Control, punishment and victims

8,826 views
8,606 views

Published on

0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
8,826
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
257
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • . The drugs trade; green crimes; immigrant smuggling; arms trafficking; international terrorism. More examples on page 127. 2. Late modern society, which is threatened by risks that are human-made and have never been faced before, such as global warming and nuclear accidents. 3. An organisation dependent on global connections, but that still has a local network. 4. You can see clearly what is or is not a crime. 5. Many harmful actions are not in fact against the law, or may be against the law in one country but not in another. 6. The study of environmental harm and of harm caused by the powerful (e.g. states, big business). 7. An anthropocentric view is a human-centred view that assumes humans have the right to dominate the environment; an ecocentric view sees humans and their environment as interdependent, so that environmental harm hurts humans also. 8. Primary green crimes are crimes that directly involve harm to the environment (e.g. destroying the rainforest); secondary green crimes are crimes that result from the flouting of rules designed to prevent environmental harm (e.g. breaking laws against dumping toxic waste). 9. Illegal or deviant activities perpetrated by, or with the complicity of, state agencies. 10. Ways that are used by delinquents and by the state to justify their crimes, e.g. denial of victim, of injury or of responsibility.
  • pre-emptive – ANTICIPATE, PREVENT
  • Male Gaze: A form of social control where male pupils and teachers look girls up and down as sexual objects and make judgements about their appearance A form of surveillance through which dominant heterosexual masculinity is reinforced and femininity devalued Way of proving masculinity to friends along with telling stories of sexual conquests. Boys who don't do this run the risk of being labelled gay
  • The strategy is based on the 'Broken Windows ' theory - first developed by two American sociologists, George Kelling and James Wilson, in 1983. There is a link between disorder and crime - a view shared by Labour politicians. The thesis goes: visible signs of decay - litter, broken windows, graffiti, abandoned housing - signals public disinterest . Fear of crime is greatest in these neighbourhoods, which prompts 'respectable' community members to leave . This undermines the community's ability to maintain order and decline follows. Reasoning that it is easier to prevent a neighbourhood's slide into crime than trying to rescue it, the theory demands that even minor misdemeanours must be pursued with the same vigour as serious crimes.
  • Slide 6: Wilson and Kelling in an area where 'read out the bullet points'.
  • Slide 7: This is where Wilson and Kelling's broken window thesis comes in. So when even a minor crime like a broken window goes un-punished people start to 'read out the bullet points.'
  • Slide 8: Etzioni suggest that in the past poor communities policed themselves, and that now in some communities this has broken down which has led to a criminal underclass taking over. And to solve this is to create a greater sense of social integration and responsibility by setting for example a neighbourhood watch scheme.
  • The results This approach has found great success in NY. A ‘ Clean Car Program’ was instituted on the subway in which trains with graffiti on them were taken away immediately. As a result graffiti was largely removed from the subway. Criticisms of zero tolerance: There are negative consequences of aggressive policing with accusations of heavy-handedness by police There are other reasons for falling crime in New York. Fewer take violence-inducing crack cocaine while many of those responsible for committing crimes in the 1980s are now in prison Crime has also fallen in areas without zero tolerance policing The long-term effects are unknown. It works well in densely populated areas with high policing levels and large amounts of petty crime. But where the population is dispersed or the crime rate is low, it may have little effect. And in areas of high racial tension, the policy might leave locals feeling victimised. In Freakonomics, the author noticed the sharp decline in NY crime happened suddenly, 18-20 years after abortion was legalised. So – crime hadn’t been reduced: the criminals themselves had.
  • Perry pre-school project Research conducted in 1962 by David Weikart in Michigan. The project provided high-quality pre-school education to three- and four-year-old African-American children living in poverty and assessed to be at high risk of school failure.  These students were given extra sessions on decision making and problem solving . Parents implemented the programme at home. The results By age 40 they had significantly fewer lifetime arrests for violent crime, property crime and drugs, while more had graduated from high school and were in employment. For every dollar spent on the programme, $17 were saved on welfare, prison and other costs.
  • Perry pre-school project Research conducted in 1962 by David Weikart in Michigan. The project provided high-quality pre-school education to three- and four-year-old African-American children living in poverty and assessed to be at high risk of school failure.  These students were given extra sessions on decision making and problem solving . Parents implemented the programme at home. The results By age 40 they had significantly fewer lifetime arrests for violent crime, property crime and drugs, while more had graduated from high school and were in employment. For every dollar spent on the programme, $17 were saved on welfare, prison and other costs.
