Depth and TextureCinema is a 2-D format which results in many amateur and student films looking very flat. Today’s session will involve creating depth within the frame. We will achieve this in two ways: Camera position and depth of field Creative lighting
Depth and Texture• Cinema is a 2-D format which results in many amateur and student films looking very flat.• Today’s session will involve creating depth within the frame. We will achieve this in two ways:• Camera position• Depth of field
What is depth of field?• Depth of field refers to how much of the frame is in focus.• If everything in the frame is in focus this is known as a deep depth of field.• If only part of the frame is in focus this is called a shallow depth of field.• Deep and shallow depth of fields have their own uses and connotations.
Advantages• Being aware of and using depth of field has many advantages:• You can reveal or withhold information.• Guide the viewers eyes around the frame.• Create a more three dimensional composition.• Suggest emotions, relationships, state of mind etc.
Wide angle/Telephoto• The zoom button on a camcorder has two letters, W and T which stand for wide angle and telephoto.• When a camera is zoomed out fully the lens is “wide” and when zoomed in it is “Telephoto”.• These two types of lenses have very different looks and effects on the subject.
Wide Angle• Wide-angle lenses have a wider view than that of the human eye. They make things appear further apart and make them appear to move faster than normal.• They exaggerate and distort depth and perspective and have a gritty, realistic feel.• When a camera is set to a wide angle, everything in the shot is in focus (Deep depth of field)
• Avoid using wide angles for shooting close-ups or conversations as they will make faces look distorted and peculiar.• Of course if this is the effect you want then wide angles are perfect. Terry Gilliam is a director who is famous for using wide angle lenses to emphasis unusual and quirky situations. (Watch 12 Monkeys and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas)
Telephoto• Telephoto lenses compress and offer a magnified view of the world. Images created with telephoto lenses have a dreamy, detached, lyrical feel.• Telephoto lenses create a shallow depth of field making them ideal for portraits/fashion/close ups since they create a soft background and attractively flatten facial features.
Creating depth with focal length• The two shots on the next slide are both medium shots.• One is taken with a telephoto lens and the other with a wide angle lens.• Notice the difference in depth of field, compression and how the subjects relationship to the background.
Depth of Field and POV• With depth of field, certain aspects of the frame can be thrown in or out of focus. Using depth of field in a creative way is one of the most powerful ways of enhancing the emotion/mood of a scene.• This example shows how putting either the foreground or background out of focus dramatically changes the POV of the scene
Pull focus• Pull focus is achieved when the area of the frame that is in focus shifts.• This has the effect of changing the perspective of the shot or subtly drawing the audiences attention towards part of the frame.
Where’s my Close-Ups!?!?• Apart from depth of field and lenses the best way to create an emotional impact on your audience is to use close-ups.• For some strange reason students are afraid to use close-ups.• With a limited budget and no access to extravagant sets or actors, close-ups are your biggest friend.
• Often student’s storyboards and sketches consist largely of long shots and medium shots.• The further away we are from the subject/characters the less we identify.• Close-up help the audience to connect to and identify with whoever or whatever you have filmed.
• You only need one or two long/medium shots to establish a location. Once that location has been established you could use close-ups without causing any confusion.• Perhaps you could establish a location just using close-ups? What are the most visual and dramatic parts of your location?
Close-Ups and Performance• Watch any dramatic scene in a film and you will see that it consists of mainly close-ups.• Close-ups amplify tiny gestures and expressions meaning a very minimal performance can be made more dramatic.• This helps to prevent exaggerated performances and overacting.
Different uses• Close-ups can be used for different purposes.• Enhance emotions.• Give things importance.• Create atmosphere (dripping taps, a spider crawling across a floor).• With hold information and create enigmas.
Research• Adverts are excellent texts to watch as the are short, efficient and rely on all the techniques mentioned in this powerpoint to sell their product.• Adverts are shot in many different styles/genres.• Notice how close-ups are used. To create impact, give information, enhance emotion?
Conclusion• Unless you consider and use good framing, composition and depth of field your image with look very flat and 2D.• To create a perfect shot every time utilise the following:• The rule of thirds• Three quarter angle• No head space• Wide angle/telephoto lens• Depth of field• Layered composition• The remember the many uses of close-ups and use them!!!