Quality Control for Masonry

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This is a companion program to Moisture Control for Masonry, and therefore will not address the important topic of moisture. This program analyzes a masonry wall from the vantage point of quality control in both design and construction. It covers ASTM standards, brick and block selection, mortar types, and a detailed discussion of movement control for masonry. The program also looks at acceptable tolerances in materials and workmanship.

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Quality Control for Masonry

  1. 1. QUALITY CONTROL FOR MASONRY presented by International Masonry Institute
  2. 2. International Union International of Bricklayers and Masonry Allied Craftworkers InstituteLIFELONG LEARNING Pre-job and apprentice training Journeyman upgrade training Safety, scaffold, OSHA training Craftworker certification training Supervisor certification Sustainable Masonry Certification Program Contractor College
  3. 3. PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION
  4. 4. MASONRY DETAILING SERIES www.masonrydetails.org
  5. 5. ILLINOIS STRUCTURAL MASONRY COALTION
  6. 6. HYBRID MASONRY & STEELGarden Hills Elementary School, Champaign, IL BLDD Architects
  7. 7. International Union Internationalof Bricklayers and MasonryAllied Craftworkers Institute BAC CONTRACTORSIMI-TRAINED CRAFTWORKERS
  8. 8. Course EvaluationsIn order to maintain high-quality learning experiences, please access the evaluation for this course by logging into CES Discovery and clicking on the Course Evaluation link on the left side of the page.
  9. 9. MASONRY CODES & STANDARDS
  10. 10. BRICKPROPERTIES
  11. 11. BRICK PROPERTIES Color Shape Size Bonding pattern Orientation Texture of unit Texture of wall Accent unitsDESIGN FLEXIBILITY
  12. 12. BRICK PROPERTIESDESIGN FLEXIBILITY
  13. 13. BRICK PROPERTIESDESIGN FLEXIBILITY
  14. 14. BRICK PROPERTIESDESIGN FLEXIBILITY
  15. 15. BRICK PROPERTIESASTM C 216 TABLE 1 – PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
  16. 16. BRICK PROPERTIESASTM C 216 TABLE 3 – DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES
  17. 17. BRICK PROPERTIESASTM C 216 TABLE 3 – DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES
  18. 18. BRICK PROPERTIES Type FBA brick has no requirement for dimensional stabilityTYPE FBA
  19. 19. BRICK PROPERTIESASTM C 216 TABLE 3 – DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES
  20. 20. BRICK PROPERTIES MAX. PERMISSIBLE DISTORTION PER ASTM TABLEASTM C 216 TABLE 4 – DISTORTION TOLERANCES
  21. 21. BRICK PROPERTIESASTM C 216 TABLE 2 – ALLOWABLE CHIPPAGE
  22. 22. BRICK PROPERTIES Recommendation: 5-25 g/min/30 in 2 Not a requirement in ASTM or MSJC Consider high IRA brick for cold weather construction Consider low IRA brick for hot weather constructionINITIAL RATE OF ABSORPTION (IRA)
  23. 23. MOISTURERESISTANCE
  24. 24. MOISTURE RESISTANCEBrick & mortar leakWall system must address moisture penetration
  25. 25. MOISTURE RESISTANCECAVITY WALL[DRAINAGE WALL]
  26. 26. MOISTURE RESISTANCEREQUIRED by Code Air space Flashing Weep holesOPTIONAL Air Barrier * Mortar Dropping Collection Device (MDCD)*depending on project location
  27. 27. MOISTURE RESISTANCE  2” recommended  1” min. for veneers, per code  4½” max. btwn. brick & backupAIR SPACE © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  28. 28. MOISTURE RESISTANCE 2” recommended 1” min. for veneers per ACI 530 Code 4½” max. between brick and backupAIR SPACE © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  29. 29. MOISTURE RESISTANCENo mortar bridgingacross the cavity!AIR SPACE © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  30. 30. MOISTURE RESISTANCE 2” 2”AIR SPACE
  31. 31. MOISTURE RESISTANCE Bevel the bed jointsCLEAN CAVITIES
  32. 32. MORTAR
