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E-Portfolio Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 1
    Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio
    Miriam Perry
    Psychology, 2010
  • 2. Personal Statement
    As a person, I am persistent with any goals that are set in mind, I am a devoted mother, wife, and student, and most importantly, I am compassionate with everything that I do. I have always strived for the best and have never given up until the goal in mind has been finished. I am confident that one day I am going to fulfill my dream of finishing a PhD in Psychology.
    A psychologist is an individual who is dedicated to families, groups, individual and the society as a whole. It is imperative that the person who is trying to become a psychologist should be caring, compassionate, and understanding. I would like to become part of the psychology world due to my compassion to help and care about those who are struggling in their lives. It is a job that takes dedication and sometimes it is a full commitment that will surround my life and that is understandable. One area of expertise that I want to work in is as a high school counselor. I have chosen this area of expertise due to the interest that I have for students who needs guidance. One of the things that many people do not take into consideration is that the student’s of today are the leaders for tomorrow. It is in our best interest that these young adults get the best advice to succeed in the society that we live in today. The experiences as a teenager made me have the desire to work with the students. As a teenager it was unfortunate to have a guidance counselor who was available in the time of need.
  • 3. Resume
    Miriam S. Perry
     
    157 Cannon Dr.
    Travis AFB, CA 94535
    perry.miriam@yahoo.com
    707-639-6327
    Objective Statement
     
    Well organized, ambitious, goal-oriented, and dedicated individual who is in search of a position in the Human Resources field. Individual that brings great customer service, sharp organization skill, and a fresh perspective to the workplace.
     
    Education
     
    BACHELORS IN PSYCHOLOGY
    ­Argosy University: Psychology major (2010)
    ­GPA 3.6, Dean's List
  • 4. Resume
    ­ASSOCIATE IN GENERAL SCIENCE
    ­Solano Community College : Candidate for Nursing , Fairfield, Ca (2009)
    ­GPA 3.4, Dean's List
    ­
    ­ASSOCIATE IN LIBERAL ARTS
    ­Solano Community College: Fairfield, Ca (2009)
    ­GPA 3.4, Dean'sList
    ­
    ­PURSUING NURSING STUDENT
    ­Ivy Tech Community College: Lafayette, In (2006)
     
     
  • 5. Resume
    Other Work Experience
    ACs Pub & Grill   Fairfield, California 06/07- 4/08
    Bar Tender
    ­Duties & Responsibilities
    ­Prepare drinks quickly, accurately, and without waste
    Memorization of drinks that were ordered
    Making sure that the customer is satisfied
    Take responsibility in calling a cab if customer incapable of driving
    Handled money and cash register
    Monitor and maintain supply inventory
    ­ 
    B. Moss Clothing Co.  Lafayette, In 03/03-05/04
    Sales Associate/ Manager Position
    ­Duties & Responsibilities
    ­Assuring that customers get the best customer service
    Maintain acknowledgments of promotions and advertisements
    Data Entry
    Assist in display arrangements, floor movements, and merchandise
  • 6. Resume
    Inventory control
    Receiving shipments
    Managing other associates
    Closing the store and accounted for bank deposits
    ­
     
    Relevant Coursework
     
    Industrial/Organizational Psychology
    Social Psychology
    Diversity
    Research Methods
    Counseling Methods
    Interviewing techniques
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
    ­
     
  • 7. Resume
    Key Skills
     
    Bilingual Spanish/English
    Function Under Pressure
    Effective Communication Skills
    Exceptional Organization Skills
    Understanding, enthusiastic, and great in working with others
    ­
     
