OIC- Organization Of The Islamic
• The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-
governmental organization grouping fifty-six States
• established in Rabat, Morocco when the First meeting of the leaders
of the Islamic world was held in this city in the wake of the criminal
arson perpetrated on 21 August 1969 by Zionist elements against
Al-Aqsa Mosque, in occupied Jerusalem.
• It was to defend the honour and with liberating Jerusalem and Al-
Aqsa from Zionist occupation.
• Headquarters- Jeddah
• has affiliate organizations such as the Islamic Bank
• Charter of the Organization was adopted, whose purpose is to
strengthen solidarity and cooperation among Islamic States in
the political, economic, cultural, scientific and social fields.
• Within the OIC system there are countries such as Brunei,
Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and other gulf countries which
• And there are countries such as Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan
and Turkey which have scientifically oriented and trained
PAKISTAN’S role in the OIC
• Pakistan was a founding member of the OIC in 1969.
• Pakistan has played an important role in strengthening cooperation among
Muslim States by its active participation in the programmes and activities of
• Pakistan is the Chairman of the OIC Standing Committee on Scientific and
Technological Cooperation (COMSTECH) which has its Headquarters in
• Pakistan also host the Secretariat of the Islamic Chamber of Commerce and
Industry( ICCI). The Office of the OIC's Secretary General's Special
Representative on Afghanistan is based in Islamabad.
• Pakistan is the Chairman of the Council and the Executive
Committee of the Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member
• Mr.. Sharif-ud-Din Pirzada a noted Lawyer and a former
Foreign Minister of Pakistan served as the Secretary General
of the OIC from 1984 to 1988 .
• The Headquarters of the Islamic Telecommunication Union
would also be established in Islamabad.
Summits hosted by
• Pakistan hosted the second Islamic Summit Conference in Lahore on 22nd
to 24th February 1974.
• Pakistan also hosted the Second Conference of the OIC Foreign Ministers
(ICFM) held in Karachi from 26th to 28 December 1970, Eleventh ICFM in
Islamabad from 17th to 22nd May 1980 and the Twenty-first ICFM held in
Karachi on 25th to 29th April 1993.
• The Special Sessions of the OIC Foreign Ministers Conference in 1980 and
in 1994 were also held in Pakistan.
• To commemorate Fifty years of the Independence of Pakistan an Extra-
ordinary Session of the Islamic Summit was held in Islamabad on 23rd
• The efforts by Pakistan have received due acknowledgment in the OIC
signified by its membership of all key OIC's Specialized Committees and
Contact Groups on critical issues of the Islamic world - Palestine,
Afghanistan, Jammu & Kashmir, Bosnia, Kosovo and Sahel.
• PAKISTAN and Palestine- Pakistan supports the rights of Palestinians and
the establishment of an independent State, with Al Quds Al Sharif as its
• Pakistan and Bosnia- Pakistan supported Bosnia.
• Pakistan and OIC have not recognized kosovo.
• In 1974 OIC was able to resolve the conflict between Pakistan and
the newly independent Bangladesh.
• India has shown an interest in joining the OIC as an observer nation
Pakistan have blocked India's inclusion into the OIC, arguing India's
inclusion in OIC is against the rules of OIC, which state that an
aspirant should not have an ongoing conflict with a member state.
• OIC supports Pakistan on Kashmir-The Ministers from Saudi Arabia
and Turkey and the Advisor from Niger, in their respective
statements, reiterated their support for the right to self-determination
of the people of Jammu and Kashmir.
– The OIC Contact Group on Jammu and Kashmir meeting in Tajikistan
– The Meeting of the OIC Contact Group on Jammu and Kashmir in OIC Summit
Conference at Kuala Lumpur on Oct 2003
Report of the OIC Contact Group on
Jammu and Kashmir
• Calls for a peaceful settlement of the Jammu and Kashmir dispute in
accordance with relevant UN Resolutions
• Condemns the massive human rights violations being committed by
the Indian forces
• Calls upon India to put an end to its repressive policies
• Urges the international community
• Calls upon India to to accept the strengthening of the UNMOGIP
and provide it full support
• Deplores the restrictions imposed by India on the freedom of travel
of the leaders of the All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC),
The ideal organisation?
