Media effects pm media


Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Media effects pm media

  2. 2. THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF PLAYING VIDEOGAMES <ul><li>Possible effects of playing GTA IV </li></ul><ul><li>Possible ideological effects – influences how you think </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing a game where you are rewarded from living a life of crime will have the effect upon you that you think that a criminal lifestyle is one to be valued. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible emotional effects – influences how you feel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing a game which offers many opportunities to engage in violent behaviour which is immediately rewarded by making further progress in the game – making more money, moving on to the next mission – may make you feel more aroused and / or aggressive, which in turn may lead to behavioural effects… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible behavioural effects – influences how you behave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing a game where you are rewarded from living a life of crime will have the effect upon you that you start to become a criminal – you steal cars, randomly assault people in the street and kill people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Or possibly, none of this will happen… </li></ul><ul><li>What How might playing GTA and similar games have an effects on your ability to devise a strategy and constantly revise for successful achievement of your goals? </li></ul>
  3. 3. THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF PLAYING VIDEOGAMES <ul><li>Videogames are going to have some type of effect or influence on their audiences / players </li></ul><ul><li>As audiences / players , we want videogames to have an effect on us, otherwise there would be no point in playing the game </li></ul><ul><li>However, it is very hard to be precise about what type of effects they are going to have </li></ul><ul><li>All of the scenarios here could happen, but equally there many more type of effects scenarios which could also happen - we all bring slightly different ways of interpreting texts depending on who we are </li></ul>
  4. 4. HYPODERMIC NEEDLE THEORY <ul><li>The media inject messages into their audiences </li></ul><ul><li>The audience is seen as passive and unable to resist these media messages </li></ul><ul><li>Theory associated with Marxist academics, such as the Frankfurt School </li></ul><ul><li>Marxists are traditionally hostile to the media – seeing it as vehicle to enable ruling class to maintain their dominance over society </li></ul><ul><li>Frankfurt School witnessed Hitler’s rise to power in Germany in the inter-war period, partly because of how Hitler and the Nazis used the tools of mass communication to stir hatred against the Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Theory first articulated in a different era to our own – a time when the mass media was still relatively new </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps most readily applies today to advertising, stirring up feelings of ‘I want it’ / ‘I must have it’ – but does it apply equally, to everybody, all of the time, or perhaps to certain ‘vulnerable’ groups? E.g. Children </li></ul>
  5. 5. USES AND GRATIFICATIONS THEORY <ul><li>4 uses and gratifications that audiences / consumers make from their interactions with the media </li></ul><ul><li>A reversal of the position of hypodermic needle theory – not about what the media do to you, but what you do with the media </li></ul><ul><li>Sees the audience as active, not passive – audiences / consumers make deliberate, informed choices about the use and interaction with media texts / products </li></ul><ul><li>Halloran (1969) – We should focus on what audiences do with the media, rather than on what the media do with people – a tipping point in media effects theory </li></ul><ul><li>Blumler & Katz argue that the 4 uses and gratifications are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveillance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal relationships </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CULTIVATION THEORY <ul><li>A long-term effects model, offers the theory that media messages work over the long term and not simply immediately – in that sense different to both hypodermic needle theory and uses & gratifications theory </li></ul><ul><li>George Gerbner – Through repetition of media messages audiences come to take in these messages and adopt them as their own views / messages </li></ul><ul><li>The theoretical equivalent of water torture – works on a ‘drip, drip, drip’ approach – in the end you come to accept the messages and values being offered to you by the media </li></ul><ul><li>The invasion of Iraq – in the months preceding the invasion by US / UK troops, both President Bush and ex-Prime Minister Blair (amongst other world leaders) repeatedly went on TV telling us that Saddam Hussein and his government had WMDs and subsequently was a threat to global peace and stability – a possible example of cultivation theory in action </li></ul><ul><li>Also, just about any advertising campaign is too – companies advertise to drive brand awareness as well as to sell individual products </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately sees the audience as something that can be manipulated, therefore, ultimately sees the audience as being passive in the long term </li></ul>
  7. 7. RECEPTION THEORY <ul><li>Focuses entirely on what users / consumers / audiences do with media texts </li></ul><ul><li>Argues that meaning lies in the hands of the readers </li></ul><ul><li>Elvis Costello (singer) – ‘You can only control what the words look like, not what they mean’ </li></ul><ul><li>John Fiske – audiences / consumers act as ‘semiotic guerillas’ who configure their own meanings from the texts produced by media institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Consider how people can react differently to the same stimulus – different people have different tastes in what is funny / disgusting , acceptable / unacceptable, as the recent furore about Russell Brand and Jonathan Ross shows… </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 and the melting of the line between producers and audiences – the age of YouTube and post-modern ‘mash up’ culture and blogs and the ‘anti-journalists’ who work out side the system and outside the rules – audiences are the masters now </li></ul><ul><li>As such, reception theory offers a complete rebuttal of hypodermic needle theory and challenges both the uses & gratifications model through being more audience-centred and challenges cultivation theory because of its central basis on what the media does to audiences </li></ul>
  8. 8. MEDIA EFFECTS? <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul>