Stopping ShortSource: Theuen, B. (2010), Most Community College StudentsNever Graduate, The Texas Tribune
Our Students Have Changed 75% of students are juggling jobs, commuting to class. Even when given twice as long, no more than a quarter of part-time students ever graduate with either a certificate or associate degree. Students are taking too many credits and too much time to complete.Source: Complete College America; (2011); Time is the Enemy; Completionby Design, Washington D.C.
Excess Hours = Lower Graduation• Nationally, students receiving an associate degree earned an average of 79 credits for programs that were 60 credit hours in length• Nationally, Students receiving certificate earned on average 63.5 credits even though just 30 credits were required to attain a certificate.Are LCCC students obtaining degree in themost efficient manner and what is the addedmonetary cost to the student and to the statefor attaining a degree with excess hours?Source: Complete College America, 2001, Time is the Enemy, Washington DC
Program Structure“College students are more likely to persistand succeed in programs that are highlystructured, with little room for individuals todeviate from a path toward completion.”– Judith Scott-ClaytonSource: Scott-Clayton, J., 2011, The Shapeless River: Does a Lack of StructureInhibit Students’ Progress at Community Colleges?, CCRC Working Paper No. 25:A Working Paper in the CCRC Assessment of Evidence Series
Contributing Factors Community college students may not have appropriate college knowledge. Many community college students report that they have had limited access to advising. Scheduling barriers also play a role.Source: Zeidenberg, M.; (2012), Valuable Learning or Spinning Their Wheels?Understanding Excess Credits Earned by Community College Associate Degree Completers:CCRC Working Paper No. 44; Columbia University: Community College Research Center.
Program LengthCore questions to ask in designingprogram length: Are you required by statute, licensure, or accreditation to offer a program over 60 credit hours? If the answer is no, ask yourself do the additional hours result in significant value added for the graduate?
Impact of Additional Hours at LCCC Median Program Length for Associate Degree = 66 hours Projected 150% graduation rate for 66 credit hour program 27.9% for Full Time Students 10.2% for Part Time Students 16.4% Graduation Rate Need to recruit 6 new students every Fall to produce 1 graduate
Impact of Additional Hours at LCCC If Program Length for Associate Degree = 60 hours Projected 150% graduation rate for 60 credit hour program 31.4% for Full Time Students (+13% increase) 12.5% for Part Time Students (+22% increase) 19.1% Total Graduation Rate (+17% increase) Need to recruit 5 new students every Fall to produce 1 graduate Reduces time to degree: From 2.04 years to 1.86 years for full time students 8.8% reduction in time to degree From 5.2 years to 4.7 years for part time students 9.6% reduction in time to degree
Impact of Additional Hours at LCCC For every credit hour over 60, a LCCC program reduces the number of graduates it can produce by 2.6%.
The Value of Certificate Programs People earn certificates throughout their working lives. Certificate holders tend to come from backgrounds of low to moderate family income. On average, certificate holders earn roughly the same as workers with some college, but no degree. Source: Carnevale, A., Rose, S., Hanson, A., (2012), Certificates: Gateway to Gainful Employment and College Degrees. Georgetown University; Center on Education and the Workforce.
The Value of Certificate ProgramsEarning Benefit In the US, the median earnings is 7% greater for certificate holders than those who leave without any credential. In the US, certificate holders are 16% more likely to be employed full time than those who leave without any credential. In the US, certificate holders are 11% more likely to be employed in a job with benefits than those who leave without any credential. In the US, certificate holders are 36% less likely to be unemployed than those who leave without any credential. Source: Ifill, N, Radford, A, (January 2012), Beginning Subbaccalaureate Students’ Labor Market Experiences: Six Years Latter in 2009, NCES 2012-273, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics
Impact of CertificatePrograms onGraduation Rates A student is 33% morelikely to graduate withan associate degree ifthey graduate from anembedded certificateprogram. Source: Simpson, Jim (2007); Impact of Certificate Graduates on AS/AAS Graduate Rates at FCCJ; Florida Community College at Jacksonville Internal Study
Impact of Certificates at FSCJ College credit certificate graduates have a 84% placement rate, earning $36,628 per year. 55% are continuing their education. Non-credit certificate graduates have a 78% placement rate, earning $39,264 per year. 22% are continuing their education. Source: Florida Department of Education, Florida College Vocational Report, 2009-2010 Florida Education and Training Placement Information Program, Florida State College at Jacksonville.