• Kashmir issue not solved
• The OIC must tell the Obama Administration that if it cares for
democracy in Afghanistan, it must also care for democracy in
• Also in 1978 the OIC had adopted a resolution not to allow the
stationing of foreign troops on their soil, to be used against another
member state. But within years some member states broke that
Foreign Policy Challenges since
• Globalization; interdependence.
• Multi-lateralism; Fading concept of
• Supra and inter-governmentalism.
• Loss of identity.
• Increased attention to Non-state Actors
and the Fourth World.
• War against terror-War against Islam?
Pakistan’s Role in OIC since
• Recognition of Israel
• Chairmanship of OIC
• 2004 Cartoon Controversy
• Role in War against Terror.
• 2005 UNSC reform debate.
• 34th Islamic Conference
of Foreign Ministers
(ICFM) in 2007.
• 37th ICFM in Dushanbe.
• 2008 Kosovan
• 2008 criticism on Dutch
• Recent Facebook
Pakistan’s Expectations from
• Positive influence in
dispute with India.
convergence; the voice
of all Muslims around
• A regional organization
on the European Union
• A strategically placed
Criticism at OIC
• Pakistani front to wage propaganda war
• Double standards in membership criteria.
• No universal character.
• Nominal voice in intl. arena.
• Israel-phobic Organization.
• Lack of coherence, discipline, unity and
congruence of interests among members.
• Failures: Egypt Ostracizing, Iraq’s support in
Iran-Iraq War, stationing of foreign troops.
• “OH I SEE!!”
• Early successes in Conflict Resolution between
Jordan and PLO (1970), Pakistan and Bangladesh
• 2nd largest inter-governmental organization.
• Permanent delegation to U.N.
• U.S to establish an envoy to OIC-2007
• Sole representative body of the entire Muslim
• Recent Reforms.
• Obama’s recent offer for co-operation with OIC.
• Recent Saudi attempt at getting India in the
• Parosi Mulk !!!!
• Iran - first state to extend recognition to Pakistan
• The Shah of Iran visited Pakistan in March 1950
• A Treaty of Friendship was signed.
• CENTO (Central Treaty Organization)
• RCD ECO
• The Shah supported Pakistan In Indo-Pak war 1965
• Suppressed rebel movement in Baluchistan(s)
• Pakistan mediated between Iran and China and
saved the relationship from collapse.
The GoooooD :
• Pakistan was the first country to recognize the Islamic
Revolution in Iran, a very difficult decision.
• Pakistan gave material support to Iran during Iran-Iraq
• President Khomeini's official visit to Pakistan in February
• Zia stoutly rejected Bush’s plan that the US would help
Pakistan train some Afghan Mujahidin in Baluchistan to
destabilize Iran as well.
1979 Islamic Revolution and Soviet
The Baaaaaaaaad :
• The fall of US best friend the Shah
• Pakistan - the new US ally!
• Pakistan supported Taliban
• Iran supported Northern Alliance
• Iran voted against Pakistan’s resolution in UN
• With the removal of the Taliban, Pak Iran tensions over
Afghanistan have decreased
• Iran’s role in facilitating the re-entry of the Indian factor in
• Sadiq Ganji, an Iranian diplomat, was assassinated on
sectarian grounds in Lahore in 1991- eight other
• Pakistani Shias died thoroughout the 1990s – Iran
VERY SUPPORTIVE !!
• Iran had expressed its support
when Pakistan’s PM Nawaz Sharif
raised his concern with about
India’s nuclear tests.
• Iran hailed Pakistan’s nuclear
tests of May 28-30, 1998.
