners to through exercise and is no longer capable of when wearing shoes, causing problems to where lactic acid begins to rapidly accu- have many times more incidences of sacro- maintaining normal body temperature. This develop. mulate in the blood. Also called anaerobic iliac (low back) pain as men. is a potentially very dangerous condition. In threshold, lactate threshold speed is a most instances selection of the most approp- m hamstring strain Micro-tears of the large runner’s 10K race pace plus 5-20 seconds riate running clothing for the day, starting the muscles of the back of the thigh; can be or a heart rate zone between 85-89% of exercise session fully hydrated and hydrating treated with ice, stretching and strengthe- maximum. properly during the session will significantly ning exercises. decrease the probability of over-heating. lactic acid Incomplete glucose breakdown mid-foot The five mid-foot tarsal bones hip adduction Women have greater peak leads to the formation of lactic acid in the fit together to form a person’s arch. While overpronation The excessive inward roll hip adduction. This means that the thigh muscles. Lactic acid is associated with running, the tarsal bones flex to absorb the of the foot; overpronation can be controlled moves toward the mid line of the body. soreness and muscle fatigue. See “lactate shock, providing the body with a natural through the use of motion control shoes and/ threshold.” cushioning system. If the bones do not flex, or orthotics. hyponatraemia A very dangerous and the foot becomes rigid and unstable, and thankfully rare condition where an individu- lateral Knee injury There are several renders the body susceptible to injuries. overtraining Condition in which a runner al has either lost too much sodium through fundamental differences in the shape and runs too many miles, too hard, too soon, sweating or, more typically, has ingested structure of women’s feet compared to muscle demand Greater hip abduction leading to fatigue, injury and/or burn-out. too much plain water (rather than elect- men’s feet. This could lead to more iliotibial angle and velocity place greater demand rolyte-containing solutions) and the blood band (IT Band / lateral knee) injuries for on the muscles responsible for counter- oxygen debt A state in which the energy plasma sodium concentration has fallen female runners. acting these movements. For example, demand is greater than what can be provided to a critically low level. Has led to several greater loads on the butt muscles, particu- by oxygen thus inducing heavy breathing to runner deaths in recent years. ligament damage Physiologists believe larly gluteus medius, make it three times consume more oxygen. that higher concentrations of circulating as likely to be injured in female runners i P hormones may be a significant factor in than males. ligament injuries in women. The hormone estrogen, which is a soft tissue relaxant, muscle soreness Pain, stiffness, and may pre-dispose female athletes to greater discomfort in a muscle due to microscopic internal rotation Women have a grea- ligament damage. As estrogen levels tears, or strains, of the muscle. This is usu- Piriformis syndrome Pain in the buttocks ter internal rotation of the thigh and hip change throughout the month, so does li- ally caused as a result of the muscle doing resulting from a tight piriformis muscle pres- than men, and the combination of these gament elasticity. This becomes significant more work than it is used to be (also called sing against the sciatic nerve; can be treated factors increases the contact forces on the to female runners, specifically as the major DOMS or delayed onset muscle soreness). by stretching exercises for the buttocks. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 71
    • t Plantar fasciitis Foot injury where micro- tears occur in the arch; especially painful in the morning; can be treated by stretching the arch and calves; massage with hands or rubbing foot on golf ball or a shaving cream turn out Female feet typically turn out more can; if untreated, can lead to heel spurs (spur than men’s during the entire stance phase of gait. of bone from the heel bone). This means that for athletic footwear, touchdown angle and recognition of the difference between r touchdown angle are critical considerations. Women exhibit greater impact forces than men, and their knees flex less, possibly affec- runner‘s Knee Knee pain typically caused ting the knees’ role as a shock absorber. by the knee cap not sliding properly during u movement; may be related to muscular imbalances within the thigh muscles; can be treated with strengthening exercises for weak muscles (usually the inner thigh muscle). underpronation or supination The lack of s sufficient inward motion of the foot; highly cushioned, flexible shoes are recommended to absorb shock and allow the foot to pronate naturally. sciatica Pain which runs from the lower w back to the toes related to pressure on the large nerve innervating this area, the sciatic nerve; should be evaluated by physician. shin splints Lower leg injury where there is the wall or hitting the wall A state of ex- pain along the shin bone; usually caused by haustion when your body runs out of glycogen excessive pronation or weak shin muscles; or energy; usually occurs around mile 20 in a treat with ice and stretching and strengthe- marathon (see “Bonk“). ning exercises; can lead to stress fractures. wider Pelvis Women have a wider pelvis than supination When the foot rolls outward men and a relatively shorter thigh bone. As at toe-off, supination occurs. If your foot a result, women have a greater static genu remains on the outside edge instead of valgum than men, meaning their knees may pronating, that’s over-supination. “knock” during running. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 72
    • 40-30-30 Dietary regimen where a runner The body ‘adapts’ to the new demand and a aerobic capacity Also called VO2max; ma- running terms gets 40% of calories from carbohydrates, training effect is seen. ‘Recovery’ is impor- ximum amount of oxygen that can be utilized 30% from fats and 30% from protein. tant for ‘adaptation’ to occur. Exceeding an by the body; also describes a type of training 00 effective overload level can easily lead to that increases the amount of oxygen that can 400m 1 lap around track, also called a overtraining and potential injury. Conversely, be utilized, i.e., Aerobic Capacity Intervals. “quarter.“ failure to either overload the system or to allow sufficient recovery will lead to ineffec- aerobic conditioning Training that im- 100m Shortest sprint race in outdoor track 5K 5000 meters; 5 Kilometers; 3.1 miles. tive training. Lack of recovery may lead to proves endurance. and field. overtiredness, illness, loss of motivation and 800m Approximately a half-mile; 2 laps injury. Too much recovery and the net benefit aeroflo Midfoot ventilation system to allow 10K 10,000 meters; 10 kilometers; 6.2 around track. may be lost. the cooling of the foot on impact (Fila). miles. 8K 4.97 miles. adaptive everfoam Special memory foam agion A technology that operates at the 1500m 3 3/4 laps of track; called the heel construction for a heel fit which is surface of a product through the controlled a “metric mile.“ perfectly adjusting to the heel console. release of silver ions which attack microbes and inhibit their growth in three different 15K 15000 meters; 15 kilometers; 9.3 adiPrene Special process, compressed- ways. Offers a variety of silver-based techno- miles. injected EVA foam insert (Adidas), also a logies to suit various manufacturing and abrasion-resistant mesh Abrasion-resis- visco-elastic polymer insert which performs product requirements. 2 miles Approximately 8 laps of the track; tant mesh and textiles are highly-breathable the same function. 3,218 meters. and lightweight. These materials are used ahar ASICS High Abrasion Rubber. (Asics) in footwear when protection from snags and adiPrene + Special process, compressed 200m Half a lap of the track. rips is important. injected EVA foam insert layer, used in air cushion merrell Chamber that forces forefoot. (Adidas) air as a cushion. 2a Visco-elastic (elastomer) polymer units aBzorB Visco-elastic (elastomer) polymer that absorb shock. (Fila) pads to absorb shock. (New Balance) adjustable drawcord waistband An air mesh upper Provides lightweight adjustable drawcord waistband is often breathability. 3d torsion Device in shoes that causes the archtech Midfoot shank device that causes made with elastic in pants or shorts for shoe to return to a stable base after allowing the shoe to return to a stable base, after a personalized fit. air-sole units Those little bags are based on the foot to twist in its natural movement allowing the foot to twist in its natural the following formula: Cu=U+CG (Cushioning during the gait cycle. Differs from Torsion by movement, during the gait cycle Comparable adjustable straps Adjustable straps in the equals urethane bags filled with compressed extending upward into the arch. to Adidas’ Torsion system. (Puma) forefoot and heel create an optimum fit that gas). It says that because the gas molecules can be customized to individual feet. Straps are larger than the pores in the urethane 3d ultralite Reebok’s Injection-molded adaptation (plus overload and recovery) secure the sandal on the foot, not allowing membrane, air can‘t escape. The result is mixture of rubber and EVA which eliminates In order to improve, for example aerobic any “slippage.“ our light, protective cushioning. (Nike) the need for separate midsole/outsole pieces. capacity, the runner must progress the volume/intensity of his/her training at a aerobic With oxygen; usually used to de- all-trac amphibious rubber All-Trac Am- 3000m 1.864 miles. suitable rate, thus ‘overloading’ the system. scribe exercise of low to moderate intensity. phibious rubber is a compound specifically Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 73
    • B designed to provide outstanding “stick” on sometimes referred to as lactate threshold. Biolock Internal strapping system to wet or dry surfaces. It’s always used in river improve heel fit. (Mizuno) sandals and aquasocks. anthropometry This is the study of body size in respect of, for example, limb lengths Blisters Blisters form as a result of the all-trac sticky rubber All-Trac sticky and their relative sizes. These factors can Back strap A tab or strip of leather/fabric repetitive rubbing, or friction, over a small rubber provides premiere traction when affect walking and running technique. extending above the top of the shoe upper area of the skin, causing the skin layers to bouldering or running on rough trails and at the back to assist in drawing the shoe on separate and create a void that fills with fluid rocky surfaces. anti-blister Blisters occur as a result of the foot. or blood. Correctly-fitted shoes with few friction caused by skin-sock-shoe contact. seams or areas that rub, as well as Dri-Fit all-trac trail rubber All-Trac Trail rubber An Anti-blister sock uses a special friction- Beveled outsole An outsole that is slightly socks that wick moisture away from the foot, compounds are used for durability on rough free material that allows the foot and shoe to convex, or curved, to provide better traction will reduce the risk of blistering. and abrasive surfaces in Trail Running and move together, meaning the rubbing occurs and comfort on the uneven terrain of trails. Light Hiking shoes. between the sock and the shoe rather than Blow molding Gas is injected through an the sock and your foot. And its ultra-thin sty- Bioelectrical impedance/infrared Method external tube into the injection mold, forcing all-trac winter All-Trac Winter outsoles le doesn‘t add bulk, which makes it perfect of determining percent body fat where an the plastic into the shape of a mold. are made of highly-durable carbon rubber for racing or training runs. electrical impulse or infrared light are put compounds that include harder studs mixed through the body; easy to use but has a Body composition Usually relating to the among other lugs in a traction pattern