    Volunteer Activities
     
    Scandia Elementary School 09/09-08/10 volunteered in helping kindergarten students with their math and writing activities
    ­Klondike Elementary School 09/10- to date volunteering in helping fourth/fifth grade students with their reading assignments
  • 8. Reflection
    Over all the education that I have received through Argosy University has helped me gain all of the basic needs to help and counsel in my future careers. One of the most valuable skills that Argosy has provided is my writing skills. This University has given me the opportunity to challenge my writing skills through assignments that are given throughout the semesters. My life experiences have also given me proper tools that are going to be needed in my career. A great example is communication. Having worked at a sales associate has made me gain the trust of others and the ability to make them feel comfortable. Above all due to the exposure of the military life it has made me be exposed to different cultures. The friendships that I have gained have also taught me to really listen.
    Self Reflection Abilities
    • Cognitive Abilities and Critical Thinking. The ability to choose from and appraise a wide range of psychological perspectives and theories within written and oral presentations. When presenting (in written work or orally), can illustrate multiple perspectives on a given topic. Able to analyze the complexities of a given issue.
    • 9. Cognitive Abilities and Information Literacy. The ability to collect and arrange information from a variety of sources pertinent to the chosen topic, integrating reasoned appraisals of such information into the work of a project in psychology.
    • 10. Research and Understanding Research. The ability to correctly summarize the research design, statistical and other evaluative tools, and findings of the article. To use sound reasoning as a basis for criticizing the research results.
    • 11. Oral Communication Skills. The ability in creating, organizing and delivering oral presentations.
    • 12. The ability to design, develop, and defend appropriate levels of organizations and clarity of presentation, thus allowing the listener to following the line of reasoning.
    • 13. The ability to design, develop, and defend appropriate level of presentation for audience, correct use of grammar, word choice for precise meaning.
  • Reflection
    • Written Communication Skills developed and applied appropriate levels of conciseness and clarity in content, language use, grammar, organization using APA formatting.
    • 14. Maintain the ability to develop, apply and defend a particular stance related to psychological concepts in written work
    • 15. Extensive exposure in Ethics and effectively engage in ethical thinking and action, evidenced by the ability to articulate best-practices pertaining to case examples and/or other specific problems associated with the field.
    • 16. Not only understands the importance of awareness and knowledge/skill development in regards to diversity in psychology, but can also analyze and apply multiculturally-sensitive theories, thoughts, and beliefs to specific psychological issues.
    • 17. Recognizes personal biases, and works to increase awareness and respect for diverse populations.
    • 18. Exhibits consistent recognition and exceptional comprehension of the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, applications and historical trends in psychology or within a specific area of study in the field.
    • 19. Able tosynthesize and evaluate various psychological theories, and apply them to explain everyday events and experiences.
    • 20. Provides comprehensive explanations that incorporate psychological principles, as well as, empirical data and best practices.
    • 21. Demonstrates the ability to use psychological principles in solving problems, explaining social issues, and dealing with everyday life situations
  • Reflection
    • Able to consistently and effectively apply active listening communication skills in interpersonal and organizational scenarios to establish empathetic, collegial relationships that facilitate consensus building in working toward common goals and is appreciative of diversity and culture.
    • 22. Able to consistently analyze the importance of effective nonverbal communication skills in developing strong interpersonal and organizational relationships that are culturally sensitive and respectful of diversity.
    • 23. Actively solicits and utilizes feedback to develop adaptable strategies of facilitating dynamic interpersonal and organizational relationships.
    • 24. Consistently & actively demonstrates an understanding of the impact of technological advances on communication within interpersonal and organizational relationships.
    • 25. Consistently demonstrates strong utilization of effective communication and relationship skills in order to promote the growth of others and effect change.
  • Table of Contents
    Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
    Research Skills
    Communication Skills: Oral and Written
    Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Foundations of Psychology
    Applied Psychology
    Interpersonal Effectiveness
    **Include work samples and projects with a Title Page and organized accordingly to demonstrate each of the Program Outcomes above
  • 26. Cognitive Abilities
    Cognitive Abilities
    Miriam Perry
    Argosy University
    Cognitive Abilities
    Miriam Perry
    Argosy University
    Running head: COGNITIVE ABILITIES 1
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Cognitive Abilities
    Miriam Perry
    Argosy University
     
     
     
     
     
     
      
     
     
     
     
     
  • 27. Cognitive Abilities
    Cognitive Abilities
    In this area the assignment that is shown demonstrates problem solving, analysis, synthesis, appropriate use of information resources, etc.
    The assignment involved the following:
    Imagine that you are to assist the Activities Coordinator at an assisted living center for elderly residents. Your duties include all of the following:
    • Increase physical exercise among the residents. 
    • 28. Increase community volunteerism among the residents. 
    • 29. Raise funds from nonresidential individuals, companies, and other organizations on behalf of the center. 
    • Examine three kinds of social influence—conformity, compliance, and obedience—and describe a strategy to motivate these residents to increase their physical exercise; increase community volunteerism among the residents; and raise funds from outside sources. 
    • Analyze which one of these strategies you believe would be the most effective. 
    • 30. Apply the foot-in-the-door technique to this strategy, and assess its effectiveness. 
    • 31. Apply the door-in-the-face technique to this strategy, and assess its effectiveness. 
     