  • 1. Ron Clarke ( 1992) argues for a pre-emptive approach which looks at reducing opportunities for crime. He looks at target hardening and zero tolerance policing. Underlies the rational choice theory/ 2. SCP works to an extent in reducing certain kinds of crime, however with most measures there is likely to be displacement Over focuses on opportunistic petty street crime & ignores white collar, corporate and state crime (costly & harmful) Assumes criminals make rational calculations, this is unlikely in many crimes of violence and drug/alcohol fuelled crimes Ignores root of crime e.g. poverty or poor socialisation. Making it difficult to develop long term strategies for crime reduction CCTV operators focus disproportionately on young males. Feminists suggest CCTV is an extension of male gaze and is part of the problem not a solution 3. Wilson & Kelling argue that ‘broken windows’ (signs of disorder e.g. graffiti, begging, littering, vandalism) that are not dealt with send out a signal that no-one cares, encouraging a spiral of decline. An absence of formal social control (police) and informal control (community) means members of the community feel powerless and intimidated 4. environmental improvement strateg y- repair any broken window immediately, tow abandoned cars without delay Zero tolerance policing- instead of reacting to crime, police must pro actively tackle even the slightest sign of disorder even if not criminal. Halting neighbourhood crime and preventing serious crime taking root 5. Social policies e.g. equal pay acts,
  • Age and Victimisation · In 2002 there were 10.9 million people of pensionable age in the UK in over 7 million households. · In 1999 it is estimated that there were 2,040,000 (British Crime Survey) crimes against older people or households headed by older people. (500,000 incidents of vandalism, 214,000 of burglary, 444,000 vehicle related theft, and 132,000 incidents of violence. · Repeat victimisation amongst older victims was 29% for vandalism, 8% for burglary, 20% for vehicle theft, and 14% for violent crime. · The estimated annual number of cases of distraction burglary against older people has been estimated as between 300,000 and 400,000. If it is 365,000, this represents 1000 incidents each day of the year. · 43% of over British 60s feel very or a bit unsafe walking alone after dark
  • Hierarchy of victimisation- powerless are most likely to be victimised yet least likely to have this acknowledged by the state
  • 1. Target-hardening refers to security measures such as locks, alarms etc, designed to make crime more difficult. Displacement refers to the way in which target hardening may result in crime being deflected onto different targets/victims. 2. They ignore white-collar and corporate crime. Many criminals act under the influence of drugs or alcohol, so do not make rational decisions. They ignore underlying causes of crime such as poverty or poor socialisation. 3. The police must be proactive in dealing with the smallest signs of disorder, so that more serious crime will not develop.
  • Interdependence is a relation between its members such that each is mutually dependent on the others. This concept differs from a simple dependence relation, which implies that one member of the relationship can function or survive apart from the other(s). In an interdependent relationship, participants may be emotionally, economically, ecologically and/or morally reliant on and responsible to each other. An interdependent relationship can arise between two or more cooperative autonomous participants (e.g. - co-op ). Some people advocate freedom or independence as the ultimate good; others do the same with devotion to one's family , community , or society . Interdependence can be a common ground between these aspirations. Restitutive- to restore thins to how they were before the offence (restore society’s equilibrium)
  • Devised by the French philosopher Louis Althusser, (1971) this concept refers to those agencies of the State whose primary function is to secure the cooperation and compliance of the subordinate class to rule by the dominant class. Often referred to as ISAs, ideological state apparatuses include: Religious institutions such as the Church Educational institutions The family Political parties The media
  • The Repressive State Apparatuses (or RSA s, as Althusser refers to them in his essay) are those systems and structures in a society that control the relations of production through mainly repressive, physical means. Althusser claims that these structures are necessary (in conjuction with Ideological State Apparatuses, or ISAs) to maintain the reproduction of the relations of production, or in other words, to keep the labourers labouring for the State and the bourgeois society. The RSAs include the following: government (including administration at all levels), police, courts, prisons, the military, etc. They argue that harsh punishments are part of the Repressive State Apparatuses (RSA) which keep the working class in their place
  • Prisoners cells are visible to the guards but the guards are not visible to the prisoners. Not knowing if they are being watched means the prisoners must constantly behave as if they are. Surveillance turns into self surveillance: control becomes invisible, ‘inside’ the prisoner
  • Transcarceration means when somebody enters prison or youth offending they are more than likely to re-enter it again at some point be it with social services or mental health institutions.