for arch Panel The arch panel is essential be- likelihood of error of approximately 3–6%. percent of the body comprised of lean tissue great grip. cause this is where the sock gets its stability (bone, muscle, water, etc.) or fat tissue; 17% and secure fit around the foot. Biomechanics Study of the function of the or less body fat is recommended for men; amenorrhea The absence of menstrual body in relation to movement; especially 24% or less body fat is recommended for periods. archtec Lightweight; support for the important for repetitive movement sports women. arch of the foot, increases the functional like running; poor biomechanics can lead to anaerobic Without oxygen; usually used firmness. A TPU shank device that provides injury. Bone spurs A bone spur is a bony growth to describe exercise of high to very high stability and support to the midfoot during or extra bone formed on a normal bone. intensity. the gait cycle while still allowing the neces- Black toenails Black toenails are typically It is usually smooth, but can cause pain if sary torsional freedom and natural rearfoot caused by repeated impact the toes endure it presses or rubs on other bones or soft anaerobic capacity Maximum amount of twist. (Puma) while running, so they are often an inevitable tissues such as ligaments or tendons in the energy that can be produced without requi- part of life for many runners. The repeated body. Common places for bone spurs include ring oxygen; also describes a type of training atP-cP The ‘explosive’ energy system impact causes friction between the runner’s the spine, shoulders, hands, hips, knees, that increases the amount of energy that capable of supporting high power output toenail and the nail bed, eventually causing a and feet. can be produced, i.e., Anaerobic Capacity for several seconds only. Operates without separation. A fluid mixed with blood accumu- Intervals. oxygen and without producing lactic acid. lates in the space between the nail and nail Bonk Another term like “hitting the wall“; bed. The more fluid that accumulates, the a state of exhaustion when glycogen stores anaerobic threshold (at) The object of more pressure, which results in additional are depleted, blood glucose (sugar) levels training is to increase your AT. That way pain. Properly fitted shoes with at least a half are low and the only exercise that can be your muscles can use oxygen at higher rates an inch of room in the toebox will significantly performed is slow running; typically occurs and scare the lactate bogeyman away. AT is reduce the chances of getting a black toenail. at around mile 20 in the marathon. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 74
    • Boot Any footwear extending above the ankle. of a chance a person has in developing a bu- carbo-loading The dietary practice of ea- sternum. The monitor reads the electrical nion. Ill-fitting shoes, such as shoes that are ting a high carbohydrate diet (approximately signals given off by an athlete’s heart and Brannock device The Brannock Device is too tight, do not cause bunions to develop but 60–70% of total calories) for the three days relays that information to the watch for the standard for accurately measuring feet they can accelerate their growth and cause leading up to a race to maximally fill the real-time feedback. Similar to an EKG, or in almost all retail footwear stores world- extreme discomfort to runners with existing glycogen stores. electrocardiogram, this type of measure- wide. The Brannock Device can properly bunions. Treatment ranges from simply being ment is more accurate than taking their measure three basic dimensions of the foot: fit for orthotics, to a more extreme procedure carbon fiber A material used in midsoles for pulse by hand or using a treadmill. foot length, arch length, and foot width. All such as surgery. Wearing shoes with a wider support. It‘s stronger than steel, but lighter. three measurements are needed to provide toebox for all running and daily activities can children‘s sizes Children‘s footwear sizes the customer with the best fit. often prevent the condition. carbohydrate Essential nutrient of body range from 1–13.5c. found in pastas, breads, fruits, vegetables; c Broad load distribution Broad load should comprise the majority of calories in a chromium Picolinate Supplement to help distribution means the moderator plates runner‘s diet; stored in the body as glycogen aid in the burning of fat; little scientific distribute the impact across the whole heel in the muscles and liver; overconsumption is evidence to support its claims. so that it’s absorbed by a larger area, and converted to fat. reducing the shock from impact. cadence Number of strides per unit time; circuit training Body weight resistance i.e. stride frequency or leg speed. Together cardiovascular, cv or cardio (training / training to improve general core strength Brs 1000 Durable carbon rubber com- with stride length these two factors determi- fitness) Another word for Aerobic training. and stability while also serving to develop pound. (Nike) ne actual running speed. Basically, ‘CV’ fitness may be defined as aerobic and potentially anaerobic fitness. the ability of the body to deliver blood and Brushed or sanded A brushed or sanded calluses Calluses are thickened areas oxygen to the muscle. cleat A Cleat is a common term that fabric has a special treatment that makes of skin that form as a result of repeated describes the spike or stud. It‘s made with it softer or adds bulk for warmth. Fleece amounts of pressure and friction. Calluses c-caP Compression-molded ethylene vinyl metal or rubber, that is attached to the sweatshirts are brushed. are the body’s way of protecting the foot’s acetate. (New Balance) outsole of cleated footwear for traction on a skin, and the structures beneath it, from in- variety of surfaces. Bunions A bunion is a condition where the jury. Typically painless, calluses serve more cell Hexagonal polyurethane cells of varying big toe angles towards the smaller toes, and as an annoyance then anything. If persistent, size with various amounts of CM-EVA or PU clog A thick-soled, sometimes back-less the bone at the base of the big toe protru- orthotics can be used to redistribute the foam for support, with a slower rate of com- shoe sometimes with leather upper. des outward. The bunion appears to be an weight equally, allowing them to heal. pression or breakdown than foam (Puma). enlargement, a bump, or a bone growth, but cm-eva Compression-molded ethylene it is actually an indication of a misalignment canvas A heavy, coarse, closely woven chassis A chassis cradles the midfoot vinyl acetate foam. or partial dislocation of the joint. Bunions fabric of cotton, hemp, or flax, used for and adds torsional rigidity for better lateral appear for a variety of different reasons, the tents and sails. stability. Constructed of plastic or nylon, the collar Area around the ankle that‘s padded most common being a person’s hereditary chassis is shorter on the inner side of the for fit and comfort. foot type (30 percent of the time). Another capris A capri is a bottom with a mid-calf foot so it won‘t interfere with movement. cause of bunions is faulty foot mechanics length that helps keep knees warmer and collar foam The collar of a shoe is the (such as over-pronation). The more pressure is especially nice during the transition from chest strap A chest strap holds a heart part of the upper that is closest to the ankle. that the ball of the foot is exposed to the more winter to spring. rate monitor around the chest near the Footwear will often have padding in this Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 75
    • area—collar foam—to provide comfort and a the running action will be improved. Biome- 800 meters to 2 miles performed at the lactate and roll off from heel to toe. Lowers the pro- secure fit that’s flexible enough for natural chanics, core stability and relaxation are key threshold speed with short recoveries. nation velocity and the degree of pronation. movement, but snug enough to protect factors here together with development of against debris. aerobic capacity. cushioning The ability of a shoe to minimi- dehydration Lack of sufficient fluids in ze the shock of running; while all running the body, characterized by extreme thirst, combination lasted The use of a fibrous, counter A piece of heavy leather or other shoes have cushioning, highly cushioned weakness, or sleepiness. stabilizing board, glued into the heel when stiffening material inserted between the shoes are usually designed for under-pro- the shoe is being constructed. The combina- outside and the lining of the upper at the nators (or supinators) who need additional detachable cleat Detachable cleats are tion of the slip-lasted forefoot (for flexibility) back part of the shoe. The purpose of the shock absorption and maximum flexibility. made from TPU, metal, or rubber, and with the stabilizing board in the heel gives counter is to strengthen the back part of come in various lengths that are useful for the shoe more stability and versatility. the shoe and to prevent it from sagging and cushioning footwear Cushioning shoes different field conditions. They are good for losing its shape. are built for slight-to-medium-build runners athletes who want the versatility of using a competition footwear Competition who may have higher, more rigid arches. longer cleat on wet field conditions or simply footwear is built for race day and includes crash Pad A stand-alone pad on the heel of They are typically built on curved or semi- need to replace cleats that are worn too low. track spikes, racing flats, and cross-country your running shoes that minimizes impact curved lasts to encourage foot motion for A detachable cleat is better for all types of footwear. pressure. better shock absorption. Although heavier grass—hard and dry or wet and soft. runners need good cushioning, they usually competitive runner Competitive runners creatine monohydrate Supplement desig- require more support from features included diagonal rollbar Outersole design for sta- are serious about training to compete. They ned to maximally fill the creatine phosphate in stability shoes. bility and to prevent overpronation. (Brooks) train at least 5 days a week and compete stores (fuel for explosive movements like d in races. These athletes want the absolute sprinting); little scientific evidence of its distance Plus High-abrasion rubber. (Ryka) premiere product to enhance performance. beneficial effects for distance runners. dmx Connected air bladders exchange air contoured footbed Footbed that follows cross-country running Training or from one end of the system to the other, and the contours of the foot. competition involving running over natural dcs Double Cantilever System; opposing back, on impact. (Reebok) countryside of fields and woodland with very cantilevers which provide cushioning and cool-down Slow, easy running done after a limited climbs. Often performed over the stability. dmx internal Ambient air-filled, non- workout to help you recover more quickly. fall and winter and can provide a relief from visible, multi-chambered bladder transfers running on roads. decathlon The decathlon is the men’s air from front to rear and back. Positioned core stability / strength Generally viewed event, consisting of 10 events: 100-meter within the EVA midsole, it creates a noticea- as the ability of the torso region of the body cross-training Activities such as swim- dash, the long jump, the shot put, the high ble cushioning effect. (Reebok) to endure the forces developed by the limbs ming and cycling that are used to increase jump, the 400-meter run, the 110-meter while running. Hence, good core stability conditioning and injury prevention for hurdle race, the discus throw, the pole vault, dmx lite Ambient air-filled, two-cham- may lead to a more efficient and relaxed running or as a means of adding variety to the javelin throw, and the 1500-meter run. bered bladder transfers air from front to running action. workout schedule. rear and back. Positioned under the Strobel decoupled heel Rounded and flared heel board, it creates a noticeable cushioning correct running / technique By developing cruise intervals Type of workout to improve outsole/midsole geometry in combination effect. (Reebok; also see Stim-Pac). a correct running technique the efficiency of the lactate threshold; usually repetitions of with flexgrooves for a smooth first impact Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 76