  33. 33. 18% 18.00% MORTAR 12% 12.21% MORTAR ONE SQUARE FOOT ONE SQUARE FOOT MODULAR BRICK, RUNNING BOND UTILITY BRICK, RUNNING BOND BED JOINTS 4 @ 12” x 3/8” = 18.000 SQ. IN. HEAD JOINTS 8 @ 2.3125” x 3/8” = 6.938 SQ. IN. 3 @ 12” x 3/8” = 13.500 SQ. IN. 2 @ 1.3125” x 3/8” = 0.984 SQ. IN. 3 @ 3.625” x 3/8” = 4.078 SQ. IN. 25.922 SQ. IN. MORTAR 17.578 SQ. IN. MORTARELEVATIONS MORTAR JOINT MATERIAL TAKEOFFDIAGRAM 01.410.0311 REV. 08/10/09 © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  34. 34. MORTARCOLORED MORTAR
  35. 35. MORTAR ASTM C 270 Mortar Options: - Portland Cement and Lime - Masonry Cement - Mortar Cement Mortar Types: M, S, N, and O Mortar Quality ControlASTM C 270 MASONRY MORTARS
  36. 36. MORTAR M a S o N w O r KASTM C 270 MASONRY MORTARS
  37. 37. MORTARASTM C 270 TABLE 1 – PROPORTION SPECIFICATION
  38. 38. MORTAR M S N O K 1:¼:3¾ 1:½:4½ 1:1:6 1:2:9 1:3:12 general ratio cement : lime : sand Refer to ASTM C 270 for acceptable rangesPROPORTION RULES-OF-THUMB
  39. 39. MORTARMIXING BY HAND
  40. 40. MORTARASTM C 270 TABLE 2 – PROPERTY SPECIFICATION
  41. 41. MORTARconcave vee raked beaded flush grapevine weathered struck weepingJOINT PROFILES
  42. 42. MORTARconcave veeWEATHER-RESISTANT MORTAR JOINTS
  43. 43. MORTARBOND SEPARATION
  44. 44. MORTARTEMPERING
  45. 45. MORTARTOOLING THE JOINTS
  46. 46. MORTARTOOTHING NOT RECOMMENDED
  47. 47. MORTARJOINT PREPARATION FOR REPOINTING
  48. 48. MORTARREPOINTING
  49. 49. d d/3 MAX 1. DETERIORATED 2. JOINT GROUND TO 3. JOINT GROUND TO 4. JOINT RAKED TO SOUND MORTAR INCORRECT PROFILE INCORRECT PROFILE MORTAR (d/3 MAX.) AND GROUND TO 90º PROFILE 1/4” 1/4” 5. 1/4” LIFT, FIRST PASS 6. 1/4” LIFTS, SUB- 7. FINAL PASS INCORRECTLY SEQUENT PASSES SMEARED ABOUT BRICK International Masonry Institute EDGES RESULTS IN EXAG- GERATED JOINT WIDTH MASONRY 8. FINAL PASS TOOLED TO DETAILINGREPOINTING DETAIL CONCAVE OR VEE PROFILE SERIES TO MATCH EXISTINGDETAIL 16.101 N.T.S. REV. 05/08/09 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  50. 50. MOVEMENT CONTROL
  51. 51. MOVEMENT CONTROL Temperature changes Moisture changes Elastic deflection Plastic deformation Soil movements CrystallizationBUILDING MOVEMENTS
  52. 52. MOVEMENT CONTROL Brick expands Concrete block shrinksBUILDING MOVEMENTS
  53. 53. MOVEMENT CONTROL Expansion Joint or Masonry Exp. Joint BRICK NOT Control Joint nor CJ Control Joint BLOCK NOT Expansion JointBUILDING MOVEMENTS
  54. 54. MOVEMENT CONTROLarchitectural precast shrinkage brick (clay) expansion calcium silicate expansion cast stone shrinkageconcrete masonry unit shrinkage EIFS shrinkage stone expansion terra cotta expansion tile (ceramic) expansion brick (fly ash) ?
  55. 55. MOVEMENT CONTROL1.2 Contract documents 1.2.2 “Show all code-required items on the project drawings including… (h) provision for dimensional changes resulting from elastic deformation, creep, shrinkage, temperature, and moisture.”3.3 F.7 Movement Joints “Indicate type and location of movement joints on the project drawings.”DRAWING REQUIREMENTS
  56. 56. HORIZONTAL JOINT REINFORCEMENT, DISCONTINUOUS AT MOVEMENT JOINT EXPANSION JOINT (EJ): SEALANT, BACKER CONTROL JOINT (CJ): ROD, & COMPRESSIBLE PREFORMED SHEAR FILLER OF PRE- KEY, SEALANT, & MOLDED FOAM OR BACKER ROD NEOPRENE PAD CONTROL JOINT (CJ): PREFORMED SHEAR KEY, SEALANT, & BACKER ROD MOVEMENT JOINT: CONTROL JOINT AND/ OR EXPANSION JOINT OPTION 1: OPTION 2: EJ & CJ ALIGNED EJ & CJ OFFSETMOVEMENT JOINTDETAIL 01.030.1301 REV. 02/02/11 © 2011 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  57. 57. MOVEMENT CONTROL PILASTERSCHANGE INTERSECTINGIN HEIGHT WALLS CORNERS STRAIGHT RUNS OPENINGS CHANGE IN THICKNESSMOVEMENT JOINT LOCATIONS
  58. 58. MOVEMENT CONTROLEXPANSION JOINT AT INSIDE CORNER
  59. 59. MOVEMENT CONTROL OPENINGS < 6’, CJ REQUIRED @ ONE SIDE OPENINGS > 6’, CJ REQUIRED @ BOTH SIDESMJ @ PILASTERS& INSIDE CORNERSMOVEMENT JOINT LOCATIONS
  60. 60. MOVEMENT CONTROLEXPANSION JOINT AT OPENING