     
  • 32. Cognitive Abilities
    Assignment 2: Project
    Social psychologists have found that social influence has an impressive effect on obedience. Social influence has three categories that have an effect on this subject. Argosy Lecture notes (2010) describes the first category as conformity which “occurs when you change your behavior to match that of others” (p.1). In conformity the behavior that is practiced is only because they are following others, people are not asking any question that involves the reasons why. Compliance is the second category under social influence, compliance occurs when a person listens to a demand that was requested. Argosy lecture notes (2010) indicated that in compliance the person who is requesting the demand does not have to be there (p.1). A great example that is given is the secure seatbelt sign on the airplane. The last category is obedience. Obedience is a lot like conformity but the difference of this involves the way the person received the message. Argosy Lecture notes (2010) indicated, “…it differs from compliance because obedience involves a direct order from another person in a status or position of authority” (p.1). All of these three categories eventually lead to obedience. “The amount of overt social pressure associated with these categories escalates as one moves from conformity to compliance and, finally, to obedience” (Cialdini, 2007).
    A strategy that can be used to increase motivation in exercise, increase volunteerism, and raise funds from outside sources, may involve the staff, family, and the residents. The staff is then instructed to find a way to raise funds for the residential home. The staff then holds a meeting with the staff and family members telling them that there is going to be a fundraiser walk-a-thon. This will get the residents motivated to increase money for their facility, share time with family member with an activity that involves them to move, and raise money from other sources.
     
     
  • 33. Cognitive Abilities
    In this week’s lecture, social influence and the three categories are involved in changing the original behavior of a person with different techniques. The first involves the foot- in- the- door technique in compliance. Foot- in- the-door technique can be applied into this scenario by first letting the residents know about the benefits of raising funds for the facility, for example, new equipment, better food, and more assistance. Next, the groups of residents are told that in order to raise funds they have to have some sort of physical interaction were not only residents can be included but others too; like family members. After that the residents tell the family members about the fund-raiser and how they can help by volunteering and gathering other outside forces so they can buy tickets as a donation. Cialdini (2007) defined foot-in-the door technique as “a technique that increases compliance with a large request by first getting compliance with a smaller, related request” (p. 204).
    The second technique that can be used is the door-in- the face. Cialdini (2007) indicated, “Rather than starting with a small request designed to get a yes and then advancing to the desired favor (as occurs in the foot-in-the-door technique), someone using the door-in-the-face technique begins with a large request intended, of all things, to get the target person to say no”(p.204). After the person rejects the first offer then the requester goes back and retreats to the desired favor. In this scenario the staff may ask the residents to help them by gathering people like friends and family to buy tickets for the walk-a-thon to raise money without any benefits to the residents. Receiving negative feedback the staff can retreat to the desired favor which in this case involves the benefits that the residents are going to receive.
     
  • 34. Cognitive Abilities
    As an activities coordinator the strategy that would be most beneficial, as a personal opinion, is using the foot-in- the door technique. Using this will start out with a small group, but after the small group gets motivated. After the first wave of motivation the group gets bigger and bigger due to the successes that the other group has experienced. When there is a big group there are also the benefits of having everyone talking about the goods that come from the activity. This will encourage the rest to be involved because they also want to “fit-in”.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Reference
    Argosy. (2010). PSY310: Social Psychology: Module four. Retrieved from www.myeclassonline.com
    Cialdini, R., Kenrick, D., & Neuberg, S. (2007) Social Psychology: Goals in Interaction. McGraw Hill-Pearson
     