• Iran’s Foreign Minister, Kamal
Kharrazi was the first congratulate
Pakistan on its nuclear
• Khatami’s visit in 2002
• While Pakistan is a partner in us-
led coalition against terrorism in
Afghanistan, Iran was placed on
the us list of axis of evil in Jan 2003
• Pakistan is skeptical of increased
indo-Iran trade and defense
• In 2004 Iran mediated between
India and Pakistan when tensions
• JUNDULLAH !!!!
• Iran's Deputy Foreign Minister
Hassan Qashqavi said that the
Pakistani government should take
serious measures to stem terrorist
activities across the borderline of
the two countries.
• February 2010, Mirza and Larijani
called for the expansion of ties
between Pakistan and Iran in the
political, economic, and cultural
DOVES AND HAWKS
• Diplomats like Foreign Minister Manoucheher
Muttaki and nuclear negotiator Ali Larijani
emphasized the need for closer ties
• But others like former president Hashmi
Rafsanjani and A.N.S. Khamoushi, chief of
the Iranian Chamber of Commerce, Industry
and Mines, were less reticent.
• Pakistan cannot afford to have enemies on
Economic Ties With Iran
• Creation of Economic Cooperation
Organization (formerly RCD) in 1985 led to
growth of Iran-Pakistan strategic partnership.
• Pakistan-Iran Joint Economic Commission
was established in 1986.
• Khatami visited Islamabad in 2002 and signed
several agreements including Bilateral Trade
Agreement and Bilateral Agreement on
Cooperation in Plant Protection and
• Trade between Pakistan and Iran was barely
$500m during 2005, but was an improvement
from earlier times
• Pakistan and Iran signed a Preferential Trade
Agreement in 2004.
• In 2008, Iran agreed to finance an energy project in Pakistan worth
$60m to import 1000MW electricity.
• International Freight Rail Line worth $20Bn from Islamabad to
Istanbul via Tehran. Agreement signed in 2009.
• Iran-Pakistan-India Gas Pipeline – talks began in 1994.
• India has quit the IPI deal but Iran and Pakistan signed their first gas
deal in February 2010.
• The volume of Indo-Iran trade is higher than Pak-Iran trade
• From the data available 2000 onwards, it is visible that the Balance
of Trade has always been in favour of Iran.
• Defence Cooperation is one of the most
important component in Iran – Pakistan
• Pakistan – Iran Defence Agreement was
signed in July 1989.
• Iran involved in joint production of
Pakistani Al-Khalid tanks.
• Iran’s growing defence relations with
India are a cause of concern for Pakistan
• Pakistan-Iran Nuclear Cooperation
began during Zia-ul-Haq’s era and
continued through the 1990s.
• COAS Gen Aslam Beg stated in
February 1990 that he talked about
Nuclear Cooperation with Iran’s Islamic
• “Iran is willing to give whatever it
takes, $6 Billion, $10 Billion. We can
sell to Iran at any price.”
• Dr. Qadeer Khan accepted in his
confession that he provided Iran with
nuclear designs and technology
• IAEA’s investigations found a P-2
Centrifuge design which Iran admitted
to have received in 1987
Reasons for Pakistan’s Nuclear
• Iran, along with Pakistan, could help
prevent extra-regional powers from
interfering in this region.
• Financial assistance provided by Iran
in exchange for Nuclear Technology
• Emergence of more Muslim states
with Nuclear power would reduce
American pressure on Pakistan
• To counter India’s close relations with
• Middle Ages; when Arab traders were the
main supply chain of silk, saffron, spices,
cotton and other goods between Pakistan
and Europe through the silk route, over
centuries of history exist in relations
between the two lands
Pakistani role in development of
• Pakistan has provided assistance in the
field of Science & Technology ,
infrastructure development and many
• Pakistan is providing training facilities to
Saudi Armed forces
• Some 5,000 Pakistani troops were
stationed in Saudi Arabia and the United
Arab Emirates as part of the U.S.-led
Persian Gulf War efforts in 1990
1. One of the more significant cooperation
has been the Pakistan – Saudi Arabia
inter-linkages in respect of Saudi Arabia’s
plans for nuclear weapons
2. Saudi Arabia has invested heavily in
Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program
3. 1998-Pakistan responded to India nuclear
test due to which western sanctions were
• Saudi Arabia supplied free to Pakistan 50,000 barrels of oil
• contingency plans exist for Pakistan to provide nuclear
weapons to Saudi Arabia at short notice.
