A case of ASD - Sinus Venosus type


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A case of ASD - Sinus Venosus type

  2. 2. CASE HISTORY <br />Thirty six years old male admitted with <br /> C/O Palpitations -10 days<br />HISTORY OF PRESENTING ILLNESS: <br /> Pt. was apparently normal 10 years back<br />H/O Palpitations on and off-on moderate exertion.<br />Increased in intensity-10 days<br />
  3. 3. CASE HISTORY CONTD<br />Ass with breathlessness .<br />Relieved with rest.<br />Not ass with chest pain/syncope/sweating.<br />No history suggestive of Cardiac Failure.<br />No H/O fever/joint pain/swelling/ rashes/cough with expectoration.<br />
  4. 4. CASE HISTORY CONTD<br />PAST H/O:<br /> No history suggestive of Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections/Cyanotic Spells/RHD<br />PERSONAL H/O:<br />Chronic Alcoholic and Smoker<br />
  5. 5. ON EXAMINATION<br />Well Built and Nourished<br />Conscious <br />Comfortable<br />Afebrile<br />Clubbing –Grade I<br />NO Pallor/Icterus/Cyanosis/Clubbing/ Lymphadenopathy/Pedal Edema<br />
  6. 6. EXAMINATION CONTD<br />Vitals –Stable<br />JVP –Normal<br />CVS Examn:-<br /> Trachea in midline<br />Chest B/L Symmetrical<br />Parasternal pulsations+<br />Apical Impulse –in 5th ICS lat to MCL<br />Palpable P 2+ <br />No THRILL .<br />
  7. 7. CVS EXAMINATION CONTD<br />ON AUSCULTATION:-<br /> MITRAL AREA: S1 S2+<br /> PULMONARY AREA: S1 S2+<br /> Loud P2& Fixed Split of S2<br /> ESM of Grade 3/6<br /> AORTIC AREA:S1S2+, ESM+<br /> TRICUSPID AREA:S1S2+ <br /> Long Drawn Systolic Murmur.<br />
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  11. 11. INVESTIGATIONS<br />CBC,RFT-NORMAL<br />ECHO- SVC Type of ASD<br /> TR Mild<br /> TRPG -45mmHg<br /> PHT-Mod<br /> IVS- Paradoxical Movement<br /> RA/RV Dilated.<br />
  12. 12. ASD - SINUS VENOSUS<br />
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION<br />Atrialseptal defects account for about 10-15% of all congenital cardiac anomalies and are the most common congenital cardiac lesion presenting in adults.<br />Sinus venosusatrialseptal defects account for only 10% of atrialseptal defects.<br /> The remaining atrialseptal defects are ostiumsecundum type (70%), ostiumprimum type (20%), and unroofed coronary sinus, or coronary sinus septal defects, (&lt;1%). <br />
  14. 14. Most children with sinus venosusatrialseptal defects are asymptomatic but may develop symptoms as they age.<br />Excellent surgical results with a mortality rate near 0% can be expected. This is particularly true in patients who undergo repair when younger than 15 years. <br />An atrialseptal defect was the first lesion repaired using cardiopulmonary bypass in 1954 by John Gibbon, MD, at the Mayo Clinic.<br />
  15. 15. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY<br />The more common sinus venosus type defect occurs in the upper atrial septum and is contiguous with the superior vena cava (SVC). <br />The lesion is rostral and posterior to the fossaovalis (where secundum type defects occur) and is separate from it. <br />It is almost always associated with anomalous pulmonary venous drainage of the right upper pulmonary vein into the SVC.<br />
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  17. 17. Less commonly, the defect may occur at the junction of the right atrium and inferior vena cava and be associated with anomalous connection of the right lower pulmonary vein to the IVC. <br />Rarely, sinus venosus defects occur posterior to the fossaovalis without bordering the SVC or IVC. The predominant hemodynamic consequence is a left-to-right shunt through the defect.<br />
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  20. 20. Race<br />No racial predilection is known.<br />Sex<br />Atrialseptal defects affect females more often than males. Female-to-male ratio is 2:1. No difference in outcome is associated with sex.<br />Age<br />Sinus venosusatrialseptal defects are congenital lesions present at birth. The age at presentation depends on the size of the left-to-right shunt. Atrialseptal defects in infancy are usually asymptomatic. They are usually detected by echocardiography while undergoing a cardiac evaluation.<br />
  21. 21. CLINICAL PRESENTATION<br />HistorySymptoms of atrialseptal defects are typically a function of the size of the associated shunt.<br />As many as 60% of apparently asymptomatic patients may have easy fatigability and dyspnea. Such symptoms usually indicate a relatively large shunt.<br />Adults may not come to medical attention until symptoms occur. Arrhythmias, dyspnea, and a decrease in exercise tolerance are common symptoms.<br />
  22. 22. CLINICAL EXAMINATION <br />A cardiac murmur secondary to increased pulmonary artery blood flow is heard over the left sternal border.<br /> The murmur is usually a grade 2-3/6 systolic ejection murmur. <br />A prominent right ventricular impulse may also be noted along the left sternal border. <br />A diastolic flow murmur may be present at the left lower sternal border and the tricuspid area and is indicative of a large left-to-right shunt.<br />The second heart sound is widely split and may be fixed or may vary little with respiration. The pulmonic component of the second heart sound is usually normal in intensity but may increase in intensity if pulmonary hypertension is present.<br />