  • 4. Retributive justice involves revenge by society and harsh punishment; restitutive justice attempts to restore things to the way they were before the crime, e.g. through paying compensation. 5. Because imprisonment reflects the capitalist mode of production, e.g. paying for one’s crime by ‘doing time’ in a society where ‘time is money’; prison reflects the strict discipline of capitalist factory production. 6. Control via surveillance which is internalised by the individual and becomes self-surveillance. 7. The way in which a person may move from one institution to another during their lifetime, such as children’s care home, prison and mental institution. 8. It ignores structural factors such as patriarchy; it often seems to blame the victim; it does not account for situations where the victims are not aware of the crimes committed against them; it ignores harms done to victims which are not against the law.
  • Control, punishment and victims

    1. 1. Crime control, punishment and victims.
    2. 2. Last Lesson Recap 1. Using your notes create a mindmap/diagram that will help consolidate knowledge onGlobalisation, Green Crime & State Crime 2. Quick Check Questions Page 135
    3. 3. Lesson Objectives• Understand and be able to evaluate a range of crime prevention and control strategies• Understand and be able to evaluate different perspectives on punishment• Know the main trends in sentencing and understand their significance• Know the main patterns of victimisation and be able to evaluate sociological perspectives on victimisation
    4. 4. Crime prevention Activity• Have you or your family taken any crime prevention measures or precautions in the last year? For example, are you careful in the way you use your mobile phone?• Have you been reluctant to go out at night alone? Do you ever carry any pepper spray/ whistle/ alarm? Is your home alarmed?• Do you have locks on windows and security lights? If you drive, have you stopped leaving items inside your car when it is parked?• Design a questionnaire and carry out a small survey amongst your fellow students to assess how widespread these precautions are in your locality.
    5. 5. Situational crime prevention• Ron Clarke ( 1992) argues for a pre-emptive approach which looks at reducing opportunities for crime.• He identifies 3 features of measures aimed at situational crime prevention: 1. They are directed at specific crimes, 2. They involve managing/altering immediate environment of the crime and 3. They aim at increasing the effort and risks of committing crime and reducing rewards
    6. 6. • As a right realist he believes target hardening (locking doors and windows) and more CCTV/security will increase the risk of being caught and lower the rewards.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIGUVu3x0kQhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OfuMEGMersE&feature=related• Underlying SCP is rational choice theory (what is this?)• Clarke suggests most theories offer no realistic solution. Most crime is opportunistic so we need to reduce the opportunities Read bottom pg 137 and how SCP worked at NYC bus terminal (Felson)
    7. 7. Evaluation• SCP works to an extent in reducing certain kinds of crime, however with most measures there is likely to be displacement• Over focuses on opportunistic petty street crime & ignores white collar, corporate and state crime (costly & harmful)• Assumes criminals make rational calculations, this is unlikely in many crimes of violence and drug/alcohol fuelled crimes• Ignores root of crime e.g. poverty or poor socialisation. Making it difficult to develop long term strategies for crime reduction• CCTV operators focus disproportionately on young males. Feminists suggest CCTV is an extension of male gaze and is part of the problem not a solution
    8. 8. Environmental Crime Prevention• Wilson & Kelling argue that ‘broken windows’ (signs of disorder e.g. graffiti, begging, littering, vandalism) that are not dealt with send out a signal that no-one cares, encouraging a spiral of decline.• An absence of formal social control (police) and informal control (community) means members of the community feel powerless and intimidated
    9. 9. This is what I call a perfectneighbourhood • Well-maintained areas • Low crime rates • Feel apart of society • Less likely to offend Wilson and Kelling (1982) Wilson and Kelling (1982)
    10. 10. Oh my! W ha t world com is this ing to, I don’t feel safe anymore! • No social control • Loose their sense of belonging • Increase in crime • Damaged societyWilson and Kelling (1982)Wilson and Kelling (1982)
    11. 11. Etzioni (1993)Etzioni (1993)
    12. 12. • The solution is to crack down on any disorder using 2 strategies:1.environmental improvement strategy- repair any broken window immediately, tow abandoned cars without delay2.Zero tolerance policing- instead of reacting to crime, police must pro actively tackle even the slightest sign of disorder even if not criminal. Halting neighbourhood crime and preventing serious crime taking root
    13. 13. Social & Community Crime Prevention• Rather than emphasising policing, these strategies emphasise dealing with the social conditions that predispose some individuals to future crime.• Longer term strategies since they attempt to tackle root cause of offending rather than removing opportunities for crime.• As poverty is cause of crime, general social policies have crime prevention role e.g. Full employment policies are likely to reduce crime as a ‘side effect’ Read about the Perry pre- school project (pg 139)
    14. 14. Social & Community Crime Prevention• Rather than emphasising policing, these strategies Additional Policies: emphasise dealing with the social conditions that • Educational Programmes to future crime. predispose some individuals aimed at improving educational success in inner city comps & reducing• Longer term strategies sinceyear olds leaving schooltackle exclusions and number of 16 they attempt to root cause of offending rather than removing with no qualifications • Min pay legislation- people paid fair wage and not opportunities for crime. tempted to become welfare dependent• As poverty is cause wealth and income inequalities policies • Reduction in of crime, general social have crime prevention role e.g.urban communities • Economic investment in poorer Full employment policies areto createto reduce crime Stratford effect’ likely jobs e.g. Westfields as a ‘side Read about the Perry pre- school project (pg 139)
    15. 15. • These approaches (SCP, ECP and S&CCP) take for granted the nature and definition of crime.• They focus on low level &/or interpersonal crimes of violence (disregard crimes of powerful & environmental)• Definition of ‘crime problem’ reflects priorities of politicians and agencies tasked with crime prevention• Results suggest crime strategies do not take into consideration all crimes e.g. environmental crime which is harmful to health of local communities
    16. 16. Recap Questions• What is SCP?• What criticisms exist of SCP techniques?• What is ECP based on?• How is ECP implemented?• S&CCP emphasises dealing with social conditions that predispose people to crime. What ways do they suggest in order to tackle the problem?
