Diabetes: You Are Not Alone Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. http://www/cdc/gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf ndfs_2011.pdf. Accessed March 7, 2011.
What Are Different Kinds of Diabetes? Body doesn’t make Body doesn’t enough insulin or can’t make insulin use insulin properly Diagnosed during Steroids, cystic pregnancy fibrosis ADA. Diabetes Care. 2011;34 (Suppl 1):S11-S61.
Who Is Most Likelyto Have Type 2Diabetes? • Overweight • Not physically active • High blood pressure • 45 years or older • Diabetes during pregnancy • Diabetes in the family or having a baby more than • Some ethnic groups 9 pounds ADA. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl 1):S11-S61.
How Does Your DoctorKnow That You HaveDiabetes? • A1C blood test of 6.5% or higher* • Blood sugar of 126 mg/dL or more after not eating for at least 8 hours* • Oral glucose tolerance test of 200 mg/dL or higher* • High blood sugar symptoms and blood sugar of 200 mg/dL or more when tested at any time • Prediabetes: A1C of 5.7% - 6.4% or blood sugar of 100-125 mg/dL after not eating* *May need to be repeated to be sure. ADA. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl 1):S11-S61.
What Are SomeSymptoms of Very HighBlood Sugar? • Urinating often • Weight loss • More thirsty or hungry • Increased infections than usual • Blurry vision ADA. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl 1):S62-S69.
Low Blood Sugar (Hypoglycemia)What can How do you Does everyonecause it? feel? feel the same?• Too little food or • Hungry • People have carbohydrates different • Angry/tense• Skipped or symptoms • Sick to stomach delayed meals • Some people • Light-headed have no• More active than • Clammy/sweaty/ symptoms at all usual pale• Too much insulin or too many • Shaky diabetes pills • Tired ADA. Diabetes A to Z (6th edition). American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, VA 2010; 15-16.
Treating Low Blood Sugar Check your The Rule of 15 Fast-acting blood sugar sugars • Eat or drink 15g• Is it in your carbs • ½ cup fruit juice target range? or regular soda • Wait 15 minutes• If you can’t and check blood • 4 or 5 hard check your sugar candies blood sugar, • If still low, eat • 3 glucose treat it anyway another 15g carbs tablets• If you’re low, follow the Rule • Check again after of 15 15 minutes ADA. Hypoglycemia - Planet D. 2010. http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/parents-and- kids/planet-d/new-to-diabetes/hypoglycemia.html Accessed April 16, 2011.
How Does Food Turn Into Energy? • Certain foods (carbohydrates) break down into sugar during digestion1 • Sugar enters bloodstream1 • Rising sugar level in blood causes pancreas to release insulin2 • Insulin moves sugar from blood to the cells where it is used for energy1,2 • Carbohydrates make blood sugar go up and insulin makes blood sugar go Pancreas down2 Schaefer EJ et al. J Nutr. 2009;139:1257S-1262S.2 Kahn RC, Saltiel AR. In: Joslin’s Diabetes 1 Mellitus. 14th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005:145-168.
Create YourPlate • Draw imaginary line across center of plate • On one side, cut again so there are 3 sections • Fill largest section with non- starchy vegetables • Fill one small section with starchy foods • Fill the other small section with protein • Add 8-oz non-fat or low-fat milk and fruit ADA. Diabetes A to Z (6th edition). American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, VA. 2010;125-126.
cup 1Portion Control: It’s Easy! • Eating healthy food is important, but so is eating the right amounts 3 oz. • Start by weighing and measuring your food to learn what the right portion size looks like • After that, use your hands as measuring tools* • Your fist = 1 cup • Your palm = 3 ounces 1 oz. • Your thumb = 1 ounce *Hand sizes vary. Estimates are based on the size of a small hand. They are intended to be guides only. Diabetes America. Nutrition measuring and portion control in diabetes. 2011. http://www.diabetesamerica.com/da-nutrition_measuring.cfm. Accessed March 13, 2011.
Know Your Serving Size Servings per Nutrients ContainerSaturated Fat and Trans Fat Cholesterol Carbohydrates (Carbs) Sodium Fiber ADA. Diabetes A to Z (6th edition). American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, VA. 2010;67.
Keep Track of Your Carbohydrates * • Starches (bread, cereal, rice, pasta) • Starchy vegetables (corn, peas, potatoes, dry beans) • Fruit and fruit juice • Milk and yogurt • Sugary foods • Sweets * These foods turn to sugar in your body ADA. Diabetes A to Z (6th edition). American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, VA. 2010;125.
Protein-Rich Foods • Meat* • Poultry • Fish • Cheese, cottage cheese • Eggs * Choose lean cuts of baked or broiled meat, such as chicken or fish. ADA. Diabetes A to Z (6th edition). American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, VA. 2010;87,126.
Get the Facts on Fats • Saturated fat: Bacon, butter, sour cream • Unsaturated fat: • Monounsaturated fat - olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil • Polyunsaturated fat - corn oil, safflower oil • Trans fat: unsaturated fats that raise cholesterol ADA. Diabetes A to Z (6th edition). American Diabetes Association, Alexandria, VA. 2010;85.
Let’s Move • Stay healthy • Control blood sugar • Improve heart health • Manage weight • Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity each week ADA. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl 1):S11-S61.
Take 3 Steps to BeMore Active 1 2Recommended Amount of Exercise:At least 2.5 hours/week • Step 1: Talk to your doctor • Step 2: Choose your activity • Step 3: Set a goal 1 ADA. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl 1):S11-S61. 2ADA. Be active, but how? 2010. http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/fitness/fitness-management/be-active-but-how.html. Accessed January 4, 2011.