2012 ms1 audience revision


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2012 ms1 audience revision

  1. 1. MS1: Audience RevisionYou need to ensure that you understand and can use the following terms and ideas,including the authors of theories:TARGET AUDIENCE/ SECONDARY AUDIENCESDEMOGRAPHICS (use of GRASS categories); PSYCHOGRAPHICS (Young andRubicam categories (5); some advertising lifestyle categories e.g. NINJAS)SITUATED CULTUREACTIVE AUDIENCEACTIVE AUDIENCE IDEAS: Uses & Gratifications theory (incl. the four types ofgratification); Pick ‘n’ Mix theory; Encoding-Decoding Model; Reception Theory (incl.the three different response positions); Interactive AudienceSPASSIVE AUDIENCEPASSIVE AUDIENCE IDEAS: Hypodermic Needle Effect; Copycat Theory;Cultivation TheoryAs well as this, you need to understand what each of the following means: How texts define their target audience How texts construct their audiences How texts target and appeal to their target audiences How texts position their target audiences How different audiences can respond to the same text differentlyYou should have THREE case study texts that you have explored all FIVE of theabove for and should be able to use them as your examples in essays.TEXT 1: November 2011 FHM front cover featuring Naya (Glee actress) – magazine coverTEXT 2:Four Lions (Chris Morris, 2010) – British filmTEXT 3:Run the World (Girls) (Beyoncé, 2011) – music video
  2. 2. How to prepare: Make some revision flashcards on the theories and terminology and learn - get someone to test you, until the knowledge has stuck Find some examples of different texts on YouTube e.g. an ad, a trailer, a video game extract, an opening sequence, a bit of the news, a game show etc. and look at them. Then ask yourself questions like the ones below: o Describe TWO audiences who might watch this – sue demographics and psychographics to be as precise as possible o How does this text attract/ appeal to one of these audiences? Find 5/6 different aspects/ techniques o How does it construct an image of its ideal audience member? What can we deduce about the type of person this text thinks will watch it? Again, think in terms of demographics, psychographics and general personality/ interests. What details tell you this? o How does it position its audience? What view of things does it try and encourage us to take (Preferred Reading) and what techniques is it using to do this? o How might different audiences react differently to this and why? You would need to define two groups and explore what you think their response might be. Answering the WHY bit should involve use of some theory. Take each of the key questions/ focuses and make notes on how each of the case study texts illustrates it. Add any theory and comment on why texts / audiences do this…. The key points are: o TARGET AUDIENCES: How (demographics/ psychographics)and why texts define their target audience and what the benefits and disadvantages are defining a target audience for the text; examples from case studies o CONSTRUCTING THE AUDIENCE: what this means, how texts do it, why they do it, what image they offer – a real one or an idealised one; examples from case studies o APPEALING TO/ ATTRACTING THE AUDIENCE : why texts need to do this, some of the strategies they use; examples from your case studies; consider if audiences have to be attracted – is the media so powerful we have to fall for its lures or can we resist? (maybe add in some theory?)
  3. 3. o POSITIONING THE AUDIENCE: what does this mean? Give examples from your case study texts. Explore whether we, as audiences, have to accept the positioning we are offered or are we free to respond as we want? Again, use some theory and your case study materials to illustrate. o DIFFERING RESPONSES: texts target an audience and seek to position them as if they were passive. However, maybe we are more active and can resist the positioning if we want or at least, if we accept it, it is because we have chosen to do so and jot because the media has made us. Link to some theory and offer examples drawn from your case studies.The Exam:You will get one 30 mark question on audience.It may be Question 2, in which case there will be 3 short questions. The first two will use thetext and ask you two different questions about audience, where you will be expected to applythe ideas to the text e.g. identify two different audiences for this text (a few lines definingeach as accurately as you can and maybe some reason/ justification for why you think thisaudience will like this text); take one audience and explain how this text seeks to appeal tothis audience(clarify the audience and find 4/5 things that you think will appeal to/ attractthis audience and explain how these will work). The third question will be a mini-essay,requiring you to use the case study materials – obviously, it will be a scaled down version of aQuestion 3 essay.You could get audience as the focus for your Qn 3 essay, which is worth 30 marks and willrequire you to write about audience using your three case study materials as examples. Thereis no set structure for these but you will need to: Explain in the introduction what the terms in the question mean e.g. audience positioning refers to… Use specific examples from your case study materials Use/ refer to terminology, theory and media ideas about audience in your answerAlthough there is no set pattern to follow here, unlike representation essays, you should beable to incorporate all the ideas outlined in the final preparation activity in your answer – solearn them and use them!On the MS1 blog, look at the Audience post – various materials anddetails of the case studies (www.smcmedia.blogspot.com)