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Designing with Tile
 

Designing with Tile

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Attendees will develop an understanding of the various types of tile, setting methods, system components, design and installation considerations, specialty systems, and quality assurance. Attendees ...

Attendees will develop an understanding of the various types of tile, setting methods, system components, design and installation considerations, specialty systems, and quality assurance. Attendees will learn how to use applicable codes and standards to design and specify tile work meeting minimum requirements and best practices. The program will emphasize design and installation requirements for large format tile, including substrate preparation. The program will also look at the new standards for coefficient of friction (COF). There will be a discussion of sustainable attributes of tile. The program will also address the new recommended specification language for installer qualifications appearing in the TCNA Handbook and MasterSpec.

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    Designing with Tile Designing with Tile Presentation Transcript

    • DESIGNING WITH TILE presented by International Masonry Institute
    • II. System components: OUTLINE I. References  Substrates  Membranes III. Movement control V. New materials & technologies IV. Coefficient of friction VI. Installer qualifications  Setting materials  Tile  Grout - LFT considerations - Preparation - Setting methods - Mortar coverage VII. Sustainability benefits
    • REFERENCES ANSI A108/118/136 American National Standard Specification for the Installation of Ceramic Tile ANSI A137.1-2008 American National Standard Specifications for Ceramic Tile 2013 TCNA Handbook for Ceramic, Glass, and Stone Tile Installation
    • SYSTEM COMPONENTS  Membranes  Setting materials  Tile  Grout  Substrates - Walls - Floors 2 3 4 1 5
    • SYSTEM COMPONENTS: TILE 1. Types of tile  Categories  Absorption  Size 2. Design and construction implications of large format tile (LFT)  Warpage  Lippage  Bonding pattern  Grout joint width  Substrate preparation
    • TYPES OF TILE  Porcelain tile  Mosaic tile  Pressed floor tile  Quarry tile  Glazed wall tile ANSI A137.1 American National Standard Specifications for Ceramic Tile includes performance and aesthetic criteria for the five major types of ceramic tiles:  Glass tile  Natural stone tile The TCNA Handbook includes selections guides and installation methods for all of the above, and also includes:
    • TYPES OF TILE, ABSORPTION  Impervious  Vitreous  Semi-Vitreous  Non-vitreous ≤0.5% 0.5% to 3.0% 3.0% to 7.0% > 7.0% Porcelain Pressed floor tile Quarry tile Glazed wall tile ANSI A137.1
    • Have been sorted to meet manufacturer’s stated caliber (size) range; vary less in facial dimensions than most natural tiles, but can experience wide size variance. Not sized or sorted mechanically; can very greatly in size. TYPES OF TILE, SIZING CATEGORIES Porcelain tile  Calibrated  Rectified Pressed tile  Calibrated  Rectified  Natural All edges are mechanically finished to achieve a more precise facial dimension; provide the least amount of facial dimension and squareness variance.
    • TYPES OF TILE, FACIAL SIZE  Standard  Mosaic Facial area < 9 sq. in. Any side > 15 in.  Large format ANSI A137.1
    • LARGE FORMAT TILE  Any side ≥ 15”
    • 12”x24”24”x24”18”x36”24”x48” 18”x18”16”x16”12”x12”6”x8”8”x8”4”x8”6”x6” TYPES OF TILE, FACIAL SIZE ANSI A137.1
    • LARGE FORMAT TILE, ISSUES Warpage Lippage Bonding pattern Substrate tolerance Coverage Grout joint width
    • GROUT JOINT WIDTH Grout joint width is a function of:  ANSI-established minimums  Tile’s facial dimension tolerance (range of tile sizes)  Tile’s edge warpage
    •  12” x 12” porcelain tile, rectified  What is the minimum grout joint width? 12” ? GROUT JOINT WIDTH
    • 4.3.8 Grout joint size: To accommodate the range in facial dimensions of the tile supplied for a specific project, the actual grout joint size may, of necessity, vary from the grout joint size specified. The actual grout joint size shall be at least three times the actual variation of facial dimensions of the tile supplied. In no circumstance shall the grout joint be less than 1/16 in. ANSI A108.02.4.3.8 GROUT JOINT WIDTH PER ANSI MINIMUM
    • ANSI A108.02.4.3.8 4.3.8 Grout joint size: To accommodate the range in facial dimensions of the tile supplied for a specific project, the actual grout joint size may, of necessity, vary from the grout joint size specified. The actual grout joint size shall be at least three times the actual variation of facial dimensions of the tile supplied. In no circumstance shall the grout joint be less than 1/16 in. GROUT JOINT WIDTH PER TILE’S FACIAL DIMENSIONS
    • ANSI A108.02.4.3.7 GROUT JOINT WIDTH PER ANSI MINIMUM Minimum widths per ANSI A108.02
    • GROUT JOINT WIDTH PER TILE’S FACIAL DIMENSIONS 12” x 12” (nom.) Porcelain tile, rectified  Dimension can vary ± .25% or .03 in.  Allowable variation = 12 in. x .0025 = .03 in = approx. 1/32 in.  Min. grout joint width = 3 x .03 = approx. 3/32 in.