  23. 23. CAUSES<br />During normal embryonic development, the right horn of the sinus venosus encompasses the right SVC and IVC. <br />If abnormal resorption of the sinus venosus occurs, an atrialseptal defect results near the orifice of either the SVC or IVC.<br />Sinus venosusatrialseptal defects occur more often as an isolated abnormality.<br />Other abnormalities may exacerbate an atrialseptal defect. For instance, systemic hypertension in an adult with a sinus venosusatrialseptal defect may result in left ventricular hypertrophy and reduce left ventricular compliance, which, in turn, exacerbates the atrial level left-to-right shunt. Mitral stenosis, which is either congenital or acquired, may also exacerbate the atrial level left-to-right shunt.<br />
  24. 24. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS<br />AtrialSeptal Defect, Coronary Sinus<br />Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection<br />AtrialSeptal Defect, OstiumPrimum<br />Pulmonary Stenosis, Valvular<br />AtrialSeptal Defect, OstiumSecundum<br />AtrioventricularSeptal Defect, Partial and Intermediate<br />CorTriatriatum<br />
  25. 25. Laboratory Studies<br />General laboratory studies are rarely helpful in sinus venosusatrialseptal defect (ASD).<br />Imaging Studies<br />Chest radiography<br />Prominent right atrium<br />Prominent main pulmonary artery<br />Increased heart size and pulmonary vascularity<br />
  26. 26. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY<br />Echocardiography reveals atrialseptal defect and most of the pulmonary vein connections in most patients and is the diagnostic modality of choice.<br />Two-dimensional ECHO with color flow Doppler reveals the position and size of the defect and the presence of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. <br />It also helps identify associated anomalies and reveals the left-to-right (or right-to-left) direction of flow and the degree of right ventricular overload.<br />In children with difficult transthoracic windows, or in older or larger patients, transesophageal echocardiography may be helpful in imaging the defect and pulmonary vein connections.<br />Cardiac magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)/MRI may be alternatively used to complete the diagnostic information needed prior to surgery.<br />
  27. 27. Other Tests<br />Electrocardiogram<br />Right ventricular hypertrophy predominates, with a lengthened PR interval and incomplete right bundle branch block (small rSR&apos;).<br />P wave morphology may demonstrate atrial enlargement.<br />Cardiac MRI/MRA<br />Atrialseptal defect size and location are shown.<br />Excellent delineation of individual pulmonary vein connections can be identified.<br />Right ventricle enlargement and indexing to body surface area (BSA) is available if helpful.<br />Flow-quantification may also be performed.<br />
  28. 28. Procedures<br />Cardiac catheterization may be considered in the following circumstances:<br />In any child in whom associated lesions are suspected or in whom pulmonary hypertension is suspected, catheterization is performed to measure pulmonary artery pressure and, if pulmonary resistance is elevated, the response to pulmonary vasodilators.<br />Adults who have the potential for associated coronary atherosclerotic lesions should undergo catheterization to exclude these abnormalities before surgical repair of the sinus venosusatrialseptal defect.<br />
  29. 29. TREATMENT<br />Medical Care<br />Medical care of sinus venosusatrialseptal defect (ASD) is primarily supportive and is not required for asymptomatic patients.<br />Patients presenting in heart failure should be stabilized in anticipation of elective repair.<br />Surgical Care<br />Surgical correction is the mainstay of therapy.<br />
  30. 30. Sinus venosus defects do not close spontaneously.<br />Asymptomatic children generally undergo repair when aged 3-5 years.<br />Adults with left-to-right shunts greater than 1.5-2:1 benefit from surgical closure.<br />Patients with significant pulmonary hypertension and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance unresponsive to pulmonary vasodilator therapy may not be good candidates for surgical repair. <br />Such patients may develop acute right ventricular failure if their heart no longer has the ability to shunt right to left at the atrial communication in response to increases in pulmonary vascular resistance.<br />
  31. 31. Repair is performed most often through a standard median sternotomy. <br />More cosmetic incisions may also be used, such as partial sternotomies, small right anterior thoracotomies, and inframammary incisions. <br />All approaches require the use of cardiopulmonary bypass for closure of the atrialseptal defect.<br />Transcatheter occlusion devices are not indicated for the closure of sinus venosusatrialseptal defects because of the position of the defect and because of the lack of surrounding tissue adequate to seat such an occlusion device. <br />Such a device may obstruct SVC flow and does not achieve redirection of the anomalous right pulmonary venous flow to the left atrium.<br />