  61. 61. EXPANSION JOINT AT WINDOWDETAIL 01.030.1321.PH REV. 08/09/09 © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  62. 62. MASONRY EXPANSION JOINT ALIGNED W/ WINDOW JAMB; COMPRESSIBLE FILLER, BACKER ROD & SEALANT FLASHING END DAM RETURNED INTO HEAD JOINT BACKER ROD OR COMPRESSIBLE MATERIAL AT END OF LINTEL TO AVOID RESTRAINT OF FLASHING SYSTEM MOVEMENT, AND AT FRONT EDGE W/ DRIP EDGE OF LINTEL TO PROVIDE BACKER FOR SEALANT STRUCT. STEEL LINTEL FLASHING MEMBRANE OR PLASTIC BEARING PAD BENEATH BEARING AREA OF ANGLE TO CREATE SLIP PLANE WINDOW SYSTEMEXPANSION JOINT AT WINDOWDETAIL 01.030.1321 REV. 08/09/09 © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  63. 63. MOVEMENT CONTROLOFFSET EXPANSION JOINT
  64. 64. MOVEMENT CONTROL OPENINGS < 6’, CJ REQUIRED @ ONE SIDE OPENINGS > 6’, CJ REQUIRED @ BOTH SIDESMJ @ PILASTERS& INSIDE CORNERS ALIGN MJ W/ JAMB OR HEADERMOVEMENT JOINT LOCATIONS
  65. 65. OPENINGS < 6’, CJ REQUIRED @ ONE SIDE OPENINGS > 6’, CJ REQUIRED @ BOTH SIDESMJ @ PILASTERS& INSIDE CORNERS ALIGN MJ W/ JAMB OR HEADER SHORTER WALLS MAY REQUIRE CJ SPACING 1½ x WALL HEIGHTMOVEMENT JOINT LOCATIONS
  66. 66. MOVEMENT CONTROL MOVEMENT MOVEMENT MOVEMENT JOINT FLUSH JOINTS AT END JOINT BETWEEN WITH OPENING OF LINTEL OPENINGSMOVEMENT JOINT LOCATIONS
  67. 67. WHEN WINDOWS ARE SPACED CLOSE TOGETHER, LOCATE VERTICAL EXPANSION JOINTS AT WINDOW JAMBS WHEN WINDOWS ARE SPACED FAR APART, LOCATE VERTICAL EXPANSION JOINTS BETWEEN WINDOWSELEVATIONS MOVEMENT JOINT LAYOUTDIAGRAM 01.410.1311 REV. 08/10/09 © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  68. 68. MOVEMENT CONTROLSEALANT COLOR
  69. 69. MOVEMENT CONTROLSEALANT COLOR
  70. 70. MOVEMENT CONTROL C C C C = REGULAR MJ INTERVAL B A + B may equal C A A < 10’ … CLOSER TO CORNER IS BETTERMOVEMENT JOINTS AT CORNER
  71. 71. MOVEMENT CONTROLNO EXPANSION JOINT AT CORNER
  72. 72. TERMINATE HORIZONTAL JOINT REINFORCEMENT AT CONTROL JOINT GROUT & REINFORCING WHERE REQUIRED SINGLE WYTHE BLOCK SASH BLOCK PREFORMED SHEAR KEY CAULK & BACKER ROD International Masonry Institute MASONRY DETAILINGCONTROL JOINT SERIESDETAIL 03.802A REV. 07/07/08 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2008 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  73. 73. TERMINATE HORIZONTAL JOINT REINFORCEMENT AT CONTROL JOINT SINGLE WYTHE BLOCK BUILDING PAPER GROUT FILL CAULK & BACKER ROD International Masonry Institute MASONRY DETAILINGCONTROL JOINT SERIESDETAIL 03.802B REV. 07/07/08 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2008 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  74. 74. TERMINATE HORIZONTAL JOINT REINFORCEMENT AT CONTROL JOINT GROUT & REINFORCING WHERE REQUIRED SINGLE WYTHE BLOCK CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET WHERE REQUIRED FOR FIRE RATING CAULK & BACKER ROD International Masonry Institute MASONRY DETAILINGFIRE RATED CONTROL JOINT SERIESDETAIL 03.802C REV. 07/07/08 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2008 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  75. 75. MOVEMENT CONTROLCONTROL JOINTS AT OPENINGS
  76. 76. MOVEMENT CONTROLCONTROL JOINTS
  77. 77. MOVEMENT CONTROLSHRINKAGE CRACKING
  78. 78. MOVEMENT CONTROLBOND SEPARATION
  79. 79. MOVEMENT CONTROLEXPANSION JOINTS
  80. 80. COMPRESSIBLE FILLER ANCHOR TRANSFERS SINGLE WYTHE BLOCK GROUT-FILLED CELLS TRANSVERSE LOADS AND ALLOWS INDEPENDENT MOVEMENT OF INTERSECTING WALLS GROUT-FILLED CELLS SEALANT AND BACKER ROD International Masonry Institute MASONRY DETAILINGISOLATION JOINT SERIESDETAIL 03.811 REV. 06/18/08 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2008 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  81. 81. EXISTING WALL ANCHOR TRANSFERS TRANSVERSE LOADS AND ALLOWS INDEPENDENT MOVEMENT OF INTERSECTING WALLS MOVEMENT JOINTS NEW WALL SEALANT, BACKER ROD, AND COMPRESSIBLE FILLER International Masonry Institute MASONRY DETAILINGISOLATION JOINT CONNECTION OF NEW TO EXISTING WALLS SERIESDETAIL 01.811 REV. 06/18/08 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2008 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  82. 82. ASTM C476-10 STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR GROUT FOR MASONRY
