How can we prove it was intentional?What about acts that lead to death but were accidental etc
ScienceObserving patterns in natural worldDevelop laws of causes and effect to explain themObjectiveQuantitativeGoal of Sociology should be to produce laws to explain observed patterns in human behaviourSociology can discover real scientific laws. There are observable patterns or irregularities in human behaviour and we can discover casual explanations (laws) for them.
Durkheim first to study Suicide in a Sociological manner in late 19th centuryUsed his study of Suicide as part of a project to demonstrate the validity of Sociology as a subject
Durkheim first to study Suicide in a Sociological manner in late 19th centuryUsed his study of Suicide as part of a project to demonstrate the validity of Sociology as a subject Protestantism is one of the three major groupings (Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and Protestantism) within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology
Used OS to analyse suicide rates over a period of several decades in the 19th century
He used a technique now called ‘multivariate analysis’, which consisted of comparing the incidence of various social factors with the frequency of a particular event – in this case suicide.He therefore studied the statistics of suicide that he collected from death certificates and other official documents and found a number of clear patterns.
EgoisticThis type of suicide occurs when an individual is under integrated in society. (Industrial societies) e.g. unmarried people have no family ties so they are more likely to commit suicide than married people who have families E.g. The rates of suicide are higher amongst Protestants than Catholics and Protestants have a looser social network. Catholics also have a strict systemAltruisticThis type of suicide occurs when an individual has become over integrated into society. So integrated that they would sacrifice themselves as a sense of duty to others. Pre Industrial SocietyE.g. Followers who commit suicide after the death of a leader – A modern example is terrorist suicide bombers. Anomic This type of suicide occurs when society has a lack of control over individuals, a lack of regulation exists. Industrial societiesE.g. When economic depression or rapid change (economic booms) occurs people find it difficult to adapt to the changes. FatalisticThis type of suicide occurs when society has too much regulation and control over people’s lives. Pre IndustrialE.g. Prisoners or Slaves who have no control over themselves but are controlled by others. Also people being bullied
Or Diagnose the Suicide sheet
Halwachs waned to add more recent and reliable stats to Durkheim’s theoryHalbwachs argued that differences between urban and rural residence were the main reason for variations in suicide Higher rates among protestants, people living alone and so on were more a function of their urban location- these groups were more likely to be found in towns where people lead more isolated lives.Gibbs and Porterfield (1960)Gibbs and Porterfield studied suicide statistics for New Zealand and found them useful as the provide an individuals occupation class at birth and death. From this they then drew conclusions.
A2-Level Sociology Suicide
Lesson Objectives• Look at what Sociology can tell us about the causes of and reasons for suicide• Introduce the main sociological perspectives on suicide• Be able to list strengths and weaknesses of different explanations of suicide
Defining Suicide Defining suicide is an issue which needs to be considered before we can investigate the reasons behind suicide. Interpretivists would argue that we know whether someone has committed suicide or not because we use our interpretation.Although we all interpret situations differently – therefore can we define suicide specifically? What is your definition of suicide?
Dictionary DefinitionSuicide is the act of intentionally causing ones own death What probs exist with using this definition
Positivism and SuicideWhat key words can you remember in relation to positivism?How can those key words be applied to suicide? What types of research methods do Positivists use?
Positivism and Suicide Durkheim is one of the most useful examples to use when explaining Positivism and suicide.Durkheim decided to study suicide as he wanted to prove that our actions are influenced by wider social forces in which we have no control over. By doing this he could prove that Sociology was a scientific discipline
Positivism and Suicide Durkheim examined explanations for Suicide: • Climate (no effect) • Psychological explanations (inadequate) • Accepted that some people may be psychologically more predisposed (depression)• Rejected view that psychological factors explain the differences in suicide rates of whole groups/societies e.g. Jews had higher rates of mental illness than Protestants but lower suicide rates
Durkheim’s Definition of Suicide“all causes of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or a negative view of himself, which he knows will produce this result”
Suicide Rates as Social FactsDurkheim stated our behaviour is caused by social facts- forces found in the structure of society. Social factors are: 1. External to individuals 2. Constrain individuals, shaping their behaviour3. Greater than individuals- exist on a different level
Durkheims Methodology For Durkheim suicide rate is a social fact• Comparative method – making comparisons between data to identify differences.• Official Statistics – Durkheim used these to make comparisons between European countries.
Durkheim’s Discoveries1. Suicide rates varied between countries although overall they were fairly stable (remained constant over time)2. When rates did change they coincided with other changes e.g. Rates fell during war time but rose during economic depression3. Within a society Suicide rates varied between groups e.g. Catholics lower than Protestants, Married with children lower than single, widowed & childless
Durkheim’s DiscoveriesFrom Durkheim’s discoveries he concluded that suicide rates were not driven by individuals but by wider social forces.If suicide was driven by individuals then suicide rates would have been more scattered. AO2: Durkheim was first to use multivariate analysis, enabling him to correlate suicide rates with other social factors e.g. religion, marital status.Without this it would not be possible to establish cause and effect Relationships
Durkheim’s Discoveries The patterns of suicide rates are a result of two social factsSocial Integration- how far individuals experience asense of belonging to a groupMoral Regulation- how far individuals actions are keptin check by norms and values
Durkheim’s Categorisation of Suicide Type of Suicide Egoistic Social Lack of Integration BIntegration A Altruistic Over-Integration L A N Lack of Regulation Anomic Moral CRegulation E Over-Regulation Fatalistic Read the definitions for each of these types of suicide and summarise
What type of suicide? [Some cases may be more than one]What type of suicide would Durkheim say the below cases were:Suicide by a lottery winner.Suicide by a widowed person.Suicide by a long-term unemployed person.Suicide by prisoners.Suicide by divorced people.Suicide by members of the radical Islamic Hamas group.Suicide by Jews in a German concentration camp during the war. Read through Suicide and types of Society (pg 148)
Positivist Response to DurkheimHalbwachs (1930) Halbwachs claimed that Durkheim over emphasised the influence religion has over suicide. Halbwachs claims that living in a rural or urban area has more of an impact.Sainsbury (1955) Suicide rates in London boroughs were highest where the levels of social disorganisation (divorce/illegitimacy) were highest
AO2: Later Positivists criticised Durkheim for not operationalising his concepts (Gibbs & Martin) Issues with reliability and validity of his statistics; in 19th century autopsies were rarely preformed and many states did not collect stats systematically Denies importance of choice in acts of suicide Gives a scientific explanations of Suicide Doesn’t explain why some people commit suicide and others stop themselves when they are in the same situation Explains different suicide rates in different countries by reference to social characteristics Emphasises power of social forces in shaping individuals lives