• 2003-Crown Prince Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz approved
continuation of free crude oil
• Saudi oil deliveries were part of strategic relationship in which
Pakistan provided technical help and nuclear umbrella
1. Longstanding and intimate relationship between both countries
2. Nuclear deterrence for Saudi against a third party
3. Faced common enemies in the past successfully-IRAN
4. Face a common enemy today in the face of al Qaeda
5. In turn, Pakistan has provided military aid and expertise to the
kingdom for decades-close ties between militaries today
6. Saudi Arabia is one of the world’s largest arms importers and
Pakistan is seeking to wean it off its traditional European and US
7. Both were supporting Taliban but in 2001 Saudia broke ties with
• More aid received compared to any other country in
• 2001- 380billion soft loan given to support budget of
Pakistan(200 million-budget spending,100 million for fertilizers, 80
million for financing hydro power project)
• 2003-deferred payments of $2 billion by Pakistan
turned into grants
• 2006-aid and free trade Pakistan is a GCC member
• 2005-2006 -272 million of
Foreign direct Investment
• CHEQUE BOOK-DIPLOMACY
• 2005 earthquake -Saudi Arabia topped the list of donor
•Official aid followed by large investments from Saudi
princes and from religious institutions e.g. Pakistani
madrassa educational system, for instance, is Saudi
funded by private donors.
A complicating factor on the horizon is the warming
up of ties between Saudi Arabia and India. The
Kingdom is India’s largest supplier of crude oil and
host to more than a million workers. Symbolizing a
new interest in India, King Abdullah witnessed the
Republic Day military parade in 2005 from the Red
Fort in Delhi
Presently•Manmohan visits Saudia
•India wants Saudi Arabia to to pressure Pakistan on Anti-Indian
HOW WILL THIS EFFECT OUR RELATIONSHIP
WITH SAUDI ARAB ?????
Republic Day Diplomacy Move
10,000 square miles at present)
land at the eastern end of the
Israeli occupancy …major land
marks under control around 78%
of the land.
Autonomous regions under the
control of the Palestinian .
Gaza strip occupies an
additional 141 square miles south
Timeline ....The relation holds
Since its creation Pakistan have placed a
biased relation for the Palestinian Muslims
Quaid-i-Azam vehemently opposed the
partition of Palestine and the establishment of
Israel in 1948
Quaid-i-Azam expressed his “surprise and
shock” on the UN’s decision to approve of the
partition of Palestine
Cable sent to President Truman urging him to
“uphold the rights of the Arabs”
Pakistani stands firm….
Pakistan and Israel have continuously wavered over
the last few years.
Islamabad advocates for an independent Palestinian
state and an end to the on-going Israeli illegal
occupation of its territories.
Does not consider to recognize the so-called State of
Advocating a two state solution as the best solution to
Recognizes since the Palestinian Declaration of
Independence on November 15, 1988.
Palestinian President, Mahmud Abbas,
also paid an official visit to Pakistan in
Political talks with the Pakistani leaders
regarding the current situation of the
Middle East and the peace process
between Palestine and Israel.
Abbas thanked Musharraf and the
people of Pakistan for their continued and
devoted support to the Palestinian cause.
• The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven states,
termed emirates, which are Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman,
Umm al-Quwain, Ras al-Khaimah and Fujairah.
• The United Arab Emirates has the world's seventh largest oil
reserves and possesses one of the most developed economies in
the Middle East.
UAE’s Foreign policy based on
• Adoption of dialogue
• Respect of international conventions
• Commitment to the United Nations Charter
• Non-interference of other country's internal affairs
• The settlement of disputes by peaceful means.
• Pakistan and the UAE enjoy extremely close relations, founded on
deep-rooted cultural affinities, shared faith and traditions, as also
geographic proximity and identity of interests.