    • GROUT JOINT WIDTH, LFT IN RUNNING BOND ANSI A108.02.4.3.8.1 “For running bond/brick joint patterns utilizing tiles (square or rectangular) with any side greater than 15 in., the grout joint shall be, on average, a minimum of 1/8 in. wide for rectified tiles and, on average, a minimum of 3/16 in. wide for calibrated (non-rectified) tiles. The grout joint width shall be increased over the minimum requirement by the amount of edge warpage on the longest edge of the actual tiles being installed.”
    • 12” x 24” (nom.) Porcelain tile, rectified  Grout joint width = 1/8 in. min., per ANSI A108.02.4.3.8.1  Longest edge warpage = 24 in. x .040 = .096 in. = approx. 3/32 in.  Min. grout joint width = 1/8 in. + 3/32 in. = approx. 7/32 in. GROUT JOINT WIDTH, LFT IN RUNNING BOND  Conclusion: Don’t use large format tile in running bond!
    • BONDING PATTERNS LARGE FORMAT TILE No offset 50% offset 33% offset
    • BONDING PATTERN 50% offset (running bond)
    • BONDING PATTERN 12” x 24” tile w/ 33% offset
    • BONDING PATTERN
    • LIPPAGE  Lippage: Condition where one edge of the tile is higher than the adjacent tile, giving the surface an uneven appearance.  1/32” – 1/16” lippage is considered acceptable, depending on grout joint width.
    • LIPPAGE
    • LIPPAGE Mechanical edge leveling system
    • LIGHTING Overhead lighting next to the wall creates harsh shadows, emphasizes lippage Lights moved just one ceiling panel (24”) from wall Locate light fixtures at least 24” away from the wall.
    • LIGHTING Wall wash lighting accentuates lippage, which may be in the acceptable range
    • LIGHTING, DURING CONSTRUCTION  It that’s impossible, insist that permanent lighting type be placed in the permanent lighting location prior to installing tile.  It’s best if permanent lighting is in place prior to tile installation.
    • 2.4 Backing surfaces Ceramic tile can be installed over horizontal and vertical building surfaces… Tile can be installed directly over sound, clean, and dimensionally stable surfaces with one of the thin-set methods, or with a mortar bed method. SUBSTRATES ANSI A108.1 General Requirements: Subsurfaces and Preparations by Other Trades 2.0 General requirements for subsurfaces
    • SUBSTRATES  Almost any rigid surface - Deflection criteria  Common substrates: - Concrete - Concrete masonry - Cement board - Plywood - Wallboard is important
    • SUBSTRATES, BACKER BOARDS “Cementitious backer units are fiber glass mesh-reinforced concrete construction units usually 7/16 in. minimum thickness.” - ANSI A108 Introduction, 2.13 “A nailable/screwable backerboard or underlayment panel which is composed of stable portland cement, aggregates, and reinforcements that have a significant ability to remain unaffected by prolonged exposure to moisture.” - ANSI A118.9.2.1
    • SUBSTRATES, BACKER BOARDS Wonderboard (Custom) Hardibacker (Hardi)DensShield (GP) Durock (USG)
    • SUBSTRATES, BACKER BOARDS  Center backer board edges on framing  Stagger joints so 4 corners do not meet  Space between panel ends & edges per manufacturer Wall and Floor Methods in TCNA Handbook  Long dimension of CBU against framing  20 ga. steel studs, min., @ 16 o.c. spacing, max. ANSI A108.11.5.1
    • SUBSTRATES, BACKER BOARDS “CAUTION – Neither gypsum board, including water- resistant gypsum backing board, nor gypsum plaster shall be used in wet areas.” ANSI A108.01.2.5.3.3
    • SUBSURFACE CONSIDERATIONS