The Value of Certificate Programs “Among policymakers, practitioners, and other stakeholders, a growing consensus emerged that certificates requiring less than one year of study have little economic value. Evidence is presented that suggests that this option is overstated.– Dr. Anthony Carnevale” Source: Carnevale, A., Rose, S., Hanson, A., (2012), Certificates: Gateway to Gainful Employment and College Degrees. Georgetown University; Center on Education and the Workforce.
Impact of Certificates at FSCJ Certificates 1 semester in length (11 to 12 credit hours) 54% of graduates continue their education 85% are placed in field, continue their education, or join the military Yearly earnings = $52,164 Certificates 2 semesters in length (13 to 24 credit hours) 60% of graduates continue their education 86% are placed in field, or continue their education or join the military Yearly earnings = $32,768 Certificates 3 semesters or longer in length (+24 credit hrs) 53% of graduates continue their education 80% are placed in field, or continue their education or join the military Yearly Earnings = $42,220 Source: Florida Department of Education, Florida College Vocational Report, 2009-2010 Florida Education and Training Placement Information Program, Florida State College at Jacksonville.
Good Program Design Limit Program Options FSCJ Practice 1:2 Ratio on Electives Limit “Or” Statements Remove Hidden and Non- Enforceable Prerequisites Remove Structural Barriers Capitalize on Program Cluster SynergyAdapted From: D. Jenkis, S. Cho, 2012, Get with the Program: Accelerating CommunityCollege Students’ Entry into and Completion of Programs of Study, CCRC Working PaperNo. 32. Columbia College Teachers College, Community College Research Center
Program Cluster Synergy Take Advantage of Synergistic Opportunities Accounting (46 to 47 hrs)Common Core with an Aviation Management (40 hrs)Embedded Certificate Business Administrative Support (26 to 27 hrs) Hospitality Management (43 hrs) Logistics Management (29 to 30 hrs)
Strengthen On-Line CoursesWhat are you doing to bolster and strengthen youronline courses? Student are more likely to fail or withdrawal from a fully online course as compared to a face-to-face course. Students who took online coursework in early terms were significantly less likely to return to college in subsequent terms. Students who took a high proportion of credits online were significantly less likely to attain an educational award or transfer to a four-year institution. Source: Xu, D., Jaggars, S.; March 2011, Online and Hybrid Course Enrollment and Performance in Washington State Community and Technical Colleges. CCRC Working Paper No. 31. Columbia College Teachers College, Community College Research Center.
Sirius Course Elements Infusion of Mastery Learning Research based Constructivist Approach Activities grounded in everyday content Topics with multiple perspectives Collaboration Cooperative Learning Social engagement Group Projects
Embedded Active Learning Strategies Cooperative Learning Project Based Learning Internships/Coops Simulation Learning Communities Supplemental Instruction Technology Enhanced Classes “Right Start” Orientation On-going Active Teaching Strategy Training for Faculty
Advising Action #1Talk with Students before theyWithdrawals from a Class Nationally, a student who receives a “W” on 20% or more of the credits they attempted decreases the probability of graduation within 3 years by 51%. In Florida community colleges, a student who receives a “W” on 20% or more of the credits they attempted decreases the probability of graduation within 3 years by 83%.
Advising Action #2 57.90% Tell Your Students 60% the Importance of 50% Earning 20 credit 40% hours in a Year 19.40% 30% A FTIC who earns 20 20% credit hours is 2.98 x’s more likely to graduate 10% than a student who 0% doesn’t earn 20 credit Earned 20+ Credits in First year in First Year Did Not Earn 20 Credits hours.Source: Colleen, Moore, Nancy Shulock, Jermey Ofenstein, October 2009, Steps toSuccess: Analyzing Milestone Achievement to Improve Community College StudentOutcomes, Institute for Higher Education Leadership & Policy.
Advising Action #3 Let Students Know 60% 45% about the 50% Importance of 40% Summer Enrollment 30% A FTIC student who is 20% 14.5% continuously enrolled in their first year has a 3.1 x’s 10% higher graduation rate 0% than a student who did not Earned Summer Did Not Earn earn credits in the summer. Credits Summer CreditsSource: Colleen, Moore, Nancy Shulock, Jermey Ofenstein, October 2009, Steps to Success: AnalyzingMilestone Achievement to Improve Community College Student Outcomes, Institute for Higher EducationLeadership & Policy.
Advising Action #4 70% Completed Course Did Not Complete Course Tell Your College 60% 61.10% Ready Students not 51.20% to Postpone CL 50% English or Math 40% Students taking CL Math in 30% first two years have a 22% 21.20% 20% graduation rate that is 2.78 x’s greater. 10% Students taking CL English in first two years have a 0% graduation rate that is 2.4x Complete CL Math Completed CL greater. in 2 Years English in 2 YearsSource: Colleen, Moore, Nancy Shulock, Jermey Ofenstein, October 2009, Steps to Success: AnalyzingMilestone Achievement to Improve Community College Student Outcomes, Institute for Higher EducationLeadership & Policy.