  83. 83. ASTM C476-10 SCOPE
  84. 84. ASTM C476-10 SCOPE
  85. 85. ASTM C476-10 SCOPE Conventional Grout SCG
  86. 86. ASTM C476-10 MATERIALS
  87. 87. ASTM C476-10 MATERIALS 3. Materials 3.1.1 Cementitious Materials 3.1.1.1 Portland Cement 3.1.1.2 Blended Cements 3.1.1.3 Quicklime 3.1.1.4 Hydrated Lime 3.1.1.5 Coal Fly Ash or Raw Calcined Natural Pozzolan 3.1.1.6 Granulated Blast Furnace Slag 3.1.2 Air Entraining Admixtures 3.1.3 Aggregates 3.1.4 Water Clean & potable 3.1.5 Admixtures iwr, accelerators, etc. 3.1.5.1 Admixtures for SCG 3.1.6 Pumping Aids water-reducers, viscocity modifiers 3.1.7 Antifreeze Compounds Not permitted 3.1.8 Storage of Materials Protect from moisture
  88. 88. ASTM C476-10 GROUT TYPE & PROPORTIONS
  89. 89. ASTM C476-10 GROUT TYPE & PROPORTIONS 4. Grout Type and Proportions 4.1 Type 4.1.1 Fine grout Fine aggregate 4.1.2 Coarse grout Coarse and Fine aggregates 4.2 Proportions of Ingredients 4.2.1 Conventional Grout 4.2.1.1 Table 1 4.2.1.2 Specified Compressive Strength 2,000 psi at 28 days Per astm c1019 4.2.2 Self-consolidating Grout 2,000 psi at 28 days 4.2.2.1 Specified Compressive Strength Per astm c1019 24-30 in. slump flow; Vsi < 1
  90. 90. ASTM C476-10 GROUT TYPE & PROPORTIONS MSJC 2008 Specification for Masonry Structures  “Grout compressive strength equals or exceeds f’m but not less than 2000 psi.” (Article 1.4 B.2.a.3)b) and 1.4 B.2.b.3)b))  “Grout compressive strength equals or exceeds f’aac but compressive strength is not less than 2000 psi.” (Article 1.4 B.c.3)b))  “unless otherwise required, provide grout that conforms to the requirements of ASTM C 476, or ” (Article 2.2 A.1)  “…attains the specified compressive strength or 2000 psi, whichever is greater, at 28 days when tested…” (for self-consolidating grout) (Article 2.2 A).2) ASTM C 476-10 Standard Specification for Grout for Masonry  “…and shall have a minimum compressive strength of 2000 psi at 28 days.” (Section 4.2.1.1 (Conventional grout))  …”The grout shall have a minimum compressive strength of 2000 psi at 28 days.” (Section 4.2.2.1 (Self-consolidating grout))
  91. 91. ASTM C476-10 MEASUREMENT & PRODUCTION
  92. 92. ASTM C476-10 MEASUREMENT & PRODUCTION 5. Measurement and Production 5.1 Measurement of Materials Volume to batch weight conversions 5.2 Production Methods 5.2.1 Grout Mat’ls Mixed w/ Water @ Job Site 5.2.1.1 Conventional Grout mech. Mixer, 5 minutes min.; 5.2.1.2 SCG continuous mixer per mixer manuf’r recommendations 5.2.2 Ready-Mixed Grout Transported to Job Site adjust slump as necessary 5.2.2.1 Conventional Grout by remixing for at least 1 min. 5.2.2.2 SCG add water per scg Manufr recommendations
  93. 93. ASTM C1019-09 STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING GROUT
  94. 94. ASTM C1019-09 SCOPE; SIGNIFICANCE & USE 1. Scope 1.1 This test method covers procedures for both field and laboratory sampling and compression testing of grout used in masonry construction. 3. Significance & Use 3.1 Grout used in masonry is a fluid mixture of cementitious materials and aggregate with a high water content for ease of placement. 3.1.1 During construction, grout is placed within or between absorptive masonry units. Excess water must be removed from the grout specimens in order to provide compressive strength test results more nearly indicative of the grout strength in the wall.
  95. 95. ASTM C1019-09 TEST SPECIMENS PROCEDURES 5. Test Specimens 5.1 Each grout specimen shall have a square cross section, 3 in. or larger on the sides and twice as high as its width. 5.2 Test at least three specimens at each age specified. EXAMPLE: IF SPECIMENS ARE TO BE TESTED AT 7, 14, AND 28 DAYS, THEN MAKE 9 SPECIMENS. Note 4: frequency of sampling and age of test is to be determined by the specifier, and is usually found in the construction documents; for example, one set of specimens may be specified for every 5,000 s.f. of wall.
  96. 96. ASTM C1019-09 GROUT SPECIMEN MOLDS
  97. 97. ASTM C1019-09 SCOPE6. Grout Specimen Molds 6.1 Molds from Masonry Units 6.1.1 Select a level location where the molds remain undisturbed for up to 48 hours. 6.1.2 The construction of the mold shall simulate the in-situ construction. If the grout is placed between two different types of masonry units, both types shall be used to construct the mold. 6.1.3 Form a space with a square cross-section, 3 in. or larger on each side and twice as high 5% tolerance on dims. as its width, by stacking masonry units of the same type and moisture condition as those being used in the construction. The surface of the unit in contact with the grout specimen shall not have been previously used to mold specimens. Place non- absorbent block, cut to proper size and of the proper thickness or quantity, at the bottom of the space to achieve the necessary height of specimen.
  98. 98. ASTM C1019-09 SAMPLING GROUT
  99. 99. ASTM C1019-09 SAMPLING GROUT7. Sampling Grout field technician aci or ncma certified, or equal 7.1 Size of Sample sample used for slump & comp. strength 1/2 ft3 min. 7.2 Procedure 2 or more portions mid-discharge, 7.2.1 Field Sampling spaced < 15 min. apart 7.2.2 Laboratory Sampling entire mixed batch of grout is sample 7.3 Place the grout sample in a non- absorptive container, cover the top to protect sample from the sun, wind, and any other sources of rapid evaporation /contamination. Remix to ensure uniformity prior to filling molds.
  100. 100. ASTM C1019-09 TEMPERATURE & SLUMP TEST 8. Temperature and Slump Test 8.1 Measure and record the temperature of the grout sample in accordance w/ ASTM C1064 8.2 Begin filling the slump cone within 5 min. of obtaining the final portion of the sample. 8.3 For conventional grout, measure and record the slump in accordance w/ ASTM C143 8.4 For SCG, measure and record the slump flow and VSI in accordance w/ ASTM C1611
  101. 101. SLUMP TEST, CONVENTIONAL GROUTFilling Slump ConeSlump cones are for testing groutconsistency prior to grouting.Hold cone firmlyin position so groutdoes not escapewhile filling the cone.
  102. 102. SLUMP TEST, CONVENTIONAL GROUTFilling Slump ConeFill the bottom 1/3and rod 25 timeswith the puddle rod.Straight in andStraight out… do not 1/3stir.
  103. 103. SLUMP TEST, CONVENTIONAL GROUTFilling Slump ConeFill the middle 1/3and rod 25 times.Penetrate bottom1/3 only slightly. 2/3
  104. 104. SLUMP TEST, CONVENTIONAL GROUTFilling Slump ConeFill the top 1/3and rod 25 times.Penetrate middle 3/31/3 only slightly.
  105. 105. SLUMP TEST, CONVENTIONAL GROUTRemove Slump ConeLift the cone slowlyand straight up.Do not twist or turn.Grout should slump8 to 11 inches.
  106. 106. SLUMP vs. SLUMP FLOWConventional Grout ASTM C 143 8 - 11” slumpSCG ASTM C1611 24” to 30” slump flow VSI < 1
  107. 107. ASTM C1019-09 COMPRESSIVE TEST SPECIMEN 9. Compressive Test Specimen 9.1 Begin filling molds within 15 min. of obtaining final portion of sample. 9.2 - 9.5 describe procedures for conventional grout; see next slide. For SCG, fill mold w/ grout in one layer and do not rod. 9.6 Protect specimens from freezing and variations in temp. Record max. & min. temps prior to time specimens are placed in final curing environment. Note 9: if storage temps are < 60ºF or > 80ºF, resulting compressive strengths will likely be affected.
  108. 108. ASTM C1019-09 COMPRESSIVE TEST SPECIMEN, CONVENTIONAL GROUT1. Masonry pinwheel 2. Line face of units 3. Fill bottom layer w/ grout 4. Rod 15 times w/ tamping rod5. Fill top layer w/ grout 6. Rod 15 times w/ tamping rod 7. Strike off top surface 8. Cover w/ absorbent cloth9. Within 30 minutes, 10. Fill depression caused by 11. Strike off top surface 12. Cover w/ absorbent cloth; remove cloth initial water loss do not disturb specimen until molds are removed 13. Remove molds 24-48 hours after making specimen
  109. 109. ASTM C1019-09 COMPRESSIVE TEST SPECIMEN 9. Compressive Test Specimen 9.1 Begin filling molds within 15 min. of obtaining final portion of sample. 9.2 - 9.5 describe procedures for conventional grout; see next slide. For SCG, fill mold w/ grout in one layer and do not rod. 9.6 Protect specimens from freezing and variations in temp. Record max. & min. temps prior to time specimens are placed in final curing environment.