• UAE has been a major donor of economic assistance to Pakistan.
Example Sheikh Zayed International Airport in Rahim Yar Khan.
UAE has emerged as one of Pakistan's major economic and trading
• UAE and Pakistan share strategic partnership and diplomatic
relations are based on mutual respect, cooperation, coordination
• UAE in Pakistan: United Arab Emirates is the largest single investor
in Pakistan, which is reflective of the close relationship between the
• Economic Partnership: UAE is the third largest trading partner of
Pakistan. Win-win position for both the countries.
• Largest privatization deal was finalized between Etisalat and PTCL.
• Many other UAE based companies working in Pakistan including
PARCO, Wateen, EMAAR etc.
• A Second home: There are already around 700,000 Pakistani
Expatriates living and working in the UAE
• A friend in need: UAE launches its program for reconstruction of
earthquake affected areas in Pakistan, October 2005.
• The UAE government immediately pledge $ 100 million towards
President’s Earthquake Relief Fund.
• UAE is a founding member of Friends of Democratic Pakistan
which seeks to help Pakistan address its security, development,
energy and institution building challenges.
• UAE will extend its support to Pakistan in order to counter
extremism and terrorism.
• However UAE continues to follow a very careful path on issues of
conflict between Pakistan and India. On the Kashmir issue the
press in the UAE has strict instructions to follow a “moderate middle
• Sheikh Muhammad bin Rashid al Maktoum affirmed his strong
commitment towards the strengthening of bilateral relations with
• Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari termed the relations between the
UAE and Pakistan as "outstanding historic and based on cultural,
religious and historical ties“.
Foreign Policy Determinants
• Non-Tangible Factors
– Common History
– Culture and Traditions
• Economic Factors
– Trade and Commerce
– Energy sources
– Pakistan can provide the closest seaport to the
Central Asian republics
– Stability in Afghanistan is a crucial factor.
Creating Goodwill Initially
• Pakistan was the among the first nations
to recognize all Central Asian states
• Pakistan gave loans of $30 million to
Uzbekistan and $10 million to other
Central Asian Republics
• PIA started flights to all capital cities of
Creating Goodwill Initially
• Five thousand tons of rice and $100,000
worth of medicines were sent to Central
• Cooperation in induction to ECO.
• Special technical assistance programs
initiated in 1992.
• $500 million energy deal with Tajikistan in
The Afghanistan Quandary
• The civil war in Afghanistan strained
relations between Pakistan and Central
Asia in two ways
– Physical blockage of the Afghanistan route
– Pakistan supported the Taliban against
Uzbek, Turkmen and Tajik ethnic groups
• Quadrilateral trade agreement with
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China and
Pakistan operational from 2004.
gas pipeline expected to be functional in
• Power projects with Tajikistan to help with
Pakistan’s energy deficiencies.
• While Pakistan is making efforts in the
right direction, there are some constraints;
– Instability in Afghanistan.
– Pakistan’s relations with Russia and India.
– Infrastructure deficiencies.
Turkey - Introduction
• Turkey is a country with
99% Muslim population
• Turkish is mainly spoken
and Kurdish in the south-
• Population : 73,914,260
• Since, Pakistan and Turkey both are Muslim
states, the relations have been friendly so far
• Even before the birth of Pakistan, during WOI
1857, Muslim soldiers of the sub-continent
refused to fight Turkish Muslims.
• There were a number of protests launched in
India against the fall of Caliphate in Turkey
• Pakistan was formed on pure ideological
reasons whereas Turkey is a state which follows
• To allow socio-economic development, Pakistan,
Turkey and Iran established the RCD in 1964
• Turkey supports Pakistan on the Kashmir
dispute and Pakistan supports them on the
• The RCD was replaced by ECO (economic
cooperation organization) In 1985
• It was initiated by Pakistan, Iran and Turkey but
now it has 10 members which includes 7 Asian
and 3 Eurasian nations
• It is an ad-hoc organization to UN
The 90’s and the present
• ECO cultural institute was signed at Islamabad in
1995 to foster rich culture heritage of Turkey, Iran
and 10 other Asian states
• mid 1990’s, The hero of the nation, Dr. A Q Khan
visited turkey for technological cooperation.