    • 2.1 General The quality and cost of ceramic tile installations are influenced by the stability, permanence, and precision of installation of the backing or base material. ANSI A108.1 General Requirements: Subsurfaces and Preparations by Other Trades 2.0 General requirements for subsurfaces SUBSURFACE CONSIDERATIONS
    • SUBSURFACE CONSIDERATIONS, FLATNESS  Proper coverage The flatter the substrate, the easier it will be to achieve:  Minimal lippage Acceptable flatness Unacceptable flatness  Better bond
    • SUBSURFACE CONSIDERATIONS, FLATNESS “For tiles with all edges shorter than 15 in., the maximum allowable variation is no more than 1/4 in. in 10 ft. and no more than 1/16 in. in 1 ft. from the required plane.” “For tiles with at least one edge 15 in. or longer, the maximum allowable variation is no more than 1/8 in. in 10 ft. and no more than 1/16 in. in 2 ft. from the required plane.” Standard size tile Large format tile (LFT) ANSI A108.02.4.1.4.3.4 Requirements for sub-floor surfaces and vertical surfaces to receive tile using one of the thin-set methods:
    • SUBSURFACE FLATNESS
    • SUBSURFACE FLATNESS
    • SUBSURFACE FLATNESS Self-leveling underlayment (SLU) Trowel applied patch (flash patch)
    • © 2013 CTEF, NTCA, IMI, IUBAC, TCAA TESTING MODULE DRAWING 06.131.2101 REV. 1/21/13 FLOOR SUBSTRATE PREP/LARGE FORMAT TILE 1 2 3 4 FLOOR FRAMING DIAGRAM OSB DECKING MEMBRANE MODULE PREPPED FOR TESTING 4’ x 8’ FLOOR FRAME CONSTRUCTED W/ DIMENSIONALLY STABLE LUMBER OR MICROLAM. SHIM PERIMETER JOISTS IF NECESSARY, SO FRAME LIES FLAT ON SUBLFOOR SLOPE FRAMING 3/4” 1/2” OSB SECURELY FASTENED TO DECKING TO SIMULATE OUT- OF-LEVEL CONCRETE CLEAVAGE MEMBRANE OVER OSB FOR PROTECTION AND DISASSEMBLY WOOD FRAMED WALLS W/ OSB SHEATHING 1/4” CEMENT BOARD NAILED TO OSB W/ 7/8” ROOFING NAILS; AVOID NAILING INTO FRAMING FOR EASY REMOVAL
    • © 2013 CTEF, NTCA, IMI, IUBAC, TCAA 5 6FLOOR PATCH LARGE FORMAT TILE TESTING MODULE DRAWING 06.131.2102 REV. 1/21/13 FLOOR SUBSTRATE PREP/LARGE FORMAT TILE TROWEL-APPLIED SAND & CEMENT PATCH TO CORRECT FLOOR FLATNESS 12” x 24” PORCELAIN TILE LAID IN 1/3 RUNNING BOND IN THINSET MORTAR
    • Division 3 (FF method) vs. Division 9 (10 ft. straightedge method) SUBSURFACE FLATNESS, DIVISION 3 vs. DIVISION 9
    • SUBSURFACE FLATNESS, DIVISION 3 vs. DIVISION 9 Division 3, Concrete  Concrete floors must comply with a floor flatness (FF) tolerance based on the ASTM E1155 Standard Test Method to Determine Floor Flatness and Floor Levelness Numbers - FF of 20 is conventional - FF of 35 is flat - FF of 60 is superflat - per ACI 117-06, is suitable for thin-bed tile installations - however, FF of 35 will often have areas that do not meet the required flatness for tile
    • SUBSURFACE FLATNESS, DIVISION 3 vs. DIVISION 9 Limitations of ASTM E1155 (FF method)  Measurement taken within 72 hours of concrete placement - Before concrete curling and shrinkage  No measurement taken at construction, isolation, or control joints.  No measurement taken at column blockouts.  No measurement taken within 2 feet of perimeter of slab.
    • CONCRETE IS FLAT WHEN CAST IN PLACE CONCRETE IS FLAT WHEN CAST IN PLACE BUT CURLS AND SHRINKS AS IT SETS  Most curling is caused by shrinkage as the concrete dries  As the slab top shrinks, the bottom doesn’t, and the slab curls  Possible remedy: place more reinforcement at the top of the slab SUBSURFACE FLATNESS, DIVISION 3 vs. DIVISION 9
    • SUBSURFACE FLATNESS, DIVISION 3 vs. DIVISION 9 Straightedge Method Tile contractor checks individual areas with a 10-ft straightedge  1/4 in. in 10 ft. for standard tile  1/8 in. in 10 ft. for LFT  Often, floors that meet FF of 35 will have areas that do not meet these criteria.