  110. 110. ASTM C1019-09 COMPRESSIVE TEST SPECIMEN, SCG 1. Masonry pinwheel 2. Line face of units 3. Fill to top w/ SCG 4. Strike off top surface 5. Cover w/ absorbent cloth 6. Within 30 minutes, remove cloth 7. Fill depression caused by 8. Strike off top surface 9. Cover w/ absorbent cloth; initial water loss do not disturb specimen until molds are removed 10. Remove molds 24-48 hours after making specimen
  111. 111. ASTM C1019-09 ALTERNATIVE METHODS 6. Grout Specimen Molds 6.2 Alternative Methods - … used only with approval of the specifier. Note 7: fill compartments in slotted corrugated cardboard boxes specifically manufactured to provide grout specimens.
  112. 112. Understand Grout Pours and LiftsOften confused or used interchangeably. MSJC Definitions: Grout Pour – The total height of masonry to be grouted prior to erection of additional masonry. A grout pour consists of one or more grout lifts. Grout lift – An increment of grout height within a total grout pour. A grout pour consists of one or more grout lifts.Maximum pour height – function of grout type (fine or coarse), minimum grout space dimensions, use of cleanouts, conventional grout or SCG. Maximum pour heights are established by MSJC Table 7.Maximum lift height – default is 5’, may increase to 12’-8” under some circumstances. SCG may be increased to pour height under some circumstances.
  113. 113. Tip 10 – Understand Grout Pours and Lifts 1999 MSJC – 5’ lift height limitation. 2002 MSJC – demonstration panel option permitting any construction procedures that produce proper installation. 2005 MSJC – lift height increased to 12’-8” subject to conditions. 2008 MSJC – Self-consolidating grout provisions
  114. 114. Understand Grout Pours and LiftsGrout lift height –A.) Where the following conditions are met, place grout in lifts not exceeding 12.67 ft 1.The masonry has cured for at least 4 hours. 2. The grout slump is maintained between 10 and 11 in. 3. No intermediate reinforced bond beams are placed between the top and the bottom of the pour height.B.) As above but intermediate bond beam, then lift height can extend to the bottom of the bond beam but not to exceed 12.67’.C.) Otherwise, place grout in lifts not exceeding 5 ft.D.) Demonstration panel option may result in increases.E.) SCG may, under some circumstances be permitted to have the grout lift equal the pour height.
  115. 115. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  116. 116. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  117. 117. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  118. 118. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  119. 119. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  120. 120. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  121. 121. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  122. 122. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  123. 123. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  124. 124. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  125. 125. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  126. 126. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  127. 127. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  128. 128. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  129. 129. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  130. 130. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  131. 131. LOW LIFT GROUTING
  132. 132. HIGH LIFT GROUTING
  133. 133. HIGH LIFT GROUTING
  134. 134. HIGH LIFT GROUTING
  135. 135. HIGH LIFT GROUTING
  136. 136. HIGH LIFT GROUTING
  137. 137. HIGH LIFT GROUTING
  138. 138. HIGH LIFT GROUTING
  139. 139. HIGH LIFT GROUTING
  140. 140. HIGH LIFT GROUTING - SCG
  141. 141. STOP GROUT 1” FROM TOP OF POUR TO CREATE SHEAR KEY GROUT IN BOND BEAMS & REINFORCED VERTICAL CELLS PLACED IN TOP OF WALL AFTER WALL HAS BEEN LAID UP VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR CLOSED-END CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS CAN BE SET AFTER WALL HAS BEEN LAID. REBAR POSITIONER, WALL TIE, OPTION 1: U-BLOCK OR OTHER DEVICE TO POSTION UNITS W/ SOLID VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT BOTTOM AT BOND BEAM COURSE CELLS CONTAINING REINFORCEMENT ARE FILLED SOLIDLY W/ GROUT; VERTICAL CELLS SHOULD PROVIDE A CONTINUOUS HORIZONTAL CAVITY FREE OF MORTAR REINFORCEMENT DROPPINGS PLACED IN BOND BEAMS AS WALL IS LAID UP NOTE: GROUT PLACED IN POURS & LIFTS NOT TO EXCEED 5 FT. CONSOLIDATE LIFTS OVER 12” USING MECH. VIBRATION. LIFTS LESS THAN 12” MAY BE PUDDLED. OPTION 2: STANDARD CMU W/ CROSS WEBS KNOCKED OUT AT BOND BEAM COURSE METAL LATH, MESH, OR WIRE SCREEN PLACED IN MORTAR JOINTS UNDER KNOCK- OUT BOND BEAM COURSES TO PREVENT FILLING OF UNGROUTED CELLSLOW LIFT GROUTING PROCEDURESDETAIL 02.410.0131 REV. 06/30/10
  142. 142. STOP GROUT 1” FROM TOP OF POUR TO CREATE SHEAR KEY GROUT IN BOND BEAMS & REINFORCED VERTICAL CELLS PLACED IN TOP OF WALL AFTER WALL HAS BEEN LAID UP VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR CLOSED-END CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS CAN BE SET AFTER WALL HAS OPTION 1: U-BLOCK BEEN LAID. UNITS W/ SOLID BOTTOM AT BOND REBAR POSITIONER, WALL TIE, BEAM COURSE OR OTHER DEVICE TO POSTION VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT CELLS CONTAINING REINFORCEMENT ARE HORIZONTAL FILLED SOLIDLY W/ GROUT; REINFORCEMENT VERTICAL CELLS SHOULD PLACED IN BOND PROVIDE A CONTINUOUS BEAMS AS WALL IS CAVITY FREE OF MORTAR LAID UP DROPPINGS NOTE: GROUT LIFTS NOT TO EXCEED 5 FT. SEE STRUCTURAL DWGS FOR MAX. HEIGHT OF POUR. MECH. CONSOLIDATE & CLEANOUT OPENINGS @ BASE OF RECONSOLIDATE VERTICALLY REINF. CELLS, 32” O.C. GROUT MAX. SPACING FOR SOLID GROUTED WALLS. REMOVE MORTAR DROPPINGS THROUGH CLEANOUTS AND VERIFY PLACEMENT & LOCATION OF VERTICAL REINF.; FORM OVER OPEN’GS BEFORE PLACING GROUT OPTION 2: STANDARD CMU W/ CROSS WEBS KNOCKED OUT AT BOND BEAM COURSE METAL LATH, MESH, OR WIRE SCREEN PLACED IN MORTAR JOINTS UNDER KNOCK- OUT BOND BEAM COURSES TO PREVENT FILLING OF UNGROUTED CELLSHIGH LIFT GROUTING PROCEDURESDIAGRAM 02.410.0131 REV. 07/06/10
  143. 143. BRICK & BLOCK CAVITY WALL INTERIOR VIEWDETAIL FEATURES• LOOSE LINTEL AT BRICK• BOND BEAM AT BLOCK International Masonry Institute• LIGHT GAUGE SUPPORT EXTERIOR VIEW ACROSS CAVITY MASONRY DETAILINGHEAD DETAIL STEEL LINTEL & BOND BEAM SERIESDETAIL 01.301 REV. 09/04/07 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2007 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  144. 144. SPANNING OPENINGS Poly-wrapped steel angles used for temporary supportCAST-IN-PLACE MASONRY LINTEL
  145. 145. SPANNING OPENINGS Precast masonry lintel fabricated on the groundPRECAST LINTELS
  146. 146. SPANNING OPENINGS Lintel is hoisted by liftPRECAST LINTELS
  147. 147. SPANNING OPENINGS Precast lintel set into placePRECAST LINTELS
  148. 148. SPANNING OPENINGS 10-foot spanPRECAST LINTELS
  149. 149. PLACE REINFORCING AND INSPECT WALL FOR OBSTRUCTIONS CUT PORTION OF FACE SHELL TO REINSERT FACE CREATE CLEANOUT SHELL AND MORTAR IN PLACE BRACE CLEANOUT AND PLACE GROUT REMOVE BRACINGBLOCK CLEANOUTDIAGRAM 02.410.0111 REV. 06/12/09
  150. 150. CUT FACE SHELL FOR CLEANOUT GROUT & REINFORCEMENT WOOD BRACINGBLOCK CLEANOUTDIAGRAM 02.410.0112 REV. 06/12/09
  151. 151. CUT WEDGE-SHAPED PORTION OF FACE SHELL TO CREATE CLEANOUT MORTAR FACE SHELL EDGES IF NECESSARY REINSERT FACE SHELL PIECE TO RESIST GROUT PRESSURE CLEANOUTBLOCK CLEANOUTDIAGRAM 02.410.013 REV. 06/12/09
  152. 152. 2. PLACE ACRYLIC GROUT STOP INTEGRALLY BRACED AGAINST INSIDE OF FACE SHELL 1. CUT OUT PORTION OF FACE SHELL 4. PLACE REBAR & GROUT3. HAND-TIGHTEN 5. REMOVE ACRYLICBRACE AND BREAK OFF PLASTIC BRACEBLOCK CLEANOUTDIAGRAM 02.410.0114 REV. 06/12/09
  153. 153. Give the Contractor Some LatitudeGive the contractor some latitude in the…. Selection of Fine or Coarse Grout  Technical considerations  Grout space dimensions  Pour height limitations  Compressive strength independent of type Fine Grout might be better suited Coarse or Fine Grout here here Constructability considerations  Ease of use/Personal preference  Cost implications – material, placement  Issues related to pour height (next slide)
  154. 154. VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AS REQ’D HORIZONTAL JOINT REINFORCEMENT GROUT AS REQ’D DOWELS MAY BE BENT UP TO 1” LATERALLY PER 6” VERTICALLY CMU SHOWN IN LONGITUDINAL SECTION FOUNDATIONFOUNDATION DOWEL ALIGNMENTDETAIL 02.010.0301 REV. 02/22/09
  155. 155. MORTAR FIN 1/2” MAX.MORTAR PROTRUSION TOLERANCEDIAGRAM 02.410.0121 REV. 02/22/09