    • dmx-i Pak Two-chambered air bladder, usually in the forefoot. Double-lasted shoes surrounded by EVA, exchanges air from one help snug the foot to footbed for a better fit. end of the system to the other, and back, on impact. (Reebok) drB accel Lightweight TPU device for preventing overpronation. (Brooks) dnf Stands for “did not finish“ and descri- bes a participant who drops out of a race. dual-density midsole A dual-density midsole uses PU or Phylon in the midsole dns Stands for “did not start“ and descri- with a firmer, denser version in the medial (or bes a participant who entered but failed to inside) side of the heel to help reduce the rate start a race. of pronation. Dual Density midsoles can be identified by dual coloring in the firmer materi- delayed onset muscle soreness (doms) al section. Denser material on the medial side Delayed onset muscle soreness is quite is commonly called medial posting. common, especially if you rarely use the af- fected muscles. DOMS is also quite common dual-density Polyurethane/Phylon Midso- after particularly intense runs. The bad news les that are harder where you need them to is that worst discomfort generally lasts for be (polyurethane), softer and lighter where two days. The good news is that it usually you don‘t (Phylon). (Nike) subsides over the next few. dual-Pressure max air Nike Max Air, double action 2 Visco-elastic (elastomer) the maximum in impact cushioning, is polymer units that absorb shock, denser designed to take brutal, repetitive impacts (red) unit in heel, more elastic (green) unit in and minimize their effects on the body and forefoot. (Diadora) your performance. Air Max units are made through a technique called blow-molding, double lasted The use of two pieces allowing for the greatest volume of Nike of fabric in the upper. One is sewn in the Air without weakening the Air-Sole unit. traditional way—either Strobel slip-lasted Duel-pressure cushioning addresses the or slip-lasted, while the other is kept loose need for protection and rear foot stability. until the midsole is attached. Then it is The hallmark of the Air Max technology is a wrapped under the midsole before the visible air unit in the heel.(Nike) outer sole is attached, thereby covering the midsole and adding support and protection duocell duoCELL has been specifically to the shoe. engineered to combine durable cushioning and maximum stability. The CELL layers, double-lasting When the upper is wrapped made of a super elastomer, greatly reduce around the midsole to meet the outsole, the impact forces upon heel strike. The new Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 77
    • independent CELLs support a natural foot eclipse 6000 Closely monitored injection- energy system Energy can be provided ted TPU/rubber blended lugs that creates motion and slow the foot’s inward rotation molded or compression-molded EVA, for by a number of routes including “aerobic,” extremely lightweight outsoles and great for optimal footstrike. The result is a long applications of durability and cushioning. “anaerobic” and “ATP-CP” flexibility. (Puma) lasting, softer, more responsive cushioning (Reebok) to help prevent injury. (Puma) engineered for women Based around the everride Blown EVERTRACK rubber out- efr Engineered Forefoot Ride (Adidas); fact that women‘s feet are different from sole component with high abrasion-resistant duomax Denser medial midsole CM-EVA, for layer of blown rubber, for cushioning, under men‘s, shoe companies engineer shoes that rubber for extra cushioning in the forefoot. pronation control in stability shoes. (ASICS) harder, more durable carbon rubber. take that into consideration. Reduces the weight of the shoe. It’s used for the Tenos III in the forefoot. (Puma) durable rubber compound A blend of solid electrolytes Minerals such as sodium, eva Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is a resili- rubber with additives that offer extra dura- chloride and potassium that are used for ent foam material used in footwear midsoles evertrack Puma’s rubber compound with bility for rough and abrasive surfaces. DRC normal bodily functions. These minerals are that provides good shock protection. Midso- higher than average abrasion and wear is a heavy, dense and very hard material. lost when the body sweats and are replaced les can be made by die-cutting EVA into the characteristics. It is used for the Tenos III in Compared to other outsole materials, DRC through food and fluids. correct shape just like a cookie cutter. the heel. (Puma) f is heavier, but offers increased durability. DRC is mainly used in tennis, walking and elon ICompression-molded compound of eva Board Proven EVA replacement for the outdoor basketball shoes. rubber and EVA, which is more durable and standard brand-sole for additional comfort resilient than standard EVA. and cushioning. duralon Blown rubber for lightness, with a fartlek Swedish word for “speedplay”; toughened skin for more durability. (Nike) endorphins Chemicals in the brain which eva sockliner Breathable and antibacteri- workout includes faster running mixed with create a feeling of euphoria; said to be the al. Tri-rate sockliner with moisture-wicking slower running; adds variety to training and dynamic fit sleeve The Dynamic Fit Slee- cause of the “runner‘s high.“ top fabric and a memory foam midlayer can be performed in any setting. ve is a specially-constructed lining inside offers comfort and a structured EVA base for the upper that completely wraps around endurance Your ability to run for long support. fast twitch Type of muscle fiber (cells the foot, reducing seams and fitting the foot periods of time. which compose the muscles) which contract like a glove! everdure High-abrasion rubber. (Etonic) rapidly and powerfully but fatigue quickly, energy efficiency Energy efficiency means most commonly utilized by sprinters. e that in the compression phase (when the evergrip A new, stickier rubber compound foot is coming down to the ground) and in which provides excellent grip and traction on fat Essential nutrient of body found in oils the expansion phase (when the foot is off both wet and dry surfaces through increased and meats; should comprise approximately the ground), the columns accept and expel slip resistance. Special outsole composite 30% of calories in a runner‘s diet; overcon- easy run A slow run done at a conversati- energy better than other materials. and geometry for improved grip and traction sumption leads to increases in body fat; can onal pace. in heavy terrain. (Puma) be of three types: saturated, poly-unsatura- energy arrest Padding Energy arrest ted, and mono-unsaturated. eclipse 5000 Closely monitored injection- padding is a thick layer of slow-recovery everlite Highly-efficient Puma outsole molded or compression-molded EVA, for foam that‘s laminated to a thin layer of concept. Saves up to 50% weight, optimized fat-Burning Used to describe an exercise applications of durability and cushioning. high-density foam for maximum comfort and ground contact and grip. High durability. A intensity which burns the most fat; science (Reebok) palm protection. Puma fabric base material with direct injec- is still debating the appropriate intensity Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 78
    • for maximal fat-burning; note: burning fat flexibility The ability of a muscle or muscle foot grips the surface and helps propel the when both feet are elevated off the ground at the highest rate does not necessarily groups to allow or create movement of a runner forward. and concludes when the foot regains contact correspond to burning calories at the joint. Often important in supporting ‘correct with the running surface. highest rate. running’ and avoiding injury. foxing The back part of a shoe upper from shank to heel. This may include only the gaiter loops Gaiter are devices that can fat (high) diet The dietary practice of fom Low-density foam pad for forefoot back part below the vamp line, as in a shoe be attached to the shoe around the ankle eating a high fat diet for a minimum of 5 to cushioning. (Avia) having a three quarters or circular vamp; to stop snow or rocks from getting in. In 10 days leading up to an endurance race or it may include the entire back part of the footwear, gaiter loops are built-in loops of which is due to last more than 4 hours. formstripe Functional logostripe for upper from top edge to sole and from shank durable material that gaiters attach to. The change in fat consumption serves to anatomical foot support in the midfoot, ball- to heel, as in many types of low cut shoe. increase the proportion of fat used during girth and heel. Improves the fit and stability gel Encapsulated, semi-solid silicon-like the event and to eke out the use of vital in the shoe. (Puma) fun run A running event held informally, substance for shock absorption. (ASICS) glycogen stores. often over an approximate distance of footbridge A device used in shoes to help between 1 mile and 6.2 miles (10km) to int- gore-tex membrane The Gore-Tex memb- fitness runner The Fitness Runner does slow the rate of pronation. It is inserted roduce individuals to the pleasure of running rane is a waterproof innersleeve sewn right many activities: aerobics, cardio, weights, between the upper and the midsole. (Nike) with a group and having the satisfaction of inside the upper, so it completely surrounds and Yoga. Running is a staple of their aerobic completing a personal challenge. your foot with breathable protection for the workout, whether on a treadmill or outdoors. footstrike Footstrike is the motion of the life of the shoe. Its breathable pores are g This runner looks for versatility in their foot impacting the ground, rolling forward, 20,000 times smaller than a raindrop but 700 apparel—gear that can be worn to the gym and lifting up again off the toe. There are times larger than a water molecule. and on the road. three main types of footstrike: neutral, supi- nation, and overpronation. (See also Neutral glucose Basic sugar; form of sugar into flat arch height A foot is considered to be Footstrike, Supination, and Overpronation) gait (analysis) A particular way or manner which all carbohydrates are first converted flat when there is a very low or no visible of moving a foot or leg. Analysis can reveal and appear in the blood. arch. A flat foot leaves an imprint that is footstrike management Footstrike ma- areas for possible development for improved nearly complete, and looks much like the nagement is the ability of a shoe to guide the action. (See also Biomechanics) glycogen The form in which carbohydra- entire sole of the foot. Typically more flexible footstrike or the motion of the foot impacting tes are stored in the body; there are two and more likely to over-pronate, a flat foot’s the ground, rolling forward and lifting up gait cycle Despite our common anatomy, main stores of glycogen—the liver and excess motion can ultimately cause several again, off the toe. This is also known as the way a person runs, called their gait the muscles; when glycogen stores are different types of overuse injuries. Motion Control. (See also Footstrike) cycle, varies from one person to another. depleted athletes fatigue, “hit the wall“, A gait cycle is all of the events that occur “bonk“; stores can be maximally filled by flat-seamed Flat-seam construction is a forefoot The forefoot is composed of five from the initial contact of one foot to the eating a high carbohydrate diet leading up sewing technique that results in a smooth metatarsal bones and the phalanges, or next successive contact of the same foot. A to an event. or flat seam. It minimizes skin contact and toes. During running, toes grip the surface runner’s gait cycle can be divided into two reduces potential irritation. and help propel the runner forward. The distinctive phases: the Stance Phase and gore-tex xcr Gore-Tex xCR is an metatarsal bones are connected to the the Swing Phase. The Stance Phase is the innovative new waterproof technology. xCR flex grooves Channels strategically placed toes by five metatarsal-phalangeal joints, period of time when the foot is in contact stands for Extended Comfort Range and to help your foot flex while you run. which make the ball of the foot. The fore- with the ground. The Swing Phase begins provides complete climate comfort during Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 79
    • high-aerobic activity—on average, 25% more hammertoes Hammertoe is when one or heart rate monitor A device that measures high-top upper An upper that extends breathability than classic Gore-Tex. both joints of the second, third, fourth, or the electrical activity of the heart (heart up the ankle is considered a high top. It is fifth (little) toes bends or curls. This abnor- rate); usually consists of a chest strap and designed to provide extra support for lateral grade school Grade School footwear is mal curl can put pressure on the toe when watch-like wrist receiver. movements and often used by triple jumpers designed for kids ages 7–12 in footwear wearing shoes, causing problems to develop. in track and field and basetball players. sizes that range from 3.5y–7y. heel The back part of any covering for the hard midsoles A hard midsole increases foot. Usually it refers to the solid part projec- hind-foot The seven bones of the hind- grid Matrix of synthetic strands to absorb the velocity of pronation at the loading phase ting downward from the back part of the sole foot are responsible for linking a person’s shock, like a tennis racquet absorbs and (which is bad) but decreases the maximum of a shoe. midfoot to their ankle. The largest bone releases shock from a ball. (Saucony) degree of pronation during midstance (which in the hind-foot is the calcaneus, the heel is good). Hard midsoles do not deform or heel-Breaking zone The heel-breaking bone, essential for absorbing shock at initial gs GS is an abbreviation for grade school. collapse during medial loading. zone is the ledge area at the front of the contact while running. The joints in the hind- heel built up especially deep so it can be foot allow the foot to move up and down and gto GRID Toe Off; forefoot cushioning hamstring strain Micro-tears of the large used to lock the foot down to the ground on rotate at the ankle. The hind-foot absorbs system. (Saucony) muscles of the back of the thigh; can be a descent. initial contact. treated with ice, stretching and strengthe- gtx GTx is an abbreviation for GoreTex. ning exercises. height The height of a shoe upper determi- hill workout A training routine where a nes the amount of protection and flexibility runner runs up a hill fast and jogs down then gum rubber Gum rubber is a material handicap run / walk An event used in it provides. runs up again; helps develop leg power and used on the outsole of shoes. It is a com- training or as a race whereby the time at aerobic capacity. bination of more natural and less synthetic which individuals start their effort is based heptathlon The heptathlon is a women’s rubber, making it soft and sticky for better on their known current level of performance. track and field event, consisting of 7 hPr High-performance rubber. (Brooks) traction. The slower individual goes off first and the events: the 60-meter dash, the long jump, fastest starts last, “off scratch.” If everyone the shot put, the high jump, the 60-me- hydroflow Divided chamber filled with gusseted tongue A gusseted tongue performs to current form then there will ter hurdle race, the pole vault, and the liquid silicon oil to flow from chamber to means the tongue connects to the eyestay be a very exciting “blanket” finish. This 1000-meter run. chamber under pressure of impact. (Brooks) area with a thick layer of material to create a motivational event gives each individual an “gusset.“ This keeps dirt and material from equal opportunity to win. heel chassis The heel chassis is a V- hyponatraemia A very dangerous and creeping into your shoe around the tongue. shaped piece that gives unbelievable stability thankfully rare condition where an individual heal and toe Describes the basic foot by surrounding the ankle without a lot of has either lost too much sodium through h action of walking and running at slow to in- bulk. The foot still gets great ankle support sweating or, more typically, has ingested termediate speeds whereby the heal strikes but maintains its flexibility. (Nike) too much plain water (rather than elect- the ground first followed by a rolling action rolyte-containing solutions) and the blood of the foot through to the forefoot. heel counter A heel counter is the tough plasma sodium concentration has fallen to a half-marathon 13.1 miles; 21.1 kilometers. insert that reinforces the heel cup of a shoe. It critically low level. Has led to several runner heart rate Contraction of the heart usually anchors the foot in the shoe, preventing slip- deaths in recent years. half-mile 804.5 meters; approximately 2 measured as beats per minute. page and stabilizing the foot during footstrike. laps around track. Heel counters can be internal or external. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 80
    • i j insole The removable inner part of a run- intervals Type of workout where a set di- ning shoe that sits on top of the midsole and stance is run repeatedly with a recovery jog provides cushioning and arch support. between; for example 6 times 400 meters with a 100-meter recovery jog. iaaf International Amateur Athletic Fede- integrated midfoot lacing system An junk miles Runs used to reach a weekly ration; world-wide organization that governs integrated midfoot lacing system either intervals training Fast repetitions of 200 or monthly mileage total rather than for a running and track and field. wraps the laces under the foot or connects to 800 meters followed by slow recovery specific benefit. the lacing with the upper material to snug jogs, meant to build endurance and speed. K icell Puma cushioning technology consis- the entire shoe around the foot. The end Not for the undisciplined or for the week- ting of hexagon-shaped TPU honey combs result is a running shoe with exceptional fit end jogger. for long-lasting cushioning. Stands for and midfoot support. “inner cell.” The extended life of the iCELL ioc International Olympic Committee, the component provides consistent protection. intensity Degree of effort or exertion. worldwide organization that governs the Kick A finishing sprint at the end of a race. iCELL walls vary in thickness to address the Olympic Games. cushioning needs of each runner. (Puma) interlocking Pu/Phylon midsole A combi- Kms 100 Specific recipe for EVA that is of nation midsole with firm PU in the heel to isn Independent Suspension Network; predictable quality. (Puma) ldcell EVA-based cushioning material for provide a good base for those uneven trails articulated lugs to allow shock absorption improved shock absorption. Low-density and Phylon (Nike‘s own EVA material) from (Timberland). Kms lite Midsole material that is 30% ligh- CELL placed specifically in the heel crash the midfoot to the toe to supply lightweight ter than standard Puma EVA and reduces the zone and underneath the metatarsal heads cushioning. (Nike) isolated heel cleft An isolated heel cleft overall shoe weight up to 30%, yet maintains to provide smooth heel impact and a well- or decoupled heel is a groove in the out- the cushioning properties and compression balanced and comfortable ride. (Puma) internal six-spike forefoot Plate A sole near the heel. The isolated heel cleft set of our regular KMS midsole EVA. (Puma) traction plate in which the spike mounts separates a portion of the outsole (some- ldcell lasting Combined lasting method are imbedded in the outsole of the shoe, so times called a crash pad) to better absorb Kms lite lasting Combined lasting method which uses ldCELL as a strobel lining material cross country runners won‘t get imbedded in pressure on impact. which uses KMS LITE as a strobel lining for improved heel cushioning and weight a wet and sloppy course. material for improved heel cushioning and saving. Comes in different degrees of hardness isotonic drink A drink preparation weight-saving. Comes in different degrees of depending on purpose of the shoe. (Puma) internal shank An internal shank is housed containing dissolved solids (particularly hardness, depending on the purpose of the inside the midsole material and an external salts or ‘electrolytes’) at a concentration shoe. (Puma) igs Impact Guidance System; integrated shank is visible outside. (internal ArchTec) the same as or close to that of the blood. l cushioning and stabilizing technologies en- Isotonic fluids are more readily absorbed gineered to improve the shoe‘s ride. (ASICS) internal speed lacing A speed-lacing system from the stomach and are generally more is created with flat loops (or gillys) of durable effective at re-hydrating the body during injection molded eva Process that injects material that allow the athlete to create a snug and immediately after exercise than plain ethylene vinyl acetate foam into molds, fit. The laces move easily through the gillys for water. Commercial isotonic drinks may l-carnitine Supplement to help add in the which makes it a bit more uniform and dura- fast lock down. Internal speed-lacing system also contain glucose to provide a rapid burning of fat; little scientific evidence to ble, but is difficult to control as it continues means the gilly is tucked inside the upper for a energy boost. support its claims. to expand after the injecting process. smooth, sleek look. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 81
    • lactate threshold The running intensity curve and a semi-curved last is somewhere lightweight training footwear Light- begins at the same point as the 200m. The where lactic acid begins to rapidly accu- in between. weight Training shoes are for faster-paced 10,000m, the longest race in college, is 25 mulate in the blood. Also called anaerobic training and racing. They provide more laps around the track. This is the same as a threshold, lactate threshold speed is a last shapes Variety of shapes used to cushioning, more support, and last longer 10 kilometer, or 10k, distance. runner’s 10K race pace plus 5–20 seconds accommodate differing foot types. Related than ultra-lightweight competition racing or a heart rate zone between 85–89% of to the height of the arch; high-arched flats. Lightweight training shoes are often a long-distance footwear Long-distance maximum. feet—curved last, low-arched feet— second pair of shoes a runner uses for races footwear is designed for 3k to 10k track straight last. These fall into categories of: and fast training days. races. These shoes are designed to make lactic acid Incomplete glucose breakdown straight, semi-straight, slightly curved, the runner feel like they are wearing nothing leads to the formation of lactic acid in the semi-curved, and curved, though there is loading Phase Loading is the first phase on their feet. With a comparatively thick muscles. Lactic acid is associated with no defined parameter for the distinction in the Stance Phase of the gait cycle and midsole and breathable upper, the shoes soreness and muscle fatigue. (See Lactate between shapes. begins the moment a runner’s heel comes in have both permanent and replaceable pins Threshold) contact with the running surface. Gradually molded into a full-length plate. Unlike their lasting The shaping or molding of the the rest of the foot lowers to the ground, sprinting counterparts, distance footwear lap A lap is any increment athletes upper tightly to the contours of the last and slightly rolling inward to absorb shock. The focuses less on traction and more on a shoe establish—a segment within a run or a one of the most important operations in inward rolling, or pronation, is a natural that is cushioned, flexible, lightweight, and complete mile in a marathon. This