    17. 17. Victims of Crime
    18. 18. • Victim: those who have suffered harm (inc mental, physical or emotional suffering, economic loss and impairment of basic rights)• Christie (1986): Victim is a concept like crime that is socially constructed, who is and isn’t a victim changes depending on the context.• Stereotype of ‘ideal victim’ favoured by media, public & CJS is a weak, innocent and blameless victim e.g. child, old woman• Important to study victimology- they provide most of the evidence used in detection of offenders and act as witnesses. Two approaches (positivist & critical)
    19. 19. Positivist Victimology• Focuses on interpersonal crimes• It tries to identify why certain people are victims of crimes.• Aims to identify patterns of victimisation• Early work focused on victim proneness meaning finding social and psychological characteristics that made them more vulnerable than non-victims e.g. female, elderly, lower intelligence. Implication is that in some way ‘invite’ victimisation
    20. 20. • Victim Precipitation- Wolfgang’s study of homicides found that in 26% of cases the victim triggered the events leading to murder e.g. by using violence first AO2: • Wolfgang shows importance of victim-offender relationship (in many homicides matter of chance which party becomes the victim) • Ignores wider structural factors influencing victimisation e.g. poverty & patriarchy • It’s close to being victim blaming (linked to rape & victim asking for it) • Ignores situations where victims are unaware of victimisation e.g. environmental or where harm is done but now law broken
    21. 21. Critical Victimology• Based on Marxism and Feminism it wants to highlight structural factors like poverty or patriarchy which put the powerless at greater risk of being a victim.• Victimisation is a form of structural powerlessness• Through the CJS the state applies the label of victim to some but withholds it from others e.g. when police fail to press charges against a man for assaulting his wife, she is denied victim status• Tombs & Whyte (2007) show that employers violations of the law leading to death or injury to workers are often explained away as the fault of accident prone workers
    22. 22. Evaluation• Disregards the role victims may play in bringing victimisation on themselves e.g. not making their homes secure• It is valuable in drawing attention to the way the ‘victim’ status is constructed by power and how this benefits the powerful at the expense of the powerless
    23. 23. Patterns & The impact of Victimisation• The average chance of an individual being the victim of a crime in any one year is about 1 in 4, this risk is unevenly distributed between social groups1. Predict what you think will be the trends in victimisation and age, class, ethnicity and gender2. Compare your predictions to page 144 and summarise the stats3. Read through the impact of victimisation and summarise
    24. 24. Class Patterns of victimisation EthnicityThe poorest groups are Minority ethnicmost likely to be victims of Age groups most at risk ofall crimes. Homeless people Younger people are most at all crimes. Ethnic are 12 times more likely to risk of crimes like assault, minorities most likelyexperience violence than theft, sexual harassment. to feel under-the general population. Infants under one are at protected yet over most risk of being murdered. controlled.Women who have beenraped but whose cases Genderhave failed in court are Victimology: The study Males most at risk ofalso victims of the legal of victims violent attacks especially by strangers. 70% ofsystem. homicide victims are The impact of victimisation male.FearThe media has a large Research has found that a variety ofpart to play when stirring effects such as disrupted sleep, Repeat victimsup fear but statistically feelings of helplessness, increased Once you have been a victimspeaking men are more security-consciousness and difficulties once you are very likely to belikely to be victims of in socialising. Crime can also create again. Suggests people wereviolence yet some women fear in communities, these are victims for a reason, perhapsfear going out late at referred to as indirect victims. even targeted.night.