  156. 156. MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM ANY PROTRUSION: 1/2” MIN. FOR COURSE GROUT 1/4” MIN. FOR FINE GROUTREINFORCEMENT PLACEMENT TOLERANCEDIAGRAM 02.410.0123 REV. 02/22/09
  157. 157. ±1/2” IF d ≤ 8” ±2” ±1” IF 8”< d ≤ 24” ±1¼” IF d > 24” d SPACING OF VERTICAL REINFORCEMENTREINFORCEMENT PLACEMENT TOLERANCEDIAGRAM 02.410.0122 REV. 02/24/09
  158. 158. EXTERIOR FACE OF WALL INTERIOR FACE OF WALL FACE2db MIN. 1/2” MIN. EXTERIOR FACE 5/8” MIN. 2db MIN. INTERIOR HORIZONTAL JOINT REINFORCEMENT W/ db DIAMETERHORIZONTAL JOINT REINFORCEMENT TOLERANCEDIAGRAM 02.410.0124 REV. 02/22/09
  159. 159. WORKMANSHIP
  160. 160. MOISTURE RESISTANCEFULL HEAD JOINTS
  161. 161. QUALITY CONTROL protect materials protect workPROTECTION OF WORK
  162. 162. QUALITY CONTROLSAMPLE PANELS
  163. 163. QUALITY CONTROLCOLOR BLENDING
  164. 164. QUALITY CONTROLCOMMUNICATION
  165. 165. QUALITY CONTROLCOMMUNICATION
  166. 166. CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES
  167. 167. CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCESALLOWABLE MORTAR JOINT VARIATION
  168. 168. 1/2” 1/8” 3/4” ALLOWABLE SOURCE: BUILDING CODE JOINT TOLERANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES (ACI 530-05/ASCE 5- BED JOINT ±1/8” 05/TMS 402-05) REPORTED BY THE 1/4” HEAD JOINT -1/4”, +3/8” MASONRY STANDARDS JOINT COLLAR JOINT -1/4”, +3/8” COMMITTEE (MSJC) AREA OF DETAIL 3/8” 3/8” ELEVATIONMORTAR JOINT TOLERANCESDIAGRAM 01.410.0301 REV. 08/06/09
  169. 169. WORKMANSHIP TOLERANCES 80’-0” 20’-0” 1/2” 1/2” 2¼” 1¼” 1” 1” STEEL CONCRETE BRICK (AISC) (ACI) (MSJC) International Masonry Institute MASONRY DETAILINGALLOWABLE CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES SERIESDETAIL 14.105 REV. 07/09/08 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2008 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  170. 170. WORKMANSHIP TOLERANCES 80’-0” 20’-0” 1/2” 1/2” 2¼” 1¼” 1” 1” STEEL CONCRETE BRICK (AISC) (ACI) (MSJC) International Masonry Institute MASONRY DETAILINGALLOWABLE CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES SERIESDETAIL 14.105 REV. 07/09/08 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2008 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  171. 171. WORKMANSHIP TOLERANCES 80’-0” 20’-0” 1/2” 1/2” 2¼” 1¼” 1” 1” STEEL CONCRETE BRICK (AISC) (ACI) (MSJC) International Masonry Institute MASONRY DETAILINGALLOWABLE CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES SERIESDETAIL 14.105 REV. 07/09/08 800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org © 2008 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE
  172. 172. CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES L d I C L d L = LENGTH OF WALL WHEN L < 10’-0” d < 1/4“ d = ALLOWABLE VARIATION FROM PLAN AT ANY POINT WHEN L < 20’-0” d < 3/8“ WHEN L > 20’-0” d < 1/2“ALLOWABLE VARIATIONS FOR OUT-OF-LINE
  173. 173. CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES I C L D D H = WALL HEIGHT D = ALLOWABLE VARIATION FROM PLUMB AT ANY POINT WHEN H < 10’-0” D < 1/4“ WHEN H < 20’-0” D < 3/8“ H WHEN H > 20’-0” D < 1/2“ALLOWABLE VARIATIONS FOR OUT-OF-PLUMB
  174. 174. CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES ≥20’-0” I C L ≤10’-0” 1/4” 1/2” 1/2” 1/4”ALLOWABLE VARIATIONS FOR OUT-OF-LEVEL
  175. 175. THEREFORE WHEN WE BUILD,LET US THINK THAT WE BUILD FOR EVER.LET IT NOT BE FOR PRESENT DELIGHT,NOR FOR PRESENT USE ALONE;LET IT BE SUCH WORK ASOUR DESCENDANTS WILL THANK US FOR.AND LET US THINKAS WE LAY STONE UPON STONE,THAT A TIME IS TO COMEWHEN THOSE STONES WILL BE HELD SACREDBECAUSE OUR HANDS HAVE TOUCHED THEM,AND THAT MEN WILL SAYAS THEY LOOK UPON THE LABOURAND WROUGHT SUBSTANCE OF THEM, [my descendant]“SEE! THIS OUR FATHERS DID FOR US.” John Ruskin, 1849 The Seven Lamps of Architecture
  176. 176. BENEFITS OF BUILDING WITH MASONRY Beauty Versatility of Design Contextual / Relatable Ease of Construction Structural Fire & Impact Resistant Durable / Low Maintenance Economical Sustainable Energy Efficient High Performance Acoustic Qualified Local Labor
  177. 177. International Union Internationalof Bricklayers and MasonryAllied Craftworkers Institute BAC CONTRACTORSIMI-TRAINED CRAFTWORKERS

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