function shoemaking. cushioning system that the foot uses to comfortable. Steeplechase athletes should is designed to measure the time it takes to reduce the amount of impact forces applied choose a middle-distance or distance complete a lap and provide athletes with lateral Referring to the outer side (or to the body while running. spike that is able to protect them from the feedback on their pace or progress. The lap little toe side) of a shoe. repeated impact with the track surface and memory on watches is often called out in log A record of training mileage and races also have excellent ventilation so spikes can the name. For example, the Triax Speed 50 leather The dressed or tanned hide of that helps a runner stay motivated, monitor dry quickly. records up to 50 laps. an animal, usually with the hair removed. progress and spot trends. Any of various articles or parts made of long runs Longest run of the week; last Can refer to two different features dressed or tanned hide, such as a boot or long distance Long-distance events are all usually on the weekend. of a shoe; the first is the construction of strap. about survival. They test not only endurance, the shoe or the way the shoe‘s upper is but heart. As Pre put it, “A lot of people run loose fit Loose fit garments are designed attached to the midsole. There are three length-to-weight ratio or drop The a race to see who‘s the fastest. I run to see to have a relaxed fit to provide extreme mo- major types of construction: board lasting, length-to-weight ratio of a bat is determi- who has the most guts.” Long-distance bility, ease of movement, and are comfortab- where the upper is glued to a flexible, ned by taking the length and subtracting races range from the 2000m Steeplechase, le to wear for a wide variety of activities. shoe-length “board“; slip lasting, where the the weight. A minus 10 size bat is a 30-inch to the 3000, 5000, and 10,000 meter races. upper is stitched directly to the midsole; and bat (total length) that weighs 20 ounces. All begin with a waterfall start. The Steeple- low-abrasion seams Low-abrasion combination lasting, where the forefoot is Or, a 24-inch bat that weighs 14 ounces chase is either 2000m (5 laps) or 3000m (7.5 seams are sewn with soft threads to attached directly to the midsole and the heel laps) and incorporates the use of barriers, increase comfort. is attached to a board. Last can also refer to lightstrike eva Very fine quality Ethylene such as 4 large hurdles and 1 water hole, per the shape of the shoe: straight, semi-curved Vinyl Acetate foam that is lighter and more lap. The 3000m is 7.5 laps around the track low-cut upper Low-cut uppers are the or curved. A curved last turns inward from durable than lesser forms. (Adidas—though and begins at the same point as the 200m. lowest of all upper heights and provide the the heel to toe, a straight last has little or no not proprietary) The 5000m is 12.5 laps around the track and most flexibility in footwear. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 82
    • lsd Long, slow distance; slow running md MD is an abbreviation for middle microfiber A tightly woven fabric that‘s less material overall. designed to improve endurance. distance. extremely lightweight and soft; notable for its wind and water resistance, ability to wick mid-foot support system Any system—inter- lugs Lugs are raised portions of the outso- medallion The perforated pattern punched in moisture and quick dry time. nal, midsole or outsole—designed to enhance le that help provide traction by gripping the the center of the tip of many styles of shoes. stability in the mid-foot area. surface under foot. mid-foot The five mid-foot tarsal bones medial The inner side (or arch side) of a shoe. fit together to form a person’s arch. When midsole The part of the running shoe lycra spandex Lycra is a trademark of E. I. running, the tarsal bones flex to absorb the between the upper and outsole that provides du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. medial Post Denser midsole material (often shock, providing the body with a natural cushioning and support. Most midsoles are gray) added to the medial (or arch side) of cushioning system. If the bones do not made of either EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) or m the midsole to provide stability and control flex, the foot becomes rigid, unstable, and polyurethane foam. EVA is lighter and more excessive pronation. susceptible to injuries. The midfoot flexes to flexible than polyurethane, but it is not as absorb the shock. durable. It can come in various densities with mesh An open-textured fabric, knitted or gray-colored EVA being denser than white. macro-cycle The overall time from the start woven. For our purposes, if it‘s got visible middle distance Middle distance (MD) events The denser, gray EVA is usually placed along to finish of a major training cycle. Often holes in it, it‘s mesh. test both speed and endurance. Although the medial side of the shoe to provide stability has a major goal toward the end. Typically they say it’s not a sprint, you may not think and motion control and is often referred to this comprises a complete season or is one meso-cycle The overall time from the start so if you saw them racing. As they alternate as a “medial post.“ Some midsoles have complete year in overall duration and is to finish of an intermediate training cycle. between curves and straight-aways, the additional cushioning technology such as air, composed of a series of ‘meso-cycles.' A series of meso-cycles make up a macro- runners devise strategies—when to lead and gel, grids, etc. cycle. Often relates to a focus on one or when to follow; how fast to start out and how marathon 26.2 miles; 42.2K. more specific areas of fitness development much to save for the end. The 800m begins midstance phase Midstance is the middle and has training-based measurement goals with a standard start and after 100m, the phase of the Stance Phase of a runner‘s gait master A runner 40 years of age or older. attached to it. Typically several weeks in runners break into the inner lanes and jockey cycle where the entire foot has contact with duration and is composed of a series of for position. In the 1500m and 1600m, the the ground. In this phase the foot changes maximum heart rate (hrmax) The highest ‘micro-cycles.' runners begin with a waterfall start, that is, from a natural cushioning system to a lever, number of contractions your heart can make a gently-curved white line beginning on the preparing to propel the body forward. in one minute. metric mile 1500m, the international racing finish line in lane one, then swinging ahead. distance closest to the imperial mile. (See The 800m is two laps around the track. The mile 1,609 meters; approximately 4 laps m2d Medial Dual Density; A midsole feature 1500m) 1500m is the “metric mile” and begins at around track. that provides the over-pronating runner with the same point as the 100m. It is 3.75 times extra support. An inserted piece of firmer EVA micro-cycle The overall time from the start around an outdoor track. The 1600m is a mile minerals Essential nutrient of body; must on the medial side guides the foot and controls to finish of a short training cycle. Often and is four laps around the track. be ingested in the correct amounts in the the foot motion to help reduce impact forces. relates to a weekly training program where body; aid in the processes which use the specific types of session are repeated or midfoot shank A midfoot shank is a other nutrients and compose some of the m2d+ Evolution of the original M2D. Saves developed each week—a long run or a speed stability-enhancing midsole device. It structures of the body; may be obtained up to 30% weight and increases flexibility session, for example. A series of micro- provides torsional rigidity (resists twisting through diet or supplementation; overcon- and the ride from heel to toe. cycles make up a meso-cycle. motion) while reducing weight by allowing sumption can be toxic. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 83
    • o mobility The complete range of movement multi-terrain A route based on a mixture of nitrocel Nitrogen-impregnated CM-EVA around a joint. Often important in sup- surfaces e.g. road, track, country, woods and sockliner to absorb shock. (Ryka) porting good ‘biomechanics’, efficient and forest trail. ‘correct running.' nitrogen cushioning system Use of muscle soreness Pain, stiffness, and nitrogen-impregnated rubber pad above the olympics Competition held once every 4 mob run A traditional inter-club race discomfort in a muscle due to microscopic CM-EVA to absorb shock. (Ryka) years; highest goal for most runners. aimed at involving as many runners as pos- tears, or strains, of the muscle. This is usu- sible. Based on a mass start over an agreed ally caused as a result of the muscle doing normal arch height A foot is considered omni-fit Extended Ghilly lace system. distance—often road, multi-terrain, trail or more work than it is used to. (also called to be normal when the size of the arch is (Merrell) cross-country. If both teams have the same DOMS or delayed onset muscle soreness) moderate or average. A normal foot leaves number of competitors then all runners will an imprint that shows the heel and forefoot open-weave mesh A lightweight, breathab- n count in the final scoring process to decide connected by a wide band. Runners that le material used in the upper that provides a the winners. The finishing positions of all have a normal foot usually have a semi- consistent, resilient fit. runners in both teams are totaled and the flexible arch. winning team is that with the lowest score. ortholite Polyurethane and recycled If teams have different numbers of entrants natural leathers Natural leathers include normal or neutral footstrike When run- rubber-based formula. Combines long-las- then the number of counters is normally the full-grain (usually cow) and kangaroo ning, a normal footstrike begins with the ting breathability, cushioning, and durability number of the smaller team. A development leather. They are soft and supple. (See also heel landing nearly perpendicular to the all in one. Anti-odor and Anti-microbial. of this to include all the runners from the Full-Grain Leather) ground and the leg angled slightly towards larger team might be to deduct an agreed the outside of the heel. From there, the orthotics Custom-tailored devices number of points from that team’s score for ndurance High-abrasion rubber. (New weight is distributed progressively along specifically crafted to treat and adjust each extra runner they field—this would en- Balance) the lateral side of the foot. As the little various biomechanical foot misalignments, courage each team to field the bigger team! toe starts to touch the ground, the arch of repositioning the body, heel, arch, muscles, negative splits Running the second half of the foot should flatten slightly (pronation), ligaments, tendons, and bones in the feet. monolite Licensed process of Injection- a race faster than the first half. shifting the body weight towards the inside Orthotics may be necessary for excessive molded mixture of rubber and EVA that of the foot. The heel then should start to pronation or supination, as well as low or eliminates the need for separate midsole/ neoprene Neoprene is a stretchy synthetic lift off the ground, moving the weight to flat arches. They are also effective in relie- outsole pieces. (Polo) material that‘s often used in wetsuits and the medial forefoot. ving and preventing lower back and hip pain, amphibious running shoes. knee pain, shin splints, heel pain, plantar motion control The ability of a shoe to limit nubuck An aniline-dyed leather with its fascitis, Achilles tendonitis, and bunions. overpronation and provide stability. neutral footstrike A neutral footstrike hits finished surface buffed to a slight nap or the ground on the outside of the heel and rolls suede-like appearance outrigger Extensions of the outsole that mountain running Training or competition through to leave the ground off the inside toes. give a wider base of support and add stability involving either ascent alone or ascent and This is also known as natural pronation. nylon Known for its strength and durability, for lateral movements such as lifting and descent of hills and mountains, often invol- Nylon is the first and oldest manmade fiber. step class. They can be found on the lateral ving navigational skills. Mountain races are nike air Pressurized air pads (some with One of nylon’s great qualities is how easily it side of the foot. usually classified both by rate of climb (feet/ varied air pressure) to absorb shock of blends with other fibers. mile or meters/km) and total distance. impact. (Nike) outsole The bottom-most layer of most Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 84