Time for Action When: Student Misses the First Day of Class. Students who do not attend the first day of class reduce their chances of graduating with an associate or certificate by 27%. Student is Late with First Assignment. Students who failed to turn in their first assignment on time or failed to turn in the first assignment (regardless of the point value of the assignment) were 72% less likely to complete the course as compared to students who turned in the first assignment of time. Student Earns a “D” on First Assignment. Students earning a letter grade of “D” or lower on their fist assignment (regardless of the point value) were 84% less likely to complete the course as compared to students who scored “C” or better.
Early Alert System Reminder “Early alert is the timely intervention for student experiencing academic difficulty or exhibiting behaviors that are counter-productive to student success PLUS a predictive modeling system that allows preemptive intervention for likely students in need.”Source: Entering StudentSuccess Institute
Course Design Principles Take attendance. “Class attendance is a better predictor of college grades than any other know predictor of academic performance.” “Mandatory attendance policies appear to have a positive impact on average grades.”Source: Crede, M., Roch, S., & Kieszczynka, U.; (2012); Class Attendance in College: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relationship of Class Attendance with Grades and Student Characteristics;Review of Educational Research; December 2012 82: 436-476, first published on November 2, 2012
Course Design Principles More Frequent Assessments, Starting Earlier in the Term “Student report increased control and voice in the classroom.” “Faculty report that students are more involved in their own learning.” “Students are more or much more satisfied with their class.” “Increased metacognition and improved ability for students to monitor their own methods.” Sources: (1) Steadman, Mimi, M., (1994) Implementation and Impact of Classroom Assessment Techniques in Community Colleges; University of California, Berkeley, (UMI Microform no. 9528688). (2) Catlin, A., & Kalina, M., (1993) What is the Effect of the Cross/Angelo Model of Classroom Assessment on Student Outcome? A study of the Classroom Assessment Project at Eight California Community Colleges; Research projected funded by the California Community College Chancellor’s Office. Funds for Instructional Improvement Grant 92-0016.
Course Design Principles More Frequent Assessments, Starting Earlier “Student report increased control and voice in the classroom.” “Faculty report that students are more involved in their own learning.” “Students are more or much more satisfied with their class.” “Increased metacognition and improved ability for students to monitor their own methods.” Sources: (1) Steadman, Mimi, M., (1994) Implementation and Impact of Classroom Assessment Techniques in Community Colleges; University of California, Berkeley, (UMI Microform no. 9528688). (2) Catlin, A., & Kalina, M., (1993) What is the Effect of the Cross/Angelo Model of Classroom Assessment on Student Outcome? A study of the Classroom Assessment Project at Eight California Community Colleges; Research projected funded by the California Community College Chancellor’s Office. Funds for Instructional Improvement Grant 92-0016.
Course Design Principles Incorporate College Knowledge into the Classroom. Gates Foundation funded a $2.5 million challenge to develop Apps around college knowledge. Winners to be announced on January 23, 2013 http://www.collegeknowledgechallenge.org/
Battle of the TitiansLone Star College Harvard University 65% Part Time Students 70% Full Time Students Commuter College Residential University Most Students are Most Students are Not Working Working 50% Pell & Fed Loans 21% Pell & Fed. Loans 130+ Programs of Study 48 Programs of Study Many First Generation Most Are Not First College Students Generation Students
Time-to-Degree Formula150% Graduation ( standard) (Program Length in credit hours x 1.50)/30 = Years to complete degree or certificate; or Program Length/20 200% Graduation (Common metric) (Program Length x 2) = Years to complete degree or certificate; or Program Length/15 Part-Time Graduation (Internal tool) Program Length / Median credit hours successfully completed by part-time students Legend: Red Font = USDOE Formula; Blue Font = Shortcut Formula
Associate Median Length = 66 hours 15% 13% 72% Program Length 60 to 64 65 to 69 70 or Longer
Certificate Median Length = 30 hours 45% 26% 5% 24% Credit Hour Length 12 to 19 20 to 28 29 to 38 39 or higher
Observations – Accounting Program Length – 66 to 67 Hours Program is over 60 credit hours. Program has a range of hours. 2 years to complete. No summer Large Number of Courses 72 courses; 255 credit hours General Education “wildcard” electives 5 courses to support a 2/3 hour technical elective. 13% to 15% of total credit hours consist of electives. Pluses CL English and Math required in the first year. College 101 included in the Associate Degree and Certificates
Observations – Culinary Program Length – 70 to 71 Hours Program is over 60 credit hours. Program has a range of hours. 2 years to complete. No Summer Large Number of Courses 110 courses; 317 credit hours General Education “wildcard” electives College 101 only in 1 Certificate CL Math in 2nd year 15% to 17% of total credit hours consist of electives. All in general education. Pluses CL English required in the first year. College 101 included in the Associate Degree and 1 of 2 Certificates No Technical Electives.
