L1 factors influencing choice of method and topic
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L1 factors influencing choice of method and topic

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  • 1. thod:Choosing a Research Me ethods. y differen t research m studying man of all the topic you will be u will need to be aware this methods any detail yo od/s. This W ithin e r a n y of t h ese in hoice of re search meth s, ethical Befor e you consid ence the r esearchers c of data, pr actical issue at might influ ferent types ic itself. fact or s t h of dif e choice of research top erstanding having an und regarding th includes & the issues etical issues issues, theor hould: f th is topic you s By the end o h methods data are & what researc he main types of > Know what t se sociologists u luencing al factors inf al. Theoretic stand the pr actical, ethic to assess the ir relative > Under and be able thod & topic, choice of me importance. rpretivist e between Po sitivist & Inte the differenc > Understand research. approaches to
  • 2. Types of Data: unt when conducting research s will take into acco in gs that researcher their studies.One of the first th want to obtain from that theyis the type of data ich is usua lly obtained Quantita tive Data: This is NUMERICAL information wh le (Quantity). a MACRO Sca . on in large quantities i.e QUANTIFY. IABLE. It is easy to OBJECTIVE & REL This is standardised data is lly obtained in Qualitative Data: form ation which is usua This is TEXTUAL in (Quality). . on a MICRO Scale smaller quantities i.e It is difficult to ta that is SUBJ ECTIVE & VALID. This is detailed, in-depth da ATIONS. quantify and re lies on INTERPRET pics you Give examples of to ld be could study that wou better suited to a a)Quantitative Dat & b) Qualitative Data.
  • 3. use/ need to use take into account wh ether or not they wish to Researchers also need to urces… Primary or Secondary So themselves formation colle cted by sociologists Pr imary Sources: This is in r research i.e. it is NEW data. during thei r particular er specific informatio n that they need for theiThis al lows researchers to gath & time consuming.rese arch. This can be costly researchers n that has been collected by other it is Secon dary Sources: This is informatio t can then draw on for their research i.e. which the sociologis DY EXISTS. data THAT ALREA r research. It ary Sources and/or inspire new ideas for othe n be used to support Prim & difficult to findThis ca to obtain. It can howe ver be ‘outdated’ quicklyis us ually quick, easy & cheap ists current research.data to suit the sociolog econdary Primary Sources of Data as well as S > Give Examples of Sources of Data. He/She could choose: er is faced differen t combinations of data: Here then, the research ive Data > Primary Quantitat itative Data . > Secondary Quant See table on next slide…. e Data > Primary Qualitativ ative Data > Secondary Qualit
  • 4. a Qualitative Data Quantitative Dat ld periments Natural/ Fie Artificial Ex Experiments d Comparative Metho Small Scale Surveys (C ase Large Scale Surveys Studies) Primary Data n-Ended Qs) Questionnaires (Close d Questionnaires (OpeCollection: s) Ended/ Pre-Coded Q Unstructured (Formal) (Informal) Interviews Structured Interviews t t Participan icipan ions No n-Part ions Observat vat Obser Diaries OfficialSecondary Newspaper A rticles Statistics DataCollection: phies Auto/ Biogra Life Histories ies Documentar (TV/ Radio)
  • 5. tal factors that g types of data, there are other viMoving away from choosin ing on any research….researchers must cons ider too before embark Practical Issues: P.E.T Ethical Issues: s: Theoretical Issue these Can you think what any of might refer to/ include?
  • 6. Practical Issues: e up various amounts of resources e.g. the Different methods us rveys & input Time & emplo y people to carry out su researcher might need to cheap but take up Money: Part icipant Observations are data which is expensive. lots of time. quire different types s, Universities etc may re Funding Governments, Businesse ed choices e.g. of data & therefore the researcher has limit Social policy. Bodies: ct St atistical Data to inform Governments like to colle erefore may be limited Each rese archer is different & th to blend into Personal Skills & in their choices of methods e.g. if hey need ce / Memory etc. Characteristics: a group, / have good obs. Skills / patien on just plain facts and in ions, feelings, thoughts If the topic requires op ether or not the oice of method. Also wh Subject figures will impact on ch considering. Matter: subject is sensitive or difficult to study needs occur unexpectedly Research In some cases rese arch opportunities may e & planning. Opportunity: & therefore effe cts the researchers tim
  • 7. Ethical Issues: …What are Ethics?... The researcher le to re fuse being researched. Participants should be ab formed consent open & honest abou t the research so that in Consent: should be to opt out of the icipant. They should be able can be given by the part . research if they so wish tial to prevent l participant identitie s should be kept confiden Confi dentiality Al Participants have the ri ght to refuse any negative effects. & Pr ivacy: information. come to the No psychologica l or physical harm should not be placed in any Danger & Harm: participants. Also, participants should ns. illegal or immoral situatio rticipants that ould be give to any group/ pa Extra care & attention sh sability, ethnicity, Vulnerable in terms if age, gender, di Groups: are deemed as vulnerable h. physical or mental healt s their identity er goes ‘Under Cover’ & keep This is when the research obviously creates Covert from the participants. This as a researcher hidden consent etc. Research: many ethical problems as deceit, lying, lack of
  • 8. s:Theoretical Issue y as working e.g. can beha viour be predicted? searcher sees societThese reflect how the re l structure of society?Are individuals mor e important than overal ated by another Reliability: (Replicability) A reliable metho d is one that, when repe will be obtained. rese archer, the same results ds like Experiments. This applie s to Quantitative Metho true, full picture Validity: (Truthfulness) A valid metho d is one that produces a erent results could It is not Repeatable as diff of what is being studied. od is implemented. occur everytime the meth Observations. e Methods like Participant This applies to Qualitativ s:Representativenes s-section of the group icipants are a good cros Whether or not the part ipant ‘Sample’ is a good the researcher is inte rested in. If the partic from them can be cross-section then the information obtained bigger ‘Gen eralised’ to the bigger gr oup. Generally speaking, the the sample, the more es. Representative it becom Methodological Perspective: licting views on of so ciologists who have conf There are 2 main groups SITIVISTS & how society work s. These are known as PO separate PowerPoint) IN TERPRETIVISTS (See
  • 9. Choice of Topic: tical perspective topic depend s largely on what theore A sociologists choice of nists might study theTheoretic al they are affiliated with/ interested in e.g. Femi een males & females.Perspective: Domestic Division of Labour or Wage differences betw which topics get economic climate of society might influenceSocieties The social, political & pic of research. ing has/ is recently a hot toValues: studied e.g. Global Warm g comes from pensive it ne eds funding. This fundin As research is often ex c. As such these vernme nt Bodies, Businesses et Funding Universities, Charities, Go studied and which to dictate which topics should Bodies: organisations often get worth their funding. ‘aren’t worth’ st udying & therefore not impact on the Practical Time, Geography, Transport, Accessibility may all factors: choice of topic.
  • 10. Choice of Topic: tical perspective topic depend s largely on what theore A sociologists choice of nists might study theTheoretic al they are affiliated with/ interested in e.g. Femi een males & females.Perspective: Domestic Division of Labour or Wage differences betw which topics get economic climate of society might influenceSocieties The social, political & pic of research. ing has/ is recently a hot toValues: studied e.g. Global Warm g comes from pensive it ne eds funding. This fundin As research is often ex c. As such these vernme nt Bodies, Businesses et Funding Universities, Charities, Go studied and which to dictate which topics should Bodies: organisations often get worth their funding. ‘aren’t worth’ st udying & therefore not impact on the Practical Time, Geography, Transport, Accessibility may all factors: choice of topic.