    • P running shoes; the layer that contacts the period may last for several weeks or months Plantar fasciitis Foot injury where micro- ground and provides traction. and forms part of the overall periodization to tears occur in the arch; especially painful in achieve the above. the morning; can be treated by stretching outsole Plate An outsole plate is the part of the arch and calves; massage with hands or cleated footwear where the cleats or studs Paarlauf A training activity based on pairs Phylite Created by mixing Phylon and rubbing foot on golf ball or a shaving cream are housed. of runners taking it in turns to run a set rubber to create a material that has the can; if untreated, can lead to heel spurs. distance or course. Sometimes with static lightweight benefit of Phylon and the dura- (spur of bone from the heel bone) over-distance The idea of completing a recovery, sometimes taking a shorter route bility of rubber. Phylite can be used to make training effort, which is further than the back to the point of ‘exchange.' a single-piece outsole/midsole, eliminating Podular Articulated forefoot design that event for which you are training. Has psy- the need for adhesive to hold these two parts allows free forefoot movement and flexion. chological as well as physiological benefits. Pace Measure of the speed of running; of the shoe together. Using Phylite can make (Brooks) usually quantified as minutes taken to run a the entire bottom unit of a shoe 20% lighter. overheating A condition where a runner mile; for example a runner may run a 7: 00 (Nike) Polyester Polyester is a human-made has been exposed to abnormally high per mile pace for a marathon. fiber that can be made to feel silky smooth temperatures or has lost an excess of fluid Phylon Phylon is a compressed foam or cotton-like. It is easy to care for, has the (water) through exercise and is no longer Peak Scheduling your training so that material used in footwear midsoles for lowest absorbency, and has better thermal capable of maintaining normal body tempe- your best performance is timed for a goal lightweight cushioning. Phylon is produced retention than cotton and nylon. rature. This is a potentially very dangerous race or event. when EVA has been heated and then molded condition. In most instances selection of into a midsole form. (Nike) Polyurethane Polyurethane (PU) is a durab- the most appropriate running clothing for Pebax® Pebax®, (polyether block amide) le foam material used in footwear midsoles. the day, starting the exercise session fully is a high-performance plastic belonging Physiotherapist A medical professional— It is firmer, heavier, and more durable than hydrated and hydrating properly during to the family of thermoplastic elastomers. often the first person to consult for diag- EVA and Phylon. PU is used in midsoles the session will significantly decrease the Its remarkable mechanical, physical and nosis and treatment when injury strikes or when a shoe‘s durability and stability are probability of over-heating. chemical properties offer great flexibility and discomfort is being felt—particularly in the more important than lightweight and extra make it a key component in the comfort and musculoskeletal system. The earlier help cushioning. PU is poured into a mold to overpronation The excessive inward roll performance of a large number of sports physiological help is sought after injury the make a midsole. of the foot; overpronation can be controlled and leisure items. Pebax® is a registered sooner an effective recovery can be started. through the use of motion control shoes trademark of Arkema. Information provided Poron inserts Performance sockliners and/or orthotics. by the marketing department of Arkema Pick-ups Picking up the pace during a run. include Poron inserts in key pressure areas Group. to provide cushioning. Poron is denser than overtraining Condition in which a runner Pinking A serrated decorative edging applied Phylon and holds up better over time. In cle- runs too many miles, too hard, too soon, Perforations Round, curved, square or to the vamp, toecap or quarter of the shoe. ated footwear, the Poron is located in strate- leading to fatigue, injury and/or burn-out. diamond-shaped holes punched in the upper gic areas to help reduce cleat pressure. leather of a shoe for ornamental purposes. Piriformis syndrome Pain in the buttocks oxygen debt A state in which the energy resulting from a tight piriformis muscle Post (or medial Post) Firmer density of demand is greater than what can be provi- Period / Periodization Planning the pressing against the sciatic nerve; can midsole material added to the inner side ded by oxygen thus inducing heavy breathing training into a program based on individual be treated by stretching exercises for the of the shoe. A post is designed to reduce to consume more oxygen. requirements or personal goals. A training buttocks. overpronation. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 85
    • r Power sprint spikes Power sprint spikes calories in a runner‘s diet; converted into the events consist of the 4 x 100m and the 4 x are specifically designed for the 100-meter body‘s structures-bones, muscles, organs, 400m races. In the 4 x 100m, four runners and 200-meter races. They provide a light- etc.; overconsumption is converted to fat. race 100m to complete a lap. The sprinters weight shoe with great support and traction, must stay in their lanes for the entire race. and with the ability to lock in the foot to avoid Pyramid A training concept based on racing last A curved and rounded last. In the 4 x 400m, four runners race 400m to excessive movement. Athletes who run these increasing the distance in successive efforts (See Puma Racing Last) complete a mile. The second leg will break short sprints typically never let their heels before then decreasing it again. Good for from the lanes at the top of the backstretch. touch the ground. Cushioning is minimal introducing variety in pace and awareness radiused lugs Radiused lugs are lugs so the forefoot stays close to the ground for of time of running. Can be time based or in the forefoot of the outsole that angle repetition running Type of workout where stability and responsiveness. distance based. (e.g. a series of runs of outward to help with running on a slope, a set distance is run repeatedly with a timed duration 30s, 1 min, 1.5 mins, 2 mins, 1.5 allowing a running shoe to hit the ground at recovery (complete rest) between; for Pr “Personal Record” or Personal Best; mins, 1 min and 30s) Alternatively, a series a better angle to prevent tripping. (See Lugs) example 3 times 600 meters with 3 minutes fastest time a runner has recorded for a of runs of 100m, 200m, 300m, 400m, 300m, recovery. Distances are often greater than given distance. 200m and 100m in length may be completed. recovery runs Slow to moderate running with ‘Interval’ training. Since a higher heart Specific distances may not be important in to recover from hard workouts or races and/ rate results from the longer effort, full reco- Preschool Preschool footwear is designed many cases and often runners will, for ex- or maintain aerobic conditioning. very is important for the training effect. for kids ages 4–7 in footwear sizes that ample, use the distance between streetlights range from 10c–3y. as indicators. Recovery can be held constant reflectives 3M Scotchlite reflective ma- resistance (training) Involves ef- or varied depending on distance / time run. terial is used for all shoes in the Complete forts against a resistance. This can be Pronation The natural, inward roll of the Series to make the runner more visible at gravity—e.g. hill running or using weighted foot; pronation begins when heel contacts Pyruvate Supplement to help add in the night. equipment or weights (in a gym). A good the ground, the foot then rolls inward to burning of fat; little scientific evidence to introductory form of resistance training for absorb shock and transfer weight to the ball support its claims. regrind Outersole rubber that is recycled runners is circuit training using body weight of the foot as it prepares to push off. It is a from previous running and athletic shoes. alone. Q natural and necessary motion for running (Nike) and walking. resting heart rate The number of times reinforced toe Box A reinforced toe box your heart beats per minute when you are Propulsion Phase The last phase of the is often made with a high-wrapping outsole relaxed and still; usually measured first thing Stance Phase of a runner‘s gait cycle, begin- Quarters Jargon for a quarter-mile or and additional layering of tough, abrasion- in the morning before getting out of bed. ning with the heel rising off the ground. The 400 meters; often used when describing resistant materials. body’s mass shifts over the forefoot, and the workouts where athletes run 400-meter (or reversibility of training Any training be- phase ends in the toe-off. During propulsion quarter) repeats. relay events The relay events are about nefit will be lost with time and the body will the body propels itself forward and shifts teamwork. Four runners unite to finish one return to where it was before the training weight to the opposite foot. Quarter lining The upper lining at the back distance, each racing a quarter of it. The one started. This means that to have a long-term part of the shoe extending forward to the leading off will take to the track first, the sustainable benefit a constant or higher level Protein Essential nutrient of body found in vamp line. second and third maintain, and the anchor of activity must be maintained. Put quite meats, eggs, dairy products, beans and nuts; finishes the job. The baton is passed to the simply ‘if you don’t use it, you lose it.‘ (See should comprise approximately 15–25% of next runner at the end of each leg. The relay also Adaptation) Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 86
