History • In 1770 British sea captain James Cook discovered Australia while exploring the South Pacific. • In 1788 eleven British ships were sent to Australia carrying 700 convicts. • The convicts built Australia’s first European settlement. • Eventually over 160,000 British convicts were sent there until the practice was abolished in 1868. • Australia became independent in 1901 but has kept strong ties to British culture and still honors the British monarch.
Australia’s Indigenous People• At least 750,000 Aborigines were living in Australia when the Europeans arrived.• Today, there may only be about 400,000 Aborigines in the country.• Many died of diseases brought by British settlers.• Between 1869 and 1969 many Aborigine children were removed from their families in an effort to assimilate them to British culture. The man in the center is holding a didgeridoo- instrument made of a hallowed out log.
History Continued• Gold was discovered in 1851 in Australia which brought treasure hunters from around the world to the country.• Swagmen were like hobos that would roam the country looking for work.• The song “Waltzing Matilda” is about a swagman in the outback. It is considered Australia’s second national anthem.
Reverse SeasonsDecember in New York City, US • Australia is in the Southern Hemisphere where seasons are opposite of those in the northern half of the world.December in Sydney, Australia • Countries such as the US import out of season fruits from Australia during winter months.
Living Under an Ozone Hole• The Ozone prevents the sun’s ultraviolet rays from reaching Earth. UV rays cause sunburn, eye disease, and skin cancer.• In the 1980’s, scientists discovered that the ozone over Antarctica was thinning due to CFC chemicals found in aerosol spray cans, air conditioners, and refrigerators.• Australians are close to this thin ozone layer and to protect themselves from harmful UV rays they are encouraged to “slip” on a shirt, “slop” on some sunscreen, and “slap” on a hat.
Endemic Species• 80% of Australia’s plant and animal species are not found anywhere else on earth. Kangaroo & Joey Koala Platypus
Canberra• Australia’s capital city is Canberra.• Melbourne and Sydney were competing to be the capital city so they compromised and chose Canberra.
Sydney• Sydney is the largest city in Australia.• It was the site of the first British colony.• The city is built around Port Jackson which includes Sydney Harbour.• Sydney Harbour is famous for the Sydney Opera House, Harbour Bridge, and its beaches.
Sydney Opera House Sydney Opera House is one of the most famous performing arts centers in theworld. It is a major presenting venue for Opera Australia, The Australian Ballet, the Sydney Theatre Company and the Sydney Symphony, as well as hosting many touring productions in a variety of performance genres, and is a major tourist attraction.
Melbourne• Melbourne is Australia’s second largest city.• It is recognized as Australia’s sporting and cultural capital.• It is also a major center for arts, tourism, industry, commerce, and education.
The Outback• The Outback is the term given to the more remote areas inland Australia.• A significant proportion of Australia’s native Aborigines live in the Outback since this land was not as desirable as coastal areas.• The Outback is vast and much of it is in an arid climate. There are few cities.
ULURUUluru is also known as Ayer’s Rock. It is a large sandstone land feature in northcentral Australia. It has many springs, water holes, rock caves, and ancientpaintings. It is considered to be a sacred place by the Aborigines of this region.
Perth• Perth is the largest city in Western Australia and the fourth largest city in the country.• Perth is one of the most isolated metropolitan areas on Earth. The nearest city to Perth with a population over 1 million is 1,307 miles away.• Geographically, it is closer to East Timor, Singapore and Jakarta, Indonesia, than it is to Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane.
A Few Famous Aussies Eric Bana Russell Crowe Mel Gibson Steve IrwinHugh Jackman Nicole Kidman Heath Ledger The Wiggles!
Waltzing MatildaOnce a jolly swagman camped by a billabong Under the shade of a coolibah tree, And he sang as he watched and waited til his billy boiled "Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me"
Waltzing Matilda, Waltzing Matilda "Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me"And he sang as he watched and waited til his billy boiled, "Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me".
Down came a jumbuck to drink at that billabong, Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him with glee, And he sang as he shoved that jumbuck in his tucker bag, "Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me".
Waltzing Matilda, Waltzing Matilda"Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me" And he sang as he shoved that jumbuck in his tucker bag,"Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me".
Up rode the squatter, mounted on his thoroughbred, Down came the troopers, one, two, three,"Wheres that jolly jumbuck youve got in your tucker bag?" "Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me".
Waltzing Matilda, Waltzing Matilda"Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me" "Wheres that jolly jumbuck youve got in your tucker bag?","Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me".
Up jumped the swagman and sprang into the billabong, "Youll never catch me alive", said he, And his ghost may be heard as you pass by that billabong,"Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me".
Waltzing Matilda, Waltzing Matilda "Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me" And his ghost may be heard as you pass by that billabong, "Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me.""Oh, Youll come a-Waltzing Matilda, with me."