    • Unless subfloor prep is required by the spec, or a bid allowance is included, tile contractor assumes a suitably flat floor will be provided. SUBSURFACE FLATNESS TCNA Handbook “Project specifications shall include a specific and separate requirement to bring the subsurface into compliance if a thin-bed method is specified but subfloor does not meet the flatness requirements.”
    • Industry standards for tile finish flatness and lippage do not apply if the substrate does not meet required flatness tolerances for tile, unless tile contractor is authorized to correct substrate flatness issues. 2013 TCNA Handbook SUBSURFACE FLATNESS Tile contractor will document flatness issues and retain communications.
    • “As tile size increases, the effect of substrate irregularities is compounded. When specifying tile with any edge longer than 15”, consider specifying a recessed substrate and a mortar bed (thick-set) installation method to minimize lippage that results when a thin-bed method is specified but subfloor flatness requirements are not met.” SUBSURFACE FLATNESS TCNA Handbook
    • “…Mortars are designed as direct bond adhesives and are not intended to be used in truing or leveling underlying substrates or the work of others.” SUBSURFACE FLATNESS ANSI A118.4.2.1
    • SUBSURFACE PREPARATION
    • SUBSURFACE PREPARATION, CURING COMPOUDS  “Properly cure concrete slabs without using liquid curing compound or other coatings.” ANSI A108.3.2.1.1
    • DEFLECTION “Floor systems, including the framing system and subfloor panels, over which tile will be installed shall be in conformance with the IRC for residential applications, the IBC for commercial applications, or applicable building codes.” ANSI A108.01.2.3 For stone tile, refer to MIA; may be as rigid as L/720.
    • DEFLECTION 2009 IBC, 1604.3.1
    • DRY-SET MORTAR TILE OVER CBU ON WOOD SUBFLOOR DETAIL 09.03 REV. 04/16/07 © 2007 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE 1-800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org International Masonry Institute masonry detailing series (TCNA F144) BACKER UNIT (CBU) CEMENTITIOUS NAILED @ 6” O.C. W/ TAPED JOINTS, 1/8” GAP BETWEEN PLYWOOD SUBFLOOR; PLYWOOD SHEETS PORTLAND CEMENT DRY-SET OR LATEX- MORTAR BOND COAT CERAMIC TILE
    • 1/2” .044” 16” o.c. spacing 15’-0” span Maximum (?) Floor Deflection = L/360
    • MEMBRANES “… function as barriers to positive liquid water migration.” ANSI A108 Introduction, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16  Waterproof membranes (ANSI A118.10)  Crack isolation membranes (ANSI A118.12) “… isolate tile or stone from minor in-plane substrate cracking.”  Sound reduction membranes (ANSI A118.13) “… lower the transmission of sound from one room to the room below.” Each of these membranes may be bonded to a variety of manufacturer-approved substrates, and may be trowel, liquid, or sheet applied.
    •  Prevent water from penetrating into the substrate or other flooring components below the membrane. WATERPROOF MEMBRANES ANSI A118.10, Load-bearing, Bonded, Waterproof Membranes for Thin-set Ceramic Tile and Dimension Stone Installations  Contain and direct water to proper drainage  Protect setting bed, reinforcing wire (if used), concrete base, concrete reinforcing
    •  Generally have polyester or fiberglass netting (a.k.a. “bonding fleece”) bonded to both sides of sheet which allow the membrane to be bonded to the substrate, and tile to be bonded to the membrane WATERPROOF MEMBRANES, SHEET APPLIED  Typically made from chlorinated polyethylene, PVC, or other plastic materials  Product standard: ANSI A118.10  Installation method: ANSI A108.13  Some sheet applied membranes provide both waterproofing and crack isolation functions
    •  Advantages - No cure time before water test WATERPROOF MEMBRANES, SHEET APPLIED  Disadvantages - Used primarily for flat surfaces - Generally require factory formed corners to avoid excessive thickness when folding - Bonding seams between sheets can be challenging - Consistency of quality and thickness
    •  Some liquid applied membranes incorporate polyester or fiberglass fabric into the liquid applications for added strength and to help establish proper thickness WATERPROOF MEMBRANES, LIQUID APPLIED  Typically made from asphaltic compounds, single- or dual- component polyurethanes; water- or resin-based two-part epoxies; single-component latex-based materials  Some liquid applied membranes provide both waterproofing and crack isolation functions
