Who is the audience?Demographic and Psychographic Profiling
Defining Target Audiences• Many media theorists and critics suggest that in any text there is a ‘typical’ audience member in mind when media producers start to create the text.• Ien Ang said that media producers see the audience as a mass not an individual• However - in the 1980’s local radio presenters were encouraged to have an imaginary person ‘Doreen’ who was their typical listener.• Presenters were told her age, likes and dislikes her habits, home and husband. That she was educated but didn’t necessarily understand long words.• They were encouraged to address Doreen and her husband personally as if they knew them!
Demographic Profiling (Demographics)Demographic profiling is where people aredivided into groups based on which socialgroups/ categories they belong to – people insuch groups are believed to share similar traits
Demographic ProfilingThe mnemonic we use to help us identify thesecategories is GRASS:G genderR race or ethnicityA ageS socio-economic statusS special interests
Demographic ProfilingThe National Readership Survey (2005) divided the British audienceinto different categories and we use these to describe socio-economicstatus rather than terms linked to class which are more difficult toapply. They divide people up in terms of wealth linked to theoccupation of the main breadwinner in the family…Socio- economic status:A: Higher managerial (3.8%)B: Intermediate managerial (22.1%)C1: Supervisory, junior management (28.9%)C2: Skilled manual workers (28.9%)D: Semi skilled and unskilled manual workers (16.2%)E: Casual labourers, unemployed, pensioners (8.4%)
Demographic ProfilingThe same survey also stated that age is usuallydivided into the following categories…< 1515-2424-3535-5555>
Psychographic Profiling (psychographics)• Demographic profiling is problematic as people are not all the same just because they have the same job, income or class. All white female doctors are not the same or Muslim male managers!• Psychographic profiling focuses on the individual – it assumes audience members are complex.• It focuses particularly on defining audiences by their emotions, personality and needs. It puts people into groups according to their personality types!
Socio-economic ValuesThe advertising industry carries out a lot of market research ( often throughBARB and RAJAR).They claim they can segment audiences on the basis of socio-economicvalues. For example, one survey divides people the following ways:•SURVIVORS: Those who want security and like routine.•SOCIAL CLIMBERS: Those who have a strong materialistic drive and likestatus symbols.•CARE GIVERS: Those who believe in ‘caring and sharing.’•EXPLORERS: Those for whom personal growth and influencing social changeis important.
VALSThe Values, Attitudes and Lifestyle (VALS) surveyidentifies the following lifestyle categories:•Innovators•Thinkers•Believers•Achievers•Strivers•Experiencers•Makers•Survivors
Young and Rubicam’s Cross- Cultural Characteristics• Young and Rubicam are a New York advertising agency and they did something new …• they defined their audience by their personal aims/ goals .• What motivates them.
Young and Rubicam’s Cross- Cultural Characteristics• They claimed there are 4 categories of people in society ( the 4 Cs) :1) Mainstreamers: This is the largest section of society / the market (40%) – This group seek conformity and tend to buy well known brand names.2) Aspirers: These people are motivated by status- they buy high fashion and high tech goods.3) Succeeders: These people have climbed the ladder and want to keep control of what they have. Car adverts that emphasise power and control are aimed at them.4) Reformers: This group want the world to be a better place. Educated people such as teachers, doctors who are more likely to buy eco friendly and health products
They later added a fifth category – theindividual!
Advertising Task:• Task: in small groups analyse the following magazine adverts and decide which audience category ( from the 4 C’s idea) that they are aimed at.
Niche Consumer Markets/ Lifestyle groupings• Consumers/audiences were categorised further still in the 1990’s, mainly by advertisers who wanted to target even more specific markets• The following slide offers a short selection of such categories but there are many more!
OPALS – older people with active lifestylesYUPPIES – young upwardly mobile professionalsDINKYS – double income no kids yetWOOPIES – well-off older peopleLOMBARDS – lots of money but a real dickheadCHAV – council housed and violentKIPPERS – kids in parents pockets eroding retirement savingsMUPPIE – middle-aged urban professionalNINJA – no income, no job or assetsORCHID – one recent child, heavily in debtSADFAB – single and desperate for a babySINBAD – single income, no boyfriend and desperateSNERT – snot-nosed egoistical rude teenagerWASP – white Anglo-Saxon protestant