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Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
Occupational health
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Occupational health

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  • 1. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Dr.Siva.P.M Junior Resident Community medicine Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 2. INTRODUCTION• Occupational health : – promotion and maintenance of highest degree of physical, mental and social well being of workers – All three levels of prevention – Adaptation of work to man and vice versa Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 3. Ergonomics – ergon – work ; nomos – law • Fitting job to the worker • Objective – achieve mutual adjustment of man and his work for improvement of human efficiency and well being • To reduce industrial accidents and increase efficiency of workers Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 4. • Occupational environment • Sum of external conditions and influences –prevail at the place of work –bearing on health of workers • 3 interactions – Man and agents(Physical, Chemical, Biological) – Man and machine – Man and man Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 5. • Occupational hazards 1. Physical 2. Chemical 3. Biological 4. Mechanical 5. Psychosocial Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 6. PHYSICAL HAZARDSHeat and cold • Common physical hazard – heat • Direct effect of heat – burns, heat exhaustion, heat stroke, heat cramps • Indirect effects – decreased efficiency, increased fatigue, enhanced accident rates Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 7. • Radiant heat – foundry, glass and steel industry• Heat stagnation – jute and textile industry• High temperature – kolar gold mines – 65degC• Corrected effective temperature > 27deg C- discomfort• Cold – chilblains, erythrocyanosis, immersion foot, frostbite Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 8. • Light – Poor illumination – eye strain, head ache, eye pain, lacrymation, congestion – Miner’s nystagmus – chronic effects – Intense glare – blurring of vision, accidents Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 9. • Noise – Auditory effects – hearing loss – Non auditory – nervousness, fatigue, interfere with communication – Degree of injury – intensity & frequency range, duration of exposure, susceptibility Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 10. • Vibration – Affects hands and arms, joints – Chronic exposure – fine blood vessels- sensitive to spasm (white finger)• UV radiation – Arc welding – Affects –eyes- conjunctivitis, keratitis (Welder’s flash) Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 11. • Ionizing radiation – X rays and radio active isotopes(cobalt 60, phosphorous 32) – Bone marrow – more sensitive – Genetic changes, malformation, cancer, leukemia, depilation, ulceration, sterilit y, death – Maximum permissible – 5 rem/year to whole body Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 12. CHEMICAL HAZARDS• Acts in three ways – local action, inhalation, ingestion• Local action – Dermatitis, eczema, ulcer, cancer (irritant action) – Aromatic amino and nitro compounds – systemic• Inhalation – Respirable dust - <5 microns Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 13. • Dust – organic – cotton, jute – Inorganic – silica, mica, coal, asbestos – Insoluble – retain in lung – pneumoconiosis – Soluble – eliminated by body mechanism Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 14. • Gases – Simple – oxygen, hydrogen – Asphyxiating – CO, cyanide, sulphur dioxide, chlorine – Anesthetic – chloroform, ether• Metals and their compounds – Lead, antimony, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, manganese, merc ury, phosphorous, chromium, zinc etc Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 15. • Ingestion – Lead, antimony, cadmium, mercury, phosphorous, chromium, zinc etc – through – contaminated hand or food or cigarettes• Biological hazards – Brucellosis, leptospirosis, anthrax, hydatidosis, psittacosis, tetanus, enc ephalitis, fungal infections, schistosomiasis – Working among animal products Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 16. • Mechanical hazards – Machinery, protruding and moving parts – 10% of accidents• Psychosocial hazards – Failure to adapt to an alien psychosocial environment – Frustration, lack of job satisfaction, insecurity, poor human relationship, emotional tension – affect physical and mental health Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 17. OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES• Pneumoconiosis• Dust – 0.5 to 3 microns – health hazard- variable period of exposure – lung disease – pneumoconiosis• Hazardous effect depends on – Chemical composition – Fineness – Concentration – Health status of the person Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 18. • Important dust diseases – silicosis – anthracosis – byssinosis – bagassosis – asbestosis – farmer’s lung• No cure – only prevention essential Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 19. SILICOSIS (NOTIFIABLE- FACTORIES ACT 1948 AND MINES ACT 1952)• Major cause of disability and mortality• Inhalation of dust with – silica or silicon dioxide• Higher concentration – higher hazard• Incubation period – few months to 6 years• Particles – phagocytosis – accumulation – block lymph channels• Dense nodular fibrosis – 3-4mm• c/f – insidious onset – irritant cough, dyspnoea, chest pain Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 20. • Decreased TLC – advanced disease• X ray – snow-storm appearance• Prone to PTB – silico-tuberculosis• No effective treatment• Fibrotic – cant reversed• Rigorous dust control• Regular physical examination by doctors Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 21. ANTHRACOSIS(NOTIFIABLE-INDIAN MINES ACT 1952, COMPENSATABLE-WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT 1959 • First phase – simple pneumoconiosis – ventilatory impairment – after 12year exposure – anthracite coal dust • Second phase – – progressive massive fibrosis – severe respiratory disability – premature death • Once simple pneumoconiosis – progress even without further exposure Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 22. BYSSINOSIS• Inhalation of cotton fiber• Chronic cough – progressive dyspnoea – chronic bronchitis – emphysema• India has large textile industry – 35% of factory workers Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 23. BAGASSOSIS• Inhalation of bagasse or sugar-cane dust• Thermophilic actinomycete – thermoactinomyces sacchari• Breathlessness, cough, haemoptysis, slight fever• Acute diffuse bronchiolitis – initial• Skiagram – mottling in lungs or shadow• Resolution of inflammation– if treated early Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 24. • Untreated – diffuse fibrosis, emphysema, bronchiectasis• Preventive measures: – Dust control • Wet process • Enclosed apparatus • Exhaust ventilation Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 25. – Personal protection • Masks • Mechanical filters– Medical control • Initial and periodical medical examinations– Bagasse control • Keeping moisture >20% • Spraying bagasse with 2% propionic acid- fungicide Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 26. ASBESTOSIS• Fibrous material – commercial name• Silicates of varying composition of bases (Mg,Fe,Ca,Na,Al)• Two types – – Serpentine or chrysolite (90% production) – Amphibole • Crocidolite (blue) • Amosite (brown) • Anthrophyllite(white) Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 27. • Inhalation – ROE• Insoluble fibers – pulmonary fibrosis – insufficiency – death• Carcinoma of bronchus (high-if add with smoking)• Mesothelioma of pleura or peritoneum(crocidolite)• Disease doesn’t appear – until 5-10 yrs of exposure Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 28. • Irritation – fibrosis – peribronchial – diffuse –basal in location• Dyspnoea – out of proportion to clinical signs• Clubbing – cardiac distress – cyanosis• Sputum – Asbestos Bodies(fibers coated with fibrin)• X ray – ground glass appearance – lower third of lung fields Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 29. • Preventive measures – Use of safer type asbestos – Substitution of other insulants – Rigorous dust control – Periodic examination of workers – Continuing research Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 30. FARMER’S LUNG• Inhalation of mouldy hay grain dust• >30% moisture – favors bacteria, fungi growth – rise temperature 40-50 deg C – favors Thermophilic actinomycete• Micropolyspora faeni – main cause• Repeated attacks – pulmonary fibrosis – damage - corpulmonale Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 31. CONCLUSION• Pneumoconiosis – one of the occupational disease – due to dust inhalation• No specific treatment• Prevention is important• Periodical examination and preplacement examination of workers also important Copyright © Wondershare Software
  • 32. Thank u…… Copyright © Wondershare Software

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