    •  Advantages - Can be applied to flat or irregular surfaces - Can provide seamless installation WATERPROOF MEMBRANES, LIQUID APPLIED  Disadvantages - May be challenging to control the thickness - May be challenging to mix two or three components Without entraining air that can result in pinholes in the application - Generally require several coats with required drying time in between
    • CRACK ISOLATON MEMBRANES  Provide a flexible barrier between tile and substrate that will prevent minor lateral movement or in-plane substrate cracks (up to 1/8”) from transmitting up through the tile finish.  Product standard: ANSI A118.12  Installation method: ANSI A108.17  Can be applied to existing cracks in the substrate - Crack chasing - Partial treatment  Can be applied “full bed” to entire area to receive tile - Treats existing minor in-plane cracks in the substrate - May prevent future cracks in substrate from telegraphing
    • CRACK ISOLATON MEMBRANES
    • © 2013 CTEF, NTCA, IMI, IUBAC, TCAA, TCNA 1 ASSESS EXISTING CONDITIONS Instructions to Installer • Plan installation of two membranes incorporating clamping ring drain and pipe penetration. TESTING MODULE SHEET 06.131.2412 REV. 7/15/13 MEMBRANES Page 3
    • © 2013 CTEF, NTCA, IMI, IUBAC, TCAA, TCNA TESTING MODULE SHEET 06.131.2112 REV. 7/15/13 MEMBRANES • Apply blue painter’s tape in center of floor and wall dividing two areas. • Pre-treat drains, penetrations, and corners. • Apply membrane & fabric w/ connections to drain pipe penetration and up walls 3” for sanitary base (no base to be installed). • Follow manufacturer’s recommendations. Instructions to Installer 2 LIQUID APPLIED MEMBRANE (COAT 1) Page 4 • Apply sheet membrane on right side of module. • Provide appropriate connections to drain, pipe penetration, and inside & outside corners. • Extend membrane up walls 3” for sanitary base (no base to be installed) and protect accordingly. • Provide seam at midpoint between drain and pipe penetration. • Follow manufacturer’s recommendations. 3 SHEET MEMBRANE PROVIDE SEAM • Apply second coat of liquid membrane after manufacturer’s recommended dry time of first coat. 4 LIQUID APPLIED MEMBRANE (COAT 2)
    • ACT CERTIFICATION, MEMBRANES
    • ACT CERTIFICATION, MEMBRANES
    • INSTALLATION METHODS ANSI A108 – Installation Standards A108.1A Installation of Ceramic Tile in the Wet-Set Method, with Portland Cement Mortar A108.1B Installation of Ceramic Tile on a Cured Portland Cement Mortar Setting Bed with Dry-Set or Latex- Portland Cement Mortar A108.1C Contractor’s Option: Installation of Ceramic Tile in the Wet-Set Method with Portland Cement Mortar or Installation of Ceramic Tile on a Cured Portland Cement Mortar Setting Bed with Dry-Set or Latex- Portland Cement Mortar A108.4 Installation of Ceramic Tile with Organic Adhesives or Water Cleanable Tile-Setting Epoxy Adhesive A108.5 Installation of Ceramic Tile with Dry-Set Portland Cement Mortar or Latex-Portland Cement Mortar MORTARBEDTHIN-SET
    • INSTALLATION METHODS  Generally 1¼” to 2½” thick Mortar Bed (Mud Bed)  Can compensate for irregular substrate  Limits deflection Thin-Set  Thinner installation  Prep time reduced 3/32” - 1/4” after embedment Medium bed mortar may be 3/16” – 3/4” after embedment
    • INSTALLATION METHODS, MORTAR BED (MUD)
    • © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE FLOOR TILE DETAIL 06.130.0201 REV. 08/25/09 CEMENT MORTAR BED ON CONCRETE DRY-SET OR LATEX- PORTLAND CEMENT MORTAR BOND COAT WATERPROOF / ANTIFRACTURE MEMBRANE AS REQ’D CONCRETE SUBFLOOR CERAMIC TILE MORTAR BED, 1¼” MIN. TO 2” MAX, W/ WIRE REINFORCEMENT
    • INSTALLATION METHODS, THIN-SET
    • © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE FLOOR TILE DETAIL 06.130.0202 REV. 08/25/09 THINSET ON CONCRETE OR CURED MORTAR BED LATEX-PORTLAND CEMENT MORTAR BOND COAT WATERPROOF / ANTIFRACTURE MEMBRANE AS REQ’D CONCRETE OR CURED MORTAR BED CERAMIC TILE
    • © 2013 CTEF, NTCA, IMI, IUBAC, TCAA, TCNA 1 ASSESS EXISTING CONDITIONS Instructions to Installer TESTING MODULE SHEET 06.131.2312 REV. 7/15/13 MUD WORK – FLOOR MODULE 2 FLOAT FLOOR 8’-0” 8’-0” Starting point to determine proper depth of mortar bed Page 3 ALL WORK TO BE COMPLETED FROM THIS WORK AREA • Establish level perimeter & spots around U-shape. • Install wire mesh reinforcement. • Float floor per TCNA Method F111 (Unbonded Mortar Bed). • Thickness per spec. • All work to be completed from designated work area only (No work to be done from perimeter of 8’ x 8’ box). • Provided 8-ft. square frame.
