Infectious disease epidemiology   copy - copy
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Infectious disease epidemiology copy - copy

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  • hi
    thanks for the perfect slides. i am ma student in iran and i am working on infection data anlysis.i have problem with 'source infection time' meaning and i want to know what exactly 'smoothed mean generation interval' mean.so can you help me?
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  • The lodgement, development and reproduction of arthropods on the surface of the body or in the clothingEg: Lice, itch miteInvasion of the gut by parasitic worms Eg: Ascariasis
  • Cat lung worm –snail (IMH)-cat (DH)-mouse (TH)
  • Direct transmission: direct contact, droplet ,trans placental (kissing,skin to skin,sexual),direct contact with substances harbouring infectious agentIndirect: vector born,vehicle borne, air borne,water
  • The "unusual" occurrence in a community or region of disease, specific health-related behaviour or other health-related events clearly in excess of "expected occurrence". The modern "slow" epidemics of non-communicable diseases eg: CHD, lung cancerEpidemic threshold: arbitrary limit of two standard errors from the endemic frequency
  • An infection or infectious disease transmissible under natural conditions from vertebrate animals to man
  • Denotes a NEW disorder associated with being in the hospital
  • The continuous scrutiny the factors that determine the occurrence and distribution of disease and other conditions of ill health Essential for effective control and preventionIncludes the collection, analysis, interpretation and distribution of relevant data for action Main purpose is to detect changes in trend and distribution of disease in order to initiate investigative or control measures

Infectious disease epidemiology   copy - copy Infectious disease epidemiology copy - copy Presentation Transcript

  • INFECTIOUS DISEASE EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • INFECTION • Entry and development or multiplication of an infectious agent in the body of man or animals • Does not always cause illness
  • colonization subclinical latent Clinical infection Levels of infection
  • CONTAMINATION • The presence of an infectious agent on a body surface • Contamination on a body surface does not imply a carrier state • Pollution : the presence of offensive, but not necessarily infectious matter in the environment
  • The lodgement, development and reproduction of arthropods on the surface of the body or in the clothing INFESTATION
  • HOST • A person or other animal, that affords lodgement to an infectious agent under natural conditions • Obligate host : the only host • Eg: Man in measles & typhoid fever
  • HOST • Primary or definitive host: hosts in which the parasite attains maturity or passes its sexual stage • Secondary or intermediate hosts: the parasite is in a larval or asexual state • Transport host is a carrier in which the organism remains alive but does not undergo development
  • INFECTIOUS DISEASE A clinically manifest disease of man or animals resulting from an infection
  • CONTAGIOUS DISEASE
  • COMMUNICABLE DISEASE An illness due to a specific infectious agent or its toxic products capable of being directly or indirectly transmitted from man to man, animal to animal, or from the environment to man or animal Eg: Varicella, Polio
  • unusual excess of expected occurrence > 2 SE
  • Endemic • The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area or population group without importation from outside • When conditions are favourable may burst into an epidemic • Eg:Hepatitis A,Typhoid fever,Leptospirosis,Common cold
  • • Hyperendemic: the disease is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all age groups equally • Holoendemic: a high level of infection beginning early in life and affecting most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do the children Eg: Malaria
  • SPORADIC • Scattered about • The cases occur irregularly haphazardly from time to time, and generally infrequently • May be the starting point of an epidemic • Eg: Polio, Tetanus, Herpes zoster, Meningococcal meningitis • Many Zoonotic diseases are characterised by sporadic transmission to man
  • PANDEMIC • An epidemic usually affecting a large proportion of the population • Eg: Influenza pandemics of 1918 and 1957, • Cholera El Tor in 1962 • Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in 1971 and 1981
  • EXOTIC • Diseases which are imported into a country in which they do not otherwise occur • Rabies in UK • Epidemic Polyarthritis in – visitors to Fizi, – due to ross river virus
  • ZOONOSES
  • • Anthropozoonoses : infections transmitted to man from vertebrate animals, Eg: Rabies, Plague, Hydatid disease, Anthrax • Zooanthroponoses :infections transmitted from man to vertebrate animals. Eg: Human Tuberculosis in cattle • Amphixenoses :infections maintained in both man and lower vertebrate animals that may be transmitted in either direction Eg: T.Cruzi, S.Joponicum
  • • EPIZOOTIC: An outbreak (epidemic) of disease in an animal population Eg: Anthrax, Brucellosis, Rabies, Influenza , Q fever • EPORNITHIC: An outbreak (epidemic) of disease in a bird population • ENZOOTIC: An endemic occurring in animals Eg: Anthrax, Rabies, Brucellosis, Bovine tuberculosis,
  • NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION • An infection originating in a patient while in a hospital or other health care facility • Not present or incubating at the time of admission • Not the residual of an infection acquired during a previous admission • Includes infections acquired in the hospital but appearing after discharge • Eg: Surgical wounds, Hepatitis B and Urinary tract infections.
  • OPPURTUNISTIC INFECTION • Infection by an organism that takes the opportunity provided by a defect in host defence to infect the host and hence cause disease • Herpes simplex, Cytomegalouirus, Toxoplasma, M.Tuberculosis, M.Avium intracellulare, Pneumocystis
  • IATROGENIC (PHYSICIAN INDUCED) DISEASE Any untoward or adverse consequence of a preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic regimen or procedure, that cause impairment, handicap, disability or death resulting from a physician's professional activity or from the professional activity of other health professionals
  • • Disease may be serious enough to prolong the hospital stay, require special treatment or actually threaten life • Reactions to penicillin, • childhood leukaemia due to prenatal x-rays, • hepatitis B following blood transfusion • These are all preventable
  • SURVEILLANCE
  • ERADlCATlON • Termination of all transmission of infection by extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment • Absolute process, an "all or none" phenomenon • Eg: Smallpox • Diseases which are amenable to eradication are measles, diphtheria, polio and guinea worm