• In 2004, President Gen Pervez
Musharraf visited Turkey.
• President Zardari visited Turkey in
2008 to discuss whether General
Musharraf should be exiled
• In October 2009, Turkish PM, Mr..
Erdogan addressed a joint session of
two houses of the parliament of
• Recently Turkish President Gul
visited Pakistan and was awarded
Honorary PhD degree
The 90’s and the present
Areas of Convergence
• Trade, business, investment, defense
production, tourism, educational and cultural
cooperation are all areas where the perceptions
and interests of Turkey and Pakistan converge.
• Efforts are constantly being made to tap the
potential advantage which can be derived from
the cooperation of both the states
Areas of Divergence
• Afghanistan, Kashmir, Israel, nuclear
proliferation and, most recently, democracy are
five areas where the perceptions and interests of
Turkey and Pakistan diverge
• Turkey does not recognize Taliban regime in
• (Turkmen-Pakistan gas pipeline project)
• Turkey supported the Lahore declaration that
Kashmir Issue should be solved through bilateral
talks. But after Kargil, the Lahore declaration was
• Turkey-Israel connection is another area where the
two states diverge but Pakistan understands
compulsions on turkey
• Mr. Ecevit's Statement in New Delhi. (being against
Islamism militants in Kashmir)
Areas of Divergence
Countries in North Africa
Pakistan relations with Algeria
• Friendly relations since its inception.
• Supported Algerian independence from France
– Recognized provincial government of republic of Algeria in exile
– Condolence over Benazir death by Algeria.
– 8th Oct 2005, Algeria sent 800 tents, 200 blankets and 10 tons of
• President of Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika was awarded the honour
of the "Best Governed Muslim state" by a popular national daily
Pakistan Observer in 2005.
• Pak-Algerian group in 1990
• Visit by Musharraf – a fresh perspective
• Signing of extradition treaty in 2003
• Joint ministerial comission (JMC) in 2005
Pakistan relations with Egypt
• Both are member of OIC, next eleven and D8
• Diplomatic and trade relations with Egypt
• Relations not cordial initially
• Visit by Ayub khan and Jamal Abdul Nasir
• Pakistan support in Arab-Israel war
• Anwar saddat recognized Pakistan’s services in OIC
• Relations strained over Sudanese border issues
• Al-AZHAR university
Pakistan relations with
• Relations always deep and abiding
• Pakistani ties with Gadaafi
– Gadafi Stadium
• Growing ties
– Help from Libya in economic terms after 1971
– Loan of $50bn from Libyan central bank to
– 2009: Pakistan exporting 50000 skilled labors
Pakistan relations with Sudan
• Pakistani support to Sudan over its border issues with
Egypt and Kenya
• Both member of OIC, like minded group, G-77
• Sudanese support to Pakistani in Indo-Pak wars.
• RALATIONS STRAINED DUE TO
– Pakistani handling of Sami Mohy EL Din to
– Pak-US relations; Sudanese relations with India,
IRAN and Bangladesh
• Yet Pakistan favored Sudan over its territorial issues
Pakistan Morocco relations
•Pakistan has embassy in Morocco and
Morocco has embassy in Islamabad.
•Pakistan says that western sahara is the
internal problem of Morrocco
•Pakistani entrepreneurs invited by Morocco
in 2007 to take advantage of FTA
Morocco is a big exporter of readymade garments
to Europe, and we invite Pakistani companies to
share the Moroccan export to Europe
• The ambassador went on to invite
Pakistani companies to set up garment
units in Morocco, where even a 30% value
addition is acceptable to the European
• Currently, Pakistan's exports to Morocco
stand at $11.5 million, whilst Moroccan
exports to Pakistan stand at $147 million