    • © 2013 CTEF, NTCA, IMI, IUBAC, TCAA, TCNA Instructions to Installer TESTING MODULE SHEET 06.131.2313 REV. 7/15/13 MUD WORK – WALL MODULE ASSESS EXISTING CONDITIONS 1 2 FLOAT WALLS Page 4 • Provided wood frame w/ gyp. bd. & cleavage membrane pre-installed. • Float walls per TCNA Handbook Method W222 – Mortar Bed (One Coat Method). • Thickness per spec. • Tops of knee walls to be level and flat in both directions.
    • ACT CERTIFICATION, MUD WORK
    • ACT CERTIFICATION, MUD WORK
    • ACT CERTIFICATION, MUD WORK
    • Porcelain tile Dense body resulting from fused feldspar sand Glazed ceramic tile Impervious glaze over clay body of varying characteristics SETTING MATERIALS, COMPATIBILITY W/ TILE
    • Glazed ceramic tile - open pores Porcelain tile - closed pores Microscopic view of tile’s surface SETTING MATERIALS, COMPATIBILITY W/ TILE
    • SETTING MATERIALS, A118.4 vs. A118.15  2013 ANSI adds new spec for improved modified dry-set cement mortar (A118.15)  Increases clarity of mortar performance  Levels the playing field in low-bid contract award
    • SETTING MATERIALS  A118.4 vs. A118.15
    • SHEAR BOND TEST ANSI A118.4.7.2.3; ANSI A118.15.7.2.3
    • Medium bed mortar SETTING MATERIALS, MEDIUM BED MORTAR  Minimize slump, facilitate thicker bond coats  Useful for setting heavy tiles, ungauged ties, and large format tiles  3/16” to 3/4” bond coat after tile is embedded  Not intended for truing or leveling  A product, not an installation method
    • SETTING MATERIALS, ORGANIC ADHESIVES ANSI A108 Introduction 2.2.1 CAUTION – Although organic adhesives provide a good bond for floor tile to substrates, they may provide insufficient support under nonresidential loads, resulting in the cracking of tile. 2.0 Notes for tile material, accessories, and definitions
    • COVERAGE  95% coverage req’d for interior wet areas and exteriors  80% coverage req’d for interior dry areas  Key in mortar using flat side of trowel  Trowel in one direction to distribute mortar evenly and avoid trapping air ANSI A108.5.3.3
    • COVERAGE Troweling in swirl pattern may trap air and distribute mortar unevenly Troweling in one direction results in better coverage and bond
    • COVERAGE Backbuttering the tile
    • COVERAGE “If 95% coverage is specified, back butter each tile with bond coat… The method used should produce maximum coverage with the corners and edges fully supported” ANSI A108.5.2.5.4
    • COVERAGE “Periodically remove and check a tile to assure that proper coverage is being attained.” ANSI A108.5.2.5.4
    • COVERAGE EXTERIOR OR WET INSTALLATION • MIN. 95% COVERAGE DRY INTERIOR INSTALLATION • NO VOIDS WITHIN 2” OF TILE EDGES • MAXIMUM SIZE OF VOID IS 2 SQUARE INCHES (APPROXIMATELY THE AREA OF A GOLF BALL). • MIN. 80% COVERAGE • NO VOIDS WITHIN 2” OF TILE EDGES • MAXIMUM SIZE OF VOID IS 2 SQUARE INCHES (APPROXIMATELY THE AREA OF A GOLF BALL). TILE (12” x 12” SHOWN) THINSET MORTAR ADHERES TO BACK SIDE OF TILE WHEN TILE IS REMOVED FOR INSPECTION MORTAR VOID, GOLF BALL-SIZED (APPROX.), MAX. 2” MAX., TYP. 2” MAX., TYP.