    • rice An acronym for rest, ice, compressi- rollbar Graphite device to prevent overpro- sciatica Pain which runs from the lower slightly to fit the natural curvatures of an on and elevation; a procedure for treating nation. (New Balance) back to the toes related to pressure on the athlete’s head, without pinching. (Nike) certain injuries. large nerve innervating this area, the sciatic rrca Road Runners Clubs of America; nerve; should be evaluated by physician. self test or zone finder A heart rate ride A term used to describe a shoe‘s organization to which most running clubs monitor tracks workout intensity. A self test, ability to smoothly transfer a runner‘s weight in the US belong; provide information and sculpted arches Sculpted arches and or Zone Finder, is a 15-minute test designed from heel-strike to toe-off. resources for running clubs. contoured heels are used in some soccer to help athletes determine their ideal heart cleats to add stability and comfort. (See also rate zones. road races Running contests over streets; runner‘s high Feeling of euphoria expe- Cupped Heel) runners of all levels can participate. rienced by some runners after a long, hard semi-curved last A shoe with a semi- run or race. (See Endorphins) sculpted neckline A sculpted neckline is a curve last is designed for the normal foot. It road racing footwear Racing flats are rounded or V-shaped silhouette to provide is the most common last for sports. When used predominately for all distances of road runner‘s Knee Knee pain typically caused freedom of movement. It also helps provide selling running footwear, a customer with racing and occasionally for longer distance by the knee cap not sliding properly during ventilation when an athlete gets warm. normal arches and a neutral footstrike races on the track (5K and up). Reducing movement; may be related to muscular should try shoes with a semi-curved last and the weight of a runner’s racing footwear imbalances within the thigh muscles; can seamless A seamless upper is created with a blend of cushioning and stability. (See also can provide significant improvements in be treated with strengthening exercises one seamless piece of material. This elimi- Last) race times. Research has shown that every for weak muscles. (usually the inner thigh nates potential areas of friction or irritation 1-ounce weight reduction on a runner’s shoe muscle) and totally enhances comfort. sets The number of groups (sets) of repeti- can reduce their mile time by about one tion runs (reps) to be completed in a training second. For example, if a runner trains in a running economy The amount of oxygen seamless lining A seamless lining in a session. For example: 2 sets of 3 reps of shoe that weighs 12 ounces, and races in a consumed at a given running speed; a shoe means that the inside of the shoe is 600 meters with 3 minutes recovery between flat that weighs 8 ounces, they potentially runner who consumes less oxygen at this created with as few seams as possible. This reps and 10 minutes recovery between sets. can improve their mile time by 4 seconds. running speed as compared to another technique creates a smooth interior with (May be written in various short-form ways That equates to about 12-seconds in a 5k, running is said to be more “economical." minimal irritation for outstanding comfort. e.g. 2 x 3 x 600m, 3min/10min) or 24 seconds in a 10k race. The uppers of racing flats are made of a seamless light- running shoe last A last specifically seamless upper Upper made of a single shank Plate A shank plate is an injection- weight mesh, which alleviates chafing and designed for the footstrike characteristics piece to increase stability and/or reduce molded TPU structure that‘s incorporated allows the runner’s feet to breathe freely. of the running motion. (See Puma Racing, seam abrasion. into the midfoot area. Many cross training Performance and Comfort Last) midsoles sport a midfoot shank plate for rock shield Plate TPU forefoot plate second wind Feeling of more energy and stability and torsional rigidity—a fancy way s sandwiched in the midsole for protection less effort some runners feel after 15–20 of saying it controls twisting movements. against sharp stones or other firm objects. minutes of running. Distributes pressure across the forefoot. shin splints Lower leg injury where there is secure wrap temples Secure wrap temp- pain along the shin bone; usually caused by roll control Dense EVA for medial stability. sandwich mesh Special upper-mesh les are designed for eyewear to grip the back excessive pronation or weak shin muscles; (The North Face) material with a high degree of breathability. of the head for improved stability when an treat with ice and stretching and strengthe- Lowers the risk of blisters. athlete is in motion. They bow in and down ning exercises; can lead to stress fractures. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 87
    • shox Urethane pillars that compress soft midsoles A soft midsole decreases spherical heel construction (See above). natural movement during the gait cycle. between TPU plates to cushion the ride of the velocity of pronation (which is good) but (New Balance) the shoe. (Nike) increases the degree of pronation (which is split times Denotes the time it takes to bad). The midsole compresses medially and, run a portion of a total run (often measured stable air Air-filled pads that absorb and singlet A light weight tank top worn by in effect, just keeps rolling. at mile markers or other distinctive points deflect the shock of impact. (Etonic) runners. along the way); for example, a runner may sole The sole of the sock is one of the most run a 7: 00 mile split between miles 4 and 5 stim-Pac Ambient air-filled, two-chambe- skinfold calipers Process of determining important components of socks because this of a 10K (6.2-mile run) red bladder that transfers air from front to body composition where several folds of skin is where the cushioning is located. Depending rear and back. Positioned under the Strobel are measured for thickness and then used to on which type of sock—liner, half cushioned, sprinting footwear The speed and power board, it creates a noticeable cushioning calculate percent body composition. or full cushioned—the sole’s primary purpose required for sprinting requires a shoe with a effect. (Reebok; Also see DMx Lite) is cushion, comfort, and durability. perfect balance of flexibility and stability, mi- sl-1 Semi-straight last which is snug from nimal cushioning, and exceptional traction. stance Phase The Stance Phase is the heel through forefoot to fit narrower foot solid rubber Solid rubber is a tough combo Since not all distances are alike, sprinting period of time during the gait cycle when the types. (New Balance) of synthetic and natural rubbers used on the footwear is divided into three categories: foot is in contact with the ground. Within the outsole of footwear. power, sleek, and blend. Stance Phase, a runner’s foot goes through sl-2 Semi-straight last which is snug in three different phases: Loading, Midstance, the heel with a wider taller toebox for wider spandex Spandex is a manmade fiber. It sprints Track and field running events that and Propulsion. feet and to allow for the curved shape of has excellent stretch and recovery proper- cover a short distance, from 100 meters to higher-arched feet. (New Balance) ties. It’s ideal for form-fitting garments 400 meters. stamina Your ability to combine speed and like bodywear. It can also add comfort and endurance. slip last Shoe construction method stitches freedom of movement to basic knit tops and stability The ability of a shoe to resist the upper of the shoe that is slipped onto a last, woven shorts. excessive motion; usually used to describe straight last A shoe with a straight last is closing the upper with stitches down the center, shoes designed for neutral runners or mild filled in on the inside or the medial part of under the foot, before gluing it to the midsole. spat strap A Spat Strap provides midfoot over-pronators. the shoe. This broadens the base of the shoe support and minimizes heel movement it‘s that comes in contact with the ground, in- slow twitch Type of muscle fiber (cells which located in the middle of the foot and it repla- stability and motion control footwear Sta- creasing the amount of stability. The straight compose the muscles) that contract slowly but ces the old “medical tape wrapped around bility and Motion Control shoes are designed last accommodates a flat foot best. When can perform for a long time. Utilized primarily the foot” trick. to slow the rate of pronation in the footstrike selling running footwear, a customer with in mid-to-long-distance runners. and provide good heel stability. They may have flat feet who overpronates should wear a speed work Short, fast intervals with various combinations of medial posting, dual- stability shoe with a straight last and motion sockliner Provide even more cushioning. recovery jogs between; increases your leg density midsoles, and other design features control features that give maximum support A liner under the foot can add comfort and turnover and maximizes your stamina and that provide motion control. These shoes are to the foot and guide the foot through the protection from blisters. race confidence. built on straight or semi-curved lasts. footstrike. (See also Last) soft hand A soft hand is a term used to speva Special ethylene vinyl acetate foam stability web Device in mid-foot that strength training Movements against describe the feel of fabrics that are cool to with polymers in the microcellular spaces to causes the shoe to return to a stable resistance to develop muscular strength; the touch. improve elasticity. (ASICS) base, after allowing the foot to twist in its usually weight training. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 88
    • stretching Movements designed to synthetic leather Synthetic leather is a terraflex Slotted, flexible, polymer plate total exercise time Total exercise time is increase a muscle‘s flexibility; best method manmade material that is often more dura- for protection and torsional stability on a feature designed to save the duration, dis- is still being debated but it appears that con- ble than natural leather, is usually lighter in rough ground. (Montrail) tance, and average heart rate for a specified sistently stretching is the key to increasing weight, and won’t stretch out. workout. This information is easy to review flexibility. threshold runs When you run at or near later and is a vital aspect of fitness training. t your anaerobic threshold. stride length Describes the length of each total time Total time refers to the total of running stride at a given pace. Together throat The central part of the vamp just all lap times during a race or training. with “cadence,” these two factors determine behind to the toe box. The throat is formed actual running speed. tanning, tumbling or Polishing Leather by the seam joining the vamp to the quarter. tPu chassis The TPU chassis is the part treatments used to enhance the natural of the upper that surrounds the heel cup strides Short, fast but controlled runs las- grain of leather and result in a soft, more- tnf trail grip Rubber formulation for and spreads out to the arch of the shoe ting 15–45 seconds followed by full recovery; durable material. traction on trails. (The North Face) for torsional rigidity. The TPU chassis also benefits include faster leg turnover and gives the shoe lateral stability for things like improvements in running form. taper Reducing your mileage several days toddler/infant Toddler footwear is weight lifting. to three weeks before an important race to designed for kids ages birth to 4 years old in strobel slip last A shoe construction ensure peak performance on race day. footwear sizes that range from 2c–10c. Baby tPu or thermalplastic urethane TPU is method that involves stitching a sole-shaped footwear ranges from 1–4c. frequently used in uppers as a lightweight fabric board to the upper of the shoe that is target zones Target zones can be set to support structure for increased support and slipped onto a last, closing the upper with alert athletes when they’re working too hard toe Box The upper of the shoe that sur- protection. TPU can be either more supple stitches around the perimeter of the sole. or not hard enough. This means athletes rounds the toes, which is slightly different or more firm as needed. TPU provides the The board may be varied from thin flexible maximize their workout and overall fitness in each style of shoe. This is a particularly critical support in a shoe’s heel counter. (See materials to thicker stable materials, or a by exercising at the right intensity. important feature for runners who have also Heel Counter) combination of the two stitched together, to bunions or are prone to blistering. improve stability or flexibility. target heart rate In order to get the most track Measured oval where races of out of aerobic exercise, runners should know toe cap Toecaps are either stitched over varying distances are contested; usually suede Leather with a soft napped surface. the target range of beats per minute they or completely replace the front of the vamp measure 400 meters around; 4 laps equals want to get the ticker cranking. Keeping the and can be made into a decorative features approximately 1 mile. style Not to be confused with technique— pulse below that range probably isn’t doing referred to as toe tips. which is very important for effective running enough. Exceeding that range is going too traction Traction is the ability of a shoe‘s and walking—‘style’ is a more personal far and may be fatal. tongue The flap of material under the laces outsole to keep an athlete from slipping characteristic which may have no impact or buckles of a shoe. or losing their footing on slick or uneven whatsoever on actual technique. tempo runs Type of workout to improve surfaces. the lactate threshold; usually consists of torsion Device that causes the shoe to re- supination When the foot rolls outward 15–30 minutes of running at the lactate turn to a stable base, after allowing the foot trail runner The Trail runner is a long- at toe-off, that’s supination. If your foot threshold speed. to twist in its natural movement during the term runner who usually runs outdoors remains on the outside edge instead of gait cycle. Differs from Torsion by extending on roads and trails. This runner is a good pronating, that’s oversupination. upward into the arch. (Adidas) candidate for a full set of running apparel Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 89