Observations – Workplace Relations Program Length – 63 Hours Don’t know how long to complete Large Number of Courses 159 courses; 500 credit hours General Education “wildcard” electives 35% of total credit hours consist of electives. No semester layout so when CL English and Math is suggested is unknown. Pluses College 101 included in the Associate Degree.
Observations – Supply Chain Program Length – 64 to 65 Hours Program is over 60 credit hours. Program has a range of hours. 2 years to complete. No Summer. Large Number of Courses 68 courses; 242 credit hours Large number of math/science electives No certificates Pluses CL English and Math shown in the first term. College 101 included in the Associate Degree No Broad Technical Elective Options. 9% of total credit hours were electives.
Florida Sources URL for Florida State Colleges Program Frameworks: http://www.fldoe.org/workf orce/dwdframe. Hint for Translating Florida Edu-speak to English PSAV = Non-credit frameworks. Everything else is creditSource: Destin Chamber of Commerce
Impact of Program Design at FSCJ Total Programs250240 236230220 218210200190 26% Reduction in Total180 Programs 173170160150 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2009-2010 2010-2011
Impact of Program Design at FSCJ Impact on FSCJ Associate Degrees 3%reduction in the median length of an Associate degree since 2000-2001 From 66.5 to 64.5 credit hours in length in 2010- 2011 17% gain in projected (Theoretical) graduation rate 11.4% gain for full time students 30% gain for part time students
Impact of Program Design at FSCJ Impact on Certificate Programs 63% increase in the number of certificate programs since 2000-2001. From 60 to 98 certificate programs in 2010-2011 76% increase in the number of certificate programs that are 20 credit hours or less in length since 2000-2001 From 29 to 51 certificate programs that are 20 credit hours or less in length
Quality Trend Lines3530 Florida Coast Career Tech Division2520 Military, Public Safety, & Security15 Division Florida State College at Jacksonville10 5 Florida State College Division0 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012
Lessons Learned Control credit creep by limiting program length Establish model for three-year and four-year semester-by- semester road maps for all programs Simplify your Programs (Limit Options)Adapted from: Complete College America; (2011); Three Policies to ReduceTime to Degree: Complete College America: Washington D.C.
Lessons LearnedFocus Strategies on Part Time Students Source: Complete College American (2011) September, 2011 Time is the Enemy: The surprising truth about why today’s college students aren’t graduating and what needs to change
Lessons LearnedMaximize Program Design Review your programs for hidden prerequisites. Reduce elective options to no more than 10% of your program length. If you think you have too many embedded certificate programs you probably don’t.
Lessons LearnedAdvising for Impact “The problem of excessive, no penalty withdraws and numerous course repeats affects 10% of a cohort. Institutional policy and advising can cut the incidence of withdrawals and repeats by half.” – Clifford Adelman
Lessons LearnedMost Attrition is NOT Caused by Academic Failure“Over 40% of attrition costs nationwide are attributableto students who leave with grade point averages in theA & B range. Attrition associated with poor academicperformance (i.e., students leaving with C averages orbelow) accounts for just 15% of attrition costs.” – DeltaCost Project Source: Johnson, N., September 2012; Delta Cost Project Research Paper: The Institutional Costs of Student Attrition; Delta Cost Project, American Institutes for Research
Lessons LearnedPromote Active Learning Strategies Patience is the key. The payoff in higher graduation rates is three to five years in the future
Rethinking College Practices Connection Entry Progress Completion From interest to From enrollment to From program entry to From program enrollment entry into a program of 75% of program completion to study requirements credential of value for completed further education and labor market advancement Design (at scale) and align with every stageSource: Jenkins, D., January 2011, Redesigning Community Colleges for Completion: Lessons from Research onHigh –Performance Organizations, CCRC Working Paper No. 24; Columbia University TeacherCollege, Community College Research Center
Contact Information Jim SimpsonAssociate Vice President of Degree and Career Programs Florida State College at Jacksonville 501 West State Street Jacksonville, FL 32202 E-mail: email@example.com