    • Inadequate mortar coverage
    • EXPANSION JOINTS, LOCATIONS  Provide at construction joints  Provide at control joints - Cold joints - Formed or sawed  Provide at isolation joints / building expansion joints  May be required where cracks have occurred in substrate - Separating adjoining parts
    • EXPANSION JOINTS, SPACING  Interior exposed to direct sunlight  Exterior • 8 ft. to 12 ft. o.c.  Interior • 20ft. to 25 ft. o.c. • 8 ft. to 12 ft. o.c. - Temperature changes up to 100˚F - 1/2” wide expansion joint - Temperature changes up to 20˚F - Not exposed to moisture ANSI A108.01.3.7
    • “Movement joints are required over all construction, control, and expansion joints in the backing and where backing materials change or change direction including terminations of tilework where it abuts restraining or dissimilar surfaces.” ANSI A108.02.4.4.1 EXPANSION JOINTS, PERIMETER
    • EXPANSION JOINTS, PERIMETER
    • EXPANSION JOINTS, PERIMETER Expansion joint profile at perimeter change in plane
    • EXPANSION JOINTS, PERIMETER Expansion joint profile at vertical change in plane No accommodation for movement at vertical change in plane
    • © 2009 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE WALL AND FLOOR TILE THINSET, CORNER CONDITION DETAIL 06.130.1300 REV. 09/10/09 PERIMETER MOVEMENT JOINT DRY-SET OR LATEX- PORTLAND CEMENT MORTAR BOND COAT CONCRETE MASONRY W/ FLUSH JOINTS CERAMIC TILE AT WALLS & FLOOR MOVEMENT JOINT AT INTERSECTING WALLS AT FLOOR / WALL MOVEMENT JOINT
    • “Movement joints in the substrate shall be carried though the tile installation.” ANSI A118.12.1.0 EXPANSION JOINTS OVER CONCRETE CJ
    • EXPANSION JOINTS OVER CONCRETE CJ
    • provide expansion joints in tile over concrete joints EXPANSION JOINTS OVER CONCRETE CJ
    • provide expansion joints in tile over concrete joints EXPANSION JOINTS OVER CONCRETE CJ
    • EXPANSION JOINTS OVER CONCRETE CJ
    • EXPANSION JOINTS OVER CONCRETE CJ
    • EXPANSION JOINTS OVER CONCRETE CJ
    • TILE PLACED IN CRACK SUPPRESSION MEMBRANE OVER CONCRETE CONTROL JOINT TILE PLACED IN CRACK SUPPRESSION MEMBRANE OVER CONCRETE CONTROL JOINT CRACKS AND FAILS AS SLAB CURLS EXPANSION JOINTS OVER CONCRETE CJ
    • TILE EXPANSION JOINT PLACED OVER CONCRETE CONTROL JOINT TILE EXPANSION JOINT PLACED OVER CONCRETE CONTROL JOINT ALLOWS TILE TO MOVE WITHOUT CRACKING AS SLAB CURLS EXPANSION JOINTS OVER CONCRETE CJ
    • CERAMIC TILE MORTAR BED REINFORCED WATERPROOF MEMBRANE CLEAVAGE OR COMPRESSIBLE FILLER SEALANT, BACKER ROD, AND THINSET MORTAR OR WOOD CONCRETE TILE EXPANSION JOINT DETAIL 09.01 REV. 04/13/07 © 2007 INTERNATIONAL MASONRY INSTITUTE 1-800-IMI-0988 www.imiweb.org International Masonry Institute masonry detailing series 1¼” – 2½” THICK BOND COAT
    • EXPANSION JOINTS, CUT TILE VS. TOOTHED ANSI A108.01.3.7.5 Cut tile for expansion joint Toothed expansion joint
    • EXPANSION JOINTS Field applied w/ sealant Prefabricated profile
    • COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION  Coefficient of Friction (COF) - Measurement of a tile’s frictional resistance - Related to traction and slip resistance  Static Coefficient of Friction (SCOF)  Dynamic Coefficient of Friction (DCOF) - Frictional resistance one pushes against when already in motion - Frictional resistance one pushes against when starting motion - Measures the ratio of forces necessary to start two surfaces sliding - Measures the ratio of forces necessary to keep two surfaces sliding
    • COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION  SCOF (ASTM C1028) is no longer the accepted method  DCOF AcuTest (ANSI A137.1-2012, Section 9.6) is the new method  In 2012, the method for measuring COF for ceramic tile changed, per ANSI A137.1 - DCOF relates better to slips occurring while a person is in motion
    • COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION  Minimum wet DCOF AcuTest value of 0.42 required for ceramic tiles for level interior spaces expected to be walked upon when wet.  Tiles with a wet DCOF AcutTest value of < 0.42 are only suitable for floor areas that will be kept dry.  Previously, there was no required value in ANSI A137.1 for wet floors (static or dynamic), although a minimum value of 0.6 wet SCOF, measured by ASTM C1028, was commonly specified for ceramic tile in commercial spaces.  Tiles that meet 0.60 SCOF may meet 0.42 DCOF; however, there is no direct relationships between the methods.