    • in all kinds of weather, from the base layer turned shoe Shoe made inside out with a weight, while submerged in water, is used vitamins Essential nutrient of body; must to the outer shell. Trail runners especially basic sole between the foot and the ground. to calculate percent body composition; be ingested in the correct amounts in the value reflectivity, durability, weatherproo- The upper and soles of turned shoes are considered the best method for calculating body; aid in the processes that use the other fing, and moisture management—not just for very flexible. The turned shoe last is desig- percent body fat. nutrients; may be obtained through diet or perspiration but also for precipitation. ned in a single size and then a set is made in supplementation; overconsumption can the range of sizes and widths in which shoes upper The top portion of the shoe, usually be toxic. trail shoes Trail shoes are built for runners are to be manufactured. Turned shoes are no made of leather, synthetic leather or mesh who spend a lot of time off of the pavement. longer widely manufactured. material. vo2max Also called maximal aerobic capa- Trail runners have better traction, more city; maximum amount of oxygen that can be durable uppers, and may include water- two-Piece outsole Outsole design that usa track & field (usatf) National gover- utilized by the body; higher V02max generally resistant fabrics. They come in different uses two pieces of carbon rubber instead of ning body for running in the US. (USATF.org) equals better performance; can be improved combinations of cushioning and stability. one full-length piece. It provides lightweight with training but has a genetic limit. flexibility while continuing to give durability. u.s.o.c. United States Olympic Committee; w training footwear Training footwear is organization that governs the U.S. Olympic u by far the most common type of running Team. footwear. Training footwear can be loosely categorized into four groups, or silos: uv Protection UV rays from the sun are Cushioning, Stability and Motion Control, invisible to the naked eye, and without waffle grip Hollow, hard rubber waffle Lightweight Training, and Trail shoes. ultra hexalite Lightweight hexagonal cells proper eye protection, they may cause studs filled with soft rubber for grip. Origina- encapsulated within the CM-EVA that absorb long-lasting and harmful effects. There ted in the home of legendary University of traxion Multi-oriented crescent-shaped shock, with a slower rate of breakdown than are three types of UV rays: UVA, UVB, Oregon coach Bill Bowerman, who poured studs to provide trail shoe traction in all foam. (Reebok) and UVC. UVC rays are absorbed by the liquid rubber into a waffle iron to create directions. (Adidas) upper atmosphere and are of little health custom outsoles for his distance runners’ ultra-marathon Races longer than a concern to athletes. But, to help keep an racing shoes. (Nike) trB Torsional rigidity bar. (Saucony) marathon. (26.2 miles) athlete’s eyes healthy, protection from UVA and UVB rays is important. “the wall” or “hitting the wall” A state trusstic system Support device that forces ultrastrike Two-piece combination of car- of exhaustion when your body runs out of v the shoe to stabilize after the foot completes bon rubber and TPU with polymer to absorb glycogen or energy; usually occurs around its natural twisting motion during the gait shock. (Adidas) mile 20 in a marathon. (See Bonk) cycle. (ASICS) underpronation or supination The lack of warm-up Slow, easy running before a tuned air Two opposing polymer hemis- sufficient inward motion of the foot; highly vamp The complete forepart of a shoe upper. workout or race that raises your heart rate pheres that rebound against each other to cushioned, flexible shoes are recommen- and prepares you for more intense activity. absorb shock. (Nike) ded to absorb shock and allow the foot to variable-width lacing system All size-10 pronate naturally. feet are not created equal. Variable width water Essential nutrient of body; runners tuned Plate Slotted, flexible, polymer lacing allows you to customize your fit should drink enough throughout the day to plate for protection and torsional stability on underwater weighing Process of deter- simply by choosing which eyelets you put the maintain clear urine and enough after a run rough ground. (Salomon) mining body composition where a person‘s laces through. to return to their pre-run body weights. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 90
    • x welts The cuff, or top of the sock, is often women‘s-specific design Women have called the welt. It can be finished in one of narrower shoulders and arms, less height two ways: a welt or double-welt top, where and a distinct aversion. Quality running wear the top of the sock is turned in and sewn accounts for these differences. down, or a conventional top where the x-2 Dense foam material inserted into the stitching ends at the top of the sock without women‘s-specific last Most women‘s feet mid-foot cavity that increases stability and being turned in and sewn down. are slightly narrower in the heel and toe durability of trail shoes. (North Face) than most men‘s feet. Women‘s arches also welted shoe Any shoes using a welt, or strip tend to be higher and closer to the heel. This xc xC is an abbreviation for cross country. of material, to join the upper to the sole. is a last that reflects those differences. (See NGONG xC) wet test A person’s arches can vary women‘s-specific sockliner A woman‘s xt 600 High-durability rubber. (Saucony) greatly—from flat to high. An easy way to sockliner is specifically designed to mirror y determine arch type is to perform a “wet the unique contours of her foot. Slightly test.” Wet the bottom of the customer’s foot narrower in the heel and higher in the arch, with water or ink, and have them step firmly the sockliner provides a closer fit and more onto a flat surface—a brown paper bag or comfortable support. cardboard is a good surface to use—and youth runner The youth runner is the track apply their full body weight. world Best The best time ever in an event star. This runner runs track or cross country in which world records are not kept formally. on a team and trains 3–5 days a week. He or wicking The ability of a fiber to move she may be looking for fashionable perfor- moisture from your skin to the surface of the world championships Running and mance apparel: probably longer shorts and fabric so that it can evaporate and keep you track and field championships held once a baggier fit for guys, and low-rise shorts more comfortable. every 2 years; almost as prestigious as the for girls. Olympics. width concept Individual shoe fit for your youth sizes Youth footwear sizes range feet. Width from 2A to 4E. world record Best time or distance ever from 1–7y. recorded in an event. z windlass mechanism The Windlass Mechanism is the coordinated action of wovens Wovens are fabrics where yarns the layers of muscle, tendon, ligament are interlaced at right-angles to each other. and bony architecture to maintain arch Wovens are typically more rigid and less height and foot rigidity. Without correct wrinkle-resistant, but they shrink less and zoom air Very thin air-filled cushions for windlass function, the foot will not act as are more wind-resistant. forefoot or thin-soled uses. (Nike) an efficient lever, and effective push-off power cannot be achieved at the end of the stance phase. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 91
    • eva-Board Proven EVA replacement for gore-tex® xcr® Gore-Tex xCR is an Puma technology the standard brand-sole for additional innovative new waterproof technology. xCR comfort and cushioning. stands for Extended Comfort Range and agion® On silver ions based textile treat- provides complete climate comfort during ment which acts antimicrobial, antifungus everfoam Special memory foam heel high-aerobic activity—on average, 25% and helps to avoid bad odors. construction for a heel fit which is perfectly more breathability than classic Gore-Tex. adjusting to the heel contour. archtec Midfoot shank device that causes i-cell Unique Puma cushioning tech- the shoe to return to a stable base, after everlite Highly-efficient Puma outsole nology consisting out of hexagonal CELLs allowing the foot to twist in its natural mo- concept. Saves up to 50% weight, optimized enhances the cushioning and stabilizes. The vement, during the gait cycle Comparable to ground contact and grip. High durability. extended life of iCELL components provides Adidas’ Torsion system. A Puma fabric base material with direct consistent protection. iCELL walls vary in injected TPU/rubber blended lugs that thickness to address the cushioning and comfort last Special Puma last shaped for creates extremely lightweight outsoles and stability needs of each runner. maximum fit and comfort while running. Built great flexibility with running-specific anatomical and bio- ld-cell EVA based cushioning low density mechanical needs in mind, comfort lasts are everride Blown EVERTRACK rubber material for improved shock absorption. built to fit the majority of runners searching outsole component with high abrasion- The anatomically specific placement is for maximum comfort in a running shoe. resistant rubber for extra cushioning in the designed to protect and support during the forefoot. Reduces the weight of the shoe. gaitcycle. decoupled heel construction A heel out- It’s used for the Tenos III in the forefoot. sole and midsole geometry that decouples ld-cell lasting Combined lasting the impact part of the shoe from the rest of evertrack Rubber compound with higher method which uses KMS-LITE as a strobel the midsole. Combines with flexgrooves for than average abrasion and wear characteris- lining material for improved heel cushio- a smooth first impact and roll-off from heel tics. It is used for the Tenos III in the heel. ning and weight saving. Comes in different to toe and lowers the pronation velocity and degrees of hardness depending on purpose degree of pronation. evergrip A new, stickier rubber compound of the shoe. which provides excellent grip and traction duocell duoCELL has been specifically on both wet and dry surfaces through Kms-lite Innovative midsole material engineered to combine durable cushioning increased slip resistance. Special outsole that is 30% lighter than standard Puma EVA and maximum stability. The CELL layers, composite and geometry for improved grip and reduces the overall shoe weight up to made of a super elastomer, greatly reduce and traction in heavy terrain 30%, yet maintains the cushioning proper- the impact forces upon heel strike. The new ties and compression set of our regular independent CELLs support a natural foot formstripe Functional logostripe for KMS midsole EVA. motion and slow the foot’s inward rotation anatomical foot support in the mid-foot, for optimal footstrike. The result is a long ball-girth and heel. Improves the fit and lasting, softer, more responsive cushioning stability in the shoe. to help prevent injury. Please do not hand this confidential information to anyone outside the company! completerunning | tecHnologies / feAtures | 92