  32. 32. A patch (synthetic material or pericardium) is used to redirect blood flow from the right superior pulmonary vein into the left atrium. <br />This effectively closes the interatrial communication while also correcting the anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. Sometimes, to avoid creating SVC obstruction, a patch is placed on the anterior surface of the SVC. Care is taken to avoid injuring the nearby sinus node. <br />Ligation of the azygous vein may also be required to eliminate its drainage into the left atrium and to prevent the resulting residual right-to-left shunt.<br />
  33. 33. When the location of the anomalous venous drainage is in the high SVC and is far from the atrial-caval junction, a different surgical approach can be used to decrease the probability of cavalstenosis or pulmonary vein stenosis. As described by Warden et al, the repair consists of division of the SVC just above the take off of the anomalous pulmonary vein.<br />The distal caval end is oversewn or patched to assure no pulmonary vein compromise. <br />Next, the well-mobilized cava is anastomosed to the right atrial appendage after amputation of the most distal end. <br />The atrialseptal defect is then closed by sewing a patch to cover the atrialseptal defect and divided SVC orifice, thereby baffling the anomalous vein to the left atrium.<br />
  34. 34. This method is very effective in patients with more complicated pulmonary venous anomalies.<br />Although a relatively recent advance in the treatment of high anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, this operation has become the procedure of choice for more difficult cases.<br />All reported series have demonstrated excellent results with little or no pulmonary venous or SVC stenosis.<br />In addition, concern for injury to the conduction system or sinus node have not been observed to date.<br />
  35. 35. FOLLOW-UP<br />Further Inpatient Care<br />Patients with sinus venosus ASD require a brief postoperative admission to a cardiac intensive care unit. <br />Patients in heart failure may require short-term continued support until pulmonary edema resolves, myocardial function improves, and until pulmonary vascular resistance, if elevated, normalizes.<br />
  36. 36. Further Outpatient Care<br />Postoperative follow-up: This usually involves an office visit with the cardiologist 1-3 weeks after hospital discharge.<br />Echocardiography is used to effectively evaluate the repair for evidence of residual shunting, SVC or pulmonary vein obstruction, pericardial effusion, and ventricular function.<br />The potential for late postoperative narrowing of the SVC is observed after repair of sinus venosusatrialseptal defects.<br />Sinus node dysfunction screening should be part of outpatient follow-up care as sinus node dysfunction may become apparent years after repair of a sinus venosusatrialseptal defect.<br />
  37. 37. INPATIENT & OUTPATIENT MEDICATIONS<br />No long-term medication is required after repair of an uncomplicated atrialseptal defect. <br />Some prescribe aspirin or other anticoagulation regimens for several weeks in patients in whom a prosthetic patch was used to close the defect. This allows for endothelial ingrowth over the thrombogenic surface of the patch. <br />Long-term anticoagulation is not indicated.<br />Antibiotic prophylaxis is not required in patients who have had atrialseptal defects repaired.<br />
  38. 38. COMPLICATIONS<br />Sinus node dysfunction<br />Pulmonary venous obstruction<br />Atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, or supraventricular tachycardia<br />Pulmonary hypertension<br />Atrial baffle leak<br />Pericardial effusion or Postpericardiotomy syndrome<br />SVC syndrome<br />
  39. 39. PROGNOSIS<br />The prognosis is excellent for young patients who undergo repair of uncomplicated defects. <br />Repair delayed until the third decade of life is associated with a decrease in life expectancy.<br />
  40. 40. MORTALITY/MORBIDITY<br />Surgical repair in the first 2 decades of life is associated with a mortality rate near zero. <br />Life expectancy approaches that of the general population if the defect is repaired during this time. Cardiac size rapidly regresses after surgery, and the functional result is excellent. <br />In cases of repair during adulthood, life expectancy may be decreased despite successful repair. <br />Surgical morbidity rates are related to early postoperative pericardial effusion, pulmonary venous or systemic venous obstruction, and supraventricular arrhythmias.<br />
  41. 41. If the baffle directing pulmonary venous blood to the left atrium is not placed correctly, it may obstruct pulmonary venous drainage.<br /> If the baffle bulges into the SVC, it may obstruct SVC inflow, necessitating the placement of an augmentation patch on the anterior surface of the SVC and right atrial junction.<br />
  42. 42. Untreated atrialseptal defects are associated with a significantly shortened life expectancy. <br />After age 20 years, the mortality rate is approximately 5% per decade with 90% of patients dead by age 60 years. <br />These patients present with an increase in left-to-right shunting and occasionally with congestive heart failure with pulmonary hypertension in the fourth to sixth decades of life.<br />Late problems in untreated patients also include the risk of paradoxical embolus as well as atrial fibrillation, pulmonary hypertension, and right heart failure.<br />
  43. 43. THANK YOU<br />