Jock Young- secondary deviance and hippies a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
i.e. there is a lack of explanation for the fact that reported crime rises during both economic good times and bad times
1950’s and 1960’s represented the ‘Golden Age’ of modern capitalist society. This was a period of stability, security and social inclusion with full employment, a fairly comprehensive welfare state, low divorce rates and strong communities. There was a general consensus about right and wrong, and lower crime rates De-industrialisation and the loss of unskilled manual jobs have increased unemployment and poverty, esp for young people and ethnic minorities New Right government policies have also had an influence as they are designed to hold back welfare spending on the poor. All this has contributed to increased marginalisation and exclusion of those at the bottom
Young notes other changes in modernity: Crime is now found throughout society, not just at the bottom. There is resentment at the undeserving high rewards some receive e.g. bankers/footballers There is ‘relative deprivation downwards’- where hard working M/C resent unemployed as living off state handouts. Also more hate crime e.g. against asylum seekers With late modernity society becomes more diverse and there is less public consensus about what is acceptable and unacceptable beh (boundaries become blurred). Informal controls less effective as families and communities disintegrate. Public less tolerant and demand harsher formal controls by the state. Late modern society is a high crime society with a low tolerance for crime
Improve policing and control and deal with the deeper structural causes of crime.
1. The main focus is on crime reduction through control, containment and punishment, rather than on tackling the causes of crime. 2. The police should deal with even the smallest signs of disorder, so that more serious crime will not develop. 3. Low intelligence; personality traits such as extroversion and aggression; lack of impulse control. 4. The availability of goods and the way they are advertised through the media makes people more aware of massive differences in wealth, and raises expectations for all. 5. The way in which some individuals are pushed to the edge of mainstream society and have no political or economic voice. 6. How deprived someone feels compared to others, or compared to their expectations. 7. Reducing economic inequality and insecurity; involving the public in policing policy (democratic or consensus policing); developing a multi-agency approach, using local organisations; ceasing military policing that alienates the community. 8. Both deal with crime as a real problem; both take fear of crime into account; both consider the victims.
2. Left Realism• LR’s are socialists• Jock Young – now where have we heard that name before????• Realised he needed to take crime seriously. After all most victims of crime were the working class.• Developed in response to the influence of right realism on government policy
3. In response to Marxism“We need practical strategies for reducing crime in the here and now, rather than waiting for a revolution and a classless socialist utopia to abolish crime.”• LR’s agree that society is an unequal capitalist one• However they believe in reform rather than revolution. They believe in gradual social change rather than the violent overthrow of capitalism as the way to achieve greater equality
4. Taking crime seriously• LR’s criticise other Sociologists for not taking crime seriously.• Traditional Marxists- concentrate on crimes of powerful but neglect WC crime and its effects• Neo-Marxists- romanticise WC criminals whereas in reality they mostly victimise other WC people• Labelling Theorists- see criminals as the victims of labelling. LR’s argue that this
5. Taking Crime seriously involves recognising that:• There is an aetiological crisis (crisis of explanation) e.g. labelling theory sees the rise as a social construction, not a reality. There is a lack of explanation for the fact that reported crime rises during both economic good times and bad times. LR’s argue the increase is too great to be explained in this way and is real• Disadvantaged groups (ethnic/women/WC) have the greatest fear of crime and it has the greatest effect on their lives. Less likely to find police take crime against them seriously• The best way to reduce crime is to reduce the causes of crime.
6. Relative Deprivation Summarise page 96 Lea &Young (1984) The causes of crimeSubculture Marginalisation
7. Late Modernity & Crime• Young (2002) argues that in late modern society (since the 1970’s), the problem of WC crime is worse due to:1. Harsher welfare policies, increased unemployment, job insecurity and poverty2. Destabilisation of family and community life, weakening informal social controls. What role have De-industrialisation and New Right government policies played on the increase of Crime?
8. • Greater inequality between rich and poor and the spread of free market values encouraging individualism have increased the sense of relative deprivation.• Young- growing contrast between cultural inclusion and economic exclusion as a source of relative deprivation:1. Media saturated late modern society promotes cultural inclusion: even poor have access to media’s materialistic, consumerist cultural messages2. There is a greater emphasis on leisure, which stresses personal consumption and immediate gratification and leads to higher expectations for the ‘good life’3. Despite ideology of meritocracy the poor are systematically excluded from opportunities to gain the ‘glittering prizes of wealthy society
9. • Young’s contrast between cultural inclusion and economic exclusion is very similar to Merton’s notion of anomie- that society creates crime by setting cultural goals (e.g. material wealth) while denying people the opportunity to achieve them by legitimate means e.g. Decent jobs
10. What other changes inmodernity does Young note? Page 97
11. So what methods do youthink Left Realists advocate in tackling crime?
12. Evaluation• LR has drawn attention to the reality of street crime and its effects, esp. on victims from deprived groups. However it is criticised on several grounds:1. It accepts the authorities definition of crime as being the street crimes of the poor and ignores the harms done to the poor by the powerful. Marxists argue that it fails to explain corporate crime (which is more harmful)2. It over-predicts the amount of W/C crime: not everyone who experiences relative deprivation and marginalisation turns to crime
13. 3. Understanding offenders motives requires qualitative data, but LR relies on quantitative data from victim studies.4. Focusing on high crime inner city areas makes crime appear a greater problem than it is (unrepresentative view)
14. Create a table to compare LR and RR LR RR Similarity or differenceCause of crimeExplanations of crime Solutions
15. Comparing LR ad RR Both see crime as a problem and fear of crime as rational Different ends of political spectrum- RR: neo- conservative, LR: reformist socialists. Reflected in how they explain crime. RR blame lack of self control, LR blame structural inequalities and relative deprivation Political differences reflected in their aims and solutions- RR prioritise social order achieved through a tough stance against offenders, LR prioritise justice through democratic policing and reforms to create greater equality
16. Quick Check Questions Page 99
17. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OFr7NnK-91U• Watch the following clip, try and explain the crime by using each of the following theories – Functionalism – Sub-Cultural Theory – Labelling Theory – Marxism