    • VENTILATED RAINSCREEN FACADES  Tiles up to 1 1/4” thick, up to 4’ x 4’  Mechanically anchored to structural backup, as exterior wall cladding  Mechanically anchored to structural backup, as exterior wall cladding  Ventilated, back-drained, rainscreen wall system
    • VENTILATED RAINSCREEN FACADES
    • VENTILATED RAINSCREEN FACADES
    • VENTILATED RAINSCREEN FACADES Tiles can be easily removed and replaced, facilitating access to maintenance of internal wall components
    • Constructability research mockup VENTILATED RAINSCREEN FACADES
    • Constructability research mockup VENTILATED RAINSCREEN FACADES
    • VENTILATED RAINSCREEN FACADES Hyatt Place, Chicago, IL
    • VENTILATED RAINSCREEN FACADES First Bank & Trust, Skokie, Illinois
    • REDUCED THICKNESS TILE  3 mm to 6.5 mm thick - Traditional tiles are 7 to 11 mm thick  Facial sizes up to 5 ft x 10 ft.
    • REDUCED THICKNESS TILE, CONSIDERATIONS  Handling and installation that take into consideration the lower breaking strength  Variation in manuf’r recommendations re. suitable substrates and applications; substrate prep.  Currently, no product or installation standards exist.  Setting material compatible w/ reinforcement on tiles  Prequalified installers; specialized tools
    • REDUCED THICKNESS TILE Craftworker training at IMI
    • REDUCED THICKNESS TILE Constructability research
    • Constructability research REDUCED THICKNESS TILE
    • REDUCED THICKNESS TILE Medical Mart, Commercial Tile & Stone, Cleveland, OH
    • REDUCED THICKNESS TILE Medical Mart, Commercial Tile & Stone, Cleveland, OH
    • SUSTAINABILITY BENEFITS OF TILE  Low emitting  Moisture tolerant  Improved life cycle Thermal mass  Mold resistant
    • SUSTAINABILITY BENEFITS OF TILE  Developed by TCNA Green Squared Certification  ANSI A138.1 product standard, a.k.a. Green Squared  Certified by one of three credible and widely recognized certification bodies  Contributes points toward several green ratings systems - National Green Building Standard (ICC 700-2012) - It is likely that LEED will soon acknowledge
    • SUSTAINABILITY BENEFITS OF TILE  Recycled content Green Squared Certification Criteria  Regional availability  Indoor air quality  Exterior contribution / heat island effect  Cleaning and maintenance  Cleanliness and sterility  Life cycle performance  Energy reduction  Innovation
    • SUSTAINABILITY BENEFITS OF TILE
    • Toilet room renovations, before CASE STUDY: FEDERAL BUILDING, CHICAGO, IL
    • CASE STUDY: FEDERAL BUILDING, CHICAGO, IL
    • Toilet room renovations, after Photo credit: Hedrich Blessing/ Scott McDonald CASE STUDY: FEDERAL BUILDING, CHICAGO, IL
    • “The heart of the tile trade will always be the skill of the individual craftsmen. This means that tile will always be a trade; it will never be an industry.” Alan Lippert, BAC tile contractor and TCAA President 1990-1991
    • INSTALLER QUALIFICATIONS, TCNA HANDBOOK LANGUAGE
    • INSTALLER QUALIFICATIONS, IMI TRAINING
    • INSTALLER & CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATION LANGUAGE “Journeyman Tile Layers Apprenticeship Programs… Contractors that employ union Journeymen Tile Setters can be found through the Union Locals that list their signatory contractors, primarily the Bricklayer and Allied Craftworkers (BAC)… “Every aspect of a tile installation relies on the tile contracting company and its installers.” “The following non-profit programs are well-established and recognized by the Handbook Committee: “Tile Contractors’ Association of America (TCAA) Trowel of Excellence Program…” “IMI Contractor College… IN 2012 TILE COUNCIL OF NORTH AMERICA HANDBOOK
    • 09 30 00 Tiling
    • SPECIFICATIONS
    • … the best hands in the business! IMI-TRAINED TILE, MARBLE, & TERRAZZO CRAFTWORKERS
    • DESIGNING WITH TILE presented by International Masonry Institute