    25. 25. Quick Check Questions pg 145 Q1, 2 and 3
    26. 26. Punishment
    27. 27. Prison – key facts8.75 million people in prisons across the world. The U.S has the highest prison population compared with populationThe U.K has the highest prison population in Europe.
    28. 28. • There are different justifications for punishment and they link to different penal policies.• Deterrence- punishment may prevent future crime from fear of further punishment• Rehabilitation- Reforming/re-educating offenders so they no longer offend e.g. anger management• Incapacitation- Removing the offenders capacity to re-offend e.g. execution/imprisonment/cutting off hands• Retribution- The ideas that the society is entitled to take revenge for the offender having breached its moral code (expresses societies outrage)
    29. 29. Functionalism & Punishment (Durkheim)• Function of punishment is to uphold social solidarity and reinforce shared values by expressing society’s moral outrage at the offence• Through use of public trials and punishment, societys shared values are reaffirmed & its members come to a sense of moral unity• There are two types of justice; retributive and restitutive
    30. 30. 1. Retributive Justice- Traditional society has a strong collective conscience, so punishment is severe and vengeful2. Restitutive Justice- In modern society there is extensive interdependence between individuals. Crime damages this and the function of justice should be to repair the damage e.g. through compensationAO2: Durkheim’s view is too simplistic; traditional societiesoften have restitutive rather than retributive justice e.g.blood feuds settled by compensation rather than execution
    31. 31. Repressive State Apparatuses• Those systems and structures in a society that control the relations of production through mainly repressive, physical means. Althusser claims that these structures are necessary (in conjunction with ISA e.g. media, family, religion) to maintain the reproduction of the relations of production, or in other words, to keep the labourers labouring for the State and the bourgeoisie society.• The RSAs include the following: government (including administration at all levels),• police,• courts,• prisons,• the military, etc. They argue that harsh punishments are part of the Repressive State Apparatuses (RSA) which keep the working class in their place
    32. 32. Marxism: Capitalism & Punishment• Interested in how punishment is related to the nature of class society and how it serves the ruling- class interests• Function of punishment is to maintain existing social order (Repressive State Apparatuses)• It’s a means of defending ruling class property against lower classes• The form of punishment reflects the economic base of society (money fines impossible without a money economy)
    33. 33. • Under capitalism imprisonment becomes the dominant punishment because in the capitalist economy, time is money and offenders ‘pay’ by ‘doing time’ (repay debt to society)• Prison & capitalist factory have similar strict disciplinary styles involving subordination and loss of liberty
    34. 34. Box 2.3 Page 141What differences appear between these two descriptions?
    35. 35. The Birth of The Prison • Sovereign power – punishment before the 19th century were a public spectacleare under surveillance We with all the time: CCTV, our hangings and stockades, its was a way of ID cards… loyalty cards,Prisons are a metaphor forasserting the monarchs power over its prisoners. we’re all becoming how all of us arecontrolled and watched bycitizens. those in power. • Disciplinary power – punishment after 19th century was not just about governance over the body but the mind or soul, this is done through surveillance – Panopticon (pg 141)
    36. 36. AO2: • Foucaults claims of a shift from corporal punishment to imprisonment is over simplistic• He exaggerates the extent of control (e.g. even psychiatric patients can resist control)
    37. 37. Trends in Punishment1. Read through Imprisonment Today and summarise what is suggested about the changing role of prisons (pg 141)2. Also make a brief note of the era of mass incarceration (maybe jot down some statistics)
    38. 38. 2. Transcarceration- trend towards this (moving people between different prison like institutions in their lives) e.g. brought up in care, young offenders institute then adult prison• It is a product of the blurring of boundaries between CJS and welfare agencies e.g. social services, health & housing are increasingly being given a crime control role (engage in multi agency working with police)
    39. 39. 3. Alternatives to Prison-• In the past goal of dealing with young offenders was ‘diversion’ – diverting away from CJS to avoid risk of SFP turning them into serious criminals. Focus was on welfare & treatment using non custodial community based controls• Recently there has been a growth in the range of community based controls e.g. curfews, community service orders, tagging• Cohen argues that this has simply cast the net of control over more people....increased range of sanctions enables control to penetrate ever deeper into society• Rather than diverting young people away from the CJS community controls divert them into it e.g. ASBO’s fast track way into custodial sentences
    40. 40. Quick Check Questions pg 145 Q4- 8

    ×