TCP/IP Protocol Suite Reference Model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical IP OSI Reference Model Network Protocols Layer Internet Layer Host-to-Host Layer Applications Layer Ethernet Token Ring FDDI PPP ATM ARP RARP ICMP TCP UDP FTP SMTP Telnet TIME RPC NFS IP Networking Model HTTP Ping Hardware RIP
IP datagrams are sent from one host to another, possibly through interconnecting routers
IP service is unreliable, connectionless, best-effort packet delivery system
Provides network level services
Packet fragmentation and reassembly (if necessary)
All other protocols use IP services
TCP/IP Protocol Suite IP (Internetworking Protocol) Characteristics
TCP/IP Protocol Suite IP Datagrams Vers. (4) IH Length (4) Type of Service Total Length of Datagram Identification Flags (3) Fragment Offset (13) Time to Live Protocol Header Checksum IP Source Address IP Source Address IP Destination Address IP Destination Address IP Options Data
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) offers several benefits over RIP:
OSPF is an open, published specification . It is not proprietary to any manufacturer.
OSPF supports the concept of areas to allow networks to be administratively partitioned as they grow in size.
Load balancing , in which multiple routes exist to a destination is also supported. OSPF distributes traffic over these links.
IP Routing OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Node/Network Shortest / Best Path 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 A B C D E 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 2
Address Resolution ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP Request (Multicast) ARP Response Router 08 00 2B 00 AA 0C 192.168.3.75 08 00 2B 00 AC FC 192.168.3.77 192.168.3.75 / Hardware Address? 192.168.3.75 / 08 00 2B 00 AA 0C Internet
Dynamic Host Configuration DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Request Response with IP Setup Information Router Internet
IP Networking Domain Names / Host Names Examples for top-level domains : .com Commercial organizations .edu Educational organizations .gov US Government and government agencies .net Network providers (like ISPs, etc.) .org Misc. organizations .mil US military organizations .int International organisations such as UNO, NATO, etc. Countries are assigned domains that start with their ISO country code : .de Germany .ch Switzerland .at Austria .fr France
IP Networking DNS (Domain Name System) DNS Server Resolver queries DNS Server Router Internet
„ A VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a network consisting of
virtual connections over which non-public and company
internal data are securely transmitted“.
Examples for VPN Technologies are:
PPTP (Point to Point Tunnelling Protocol)
L2TP (Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocol)
GRE with SA (Generic Router Encapsulation with Security Assoc.)
TCP/IP Network Security VPN Private LAN Private LAN VPN Tunnel Internet Public Network
IPv6 Next Generation IP Colon-hexadecimal Dotted-decimal Address notation Uses ICMPv6 Requires ARP Neighbor Discovery Built-in Add-on Mobile IP Flow labeling, priority Defined but not generally implemented Quality of Service Multicast, anycast All-broadcast only Multicast Automatic Manual or DHCP Configuration IPSec built-in Add-on Security < 64 Kbytes normal “ jumbogram” support < 64 Kbytes Max packet size 3.4 x 10 38 addresses 4.3 x 10 9 addresses Address space 128 bits (16 octets) 32 bits (4 octets) Addressing IPv6 IPv4 Feature
IPv6 Extended Addressing 0 32 Bit 128 Bit 0 IPv4 address IPv6 address 128 bit address: 2 128 -1 = 340282366920938463374607432768211455 addresses ! 32 bit address: 2 32 -1 = 4294967296 addresses ! The IPv6 address space is 2 96 times the size of the IPv4 address space! 32 Bit
IPv6 Example Address Format 2001 : 1234 : 5678 : 0123 : 0000 : 1234 : 5678 : 9ABC IPv6 Global Unicast Address Format Example (colon-hexadecimal notation): 0 16 32 48 64 80 96 112 128 bit 0 0 1 Provider Site / Subnet & Interface ID 3 + 45 bits Format Prefix (FP) TLA ID RES NLA ID SLA ID
IPv6 Header Format Optimization 32 bits Version Traffic Class Flow Label Payload Length Next Header Hop Limit Source Address Destination Address
IPv6 Improved multicast & streaming Multicast Application Destination (Source) User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5