  • 35. Research Skills
    Running head: RESEARCH SKILLS 1
    Research Skills
    Miriam Perry
    Argosy University
  • 36. Research Skills
    Sexual Activity during Adolescence: Prevalence, risks, statistics, and influences involving pre-marital sex.
    Outline of Literature Findings
    Article: Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Adolescents Aged 14 to 19 in the United States. Sara E. Forhan, Sami Gottlieb, Maya Sternberg, XuFujie, Deblina S. Datta, Geraldine M. McQuillan, Staurt M. Berman, and Lauri E. Markowitz.
    Summary: This article involved 838 females who were aged 14-19 and participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey within the years of 2003-2004. These participants were interviewed, examined, and provided biological specimens for laboratory testing. In conclusion to this study there was at least 1 of 5 Sexual Transmitted Infections (STIs). The STIs that were involved were Neisseriagonnorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonasvaginalis, herpes simplex virus type 2, and the human papillomavirus (HPV). Among these young women 37.7% were sexually experienced and 24.1% of them prevalence of any of the 5 STIs mentioned. HPV was the most first most common STI among all female adolescents (18.3%). C trachomatis infection was the second most common STI (prevalence of 3.9%). There were 19.7% that reported only one lifetime partner. “These findings support early and comprehensive sex education, routine HPV vaccination at the age of 11 to 12 years, and C trachomatis screening of sexually active female adolescents” (Forhan et al., 2009).
    Strengths and Weaknesses: The results that were provided by this article could be incorrect due to the inaccurate information that the participants gave. The strength in this article is that the participants were personally interviewed. The participants were also examined physically and provided laboratory results from the specimens that were given.
  • 37. Research Skills
    Article: Biological, Familial, and Peer Influences on Dating in Early Adolescence. Laura J. Friedlander, Jennifer A. Connolly, Debra J. Pepler, and Wendy M. Craig.
    Summary: This study examined 784 adolescents (394 boys and 390 girls). This boys and girls that were followed for a year were enrolled in grades 5, 6, and 7th grades. This study involved several contributions of puberty maturation, parenting monitoring, involvement in older peer groups, peer dating, and peer delinquency on dating. All of these contributions are involved with having an increased risk in early dating. “Dating during these early years of adolescence has been linked with problem behaviors, particularly delinquency” (Davies & Windle, 2000).
    Strengths and Weaknesses: The strong strengths in this study involved having every category, for example dating, and peers and dating going into extensive detail. There were graphs that also presented statistical information. There were no unknown weaknesses.
    Article: Parental Influences on Adolescent Decision Making and Contraceptive Use.Kathleen Commendador.
    Summary: This article used information from a critical research review studies using PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCO, Infortrak, Science and Technology, and Medline relating to the influence of parental and maternal adolescents decision making related to sexual debut and contraception. In this analysis there were 36 research articles that have been largely quantitative, spanning from 1980-2007. “Maternal interaction is potentially influential in reducing adolescent pregnancy and is effective in encouraging sexually active girls to use contraceptives. Although maternal/ adolescent discussions play a significant role in adolescent decision making and contraception, family variables also clearly play a significant role in affecting outcomes” (Commendador, 2010).
  • 38. Research Skills
    Strengths and Weaknesses: The weaknesses on this extensive research are that it is a quick overview of all of the studies that are involved in this criterion. This information could also be inaccurate due to some of the studies not having a professional evaluating the youth. The strengths in this article involve and extensive research on a variety of studies based on the influence of adolescents and their sexual activity.
    Article: Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence. Hannah-Lise T. Schofield, Karen L. Bierman, Brenda Heinrichs, Robert L. Nix, and Conduct Problems Prevention Group.
    Summary: This longitudinal study involved 694 boys and girls from four geographical locations, with collected data from kindergarten through high school. “Structural equation models revealed that, irrespective of gender or race, high rates of aggressive disruptive behaviors and attention problems at school entry increased risks for constellation of problem behaviors in middle school (school maladjustment, antisocial activity, and substance use) which, in turn, promoted the early initiation of sexual activity ( Schofield et al., 2008). The 13-15% of American teens report having sexual activities before the age of 15. After the fifteenth year there is 45% that report having sex before turning 17 years of age and about 70% have had sex by the age of 19 (Guttmacher Institute, 2006). The main aim for this study was to develop a cumulative model of risk over time and to also create a mediation al model based on a behavioral problem factor and compare them.
  • 39. Research Skills
    Strengths and Weaknesses: The weaknesses were the fact that there might have been improper diagnosis of attention problems at school entry with kindergarten age children. The strength of his study is that it follows children from the ages of kindergarten to high school.
    Article: Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes About Sexuality? Erin N. Chapman and Ronald Jay Werner-Wilson.
    Summary: This research was based on a Positive Youth Development (PYD) program that promotes healthy sexuality. The philosophy of PYD made a connection between adolescents sexuality, including attitude and behavior, and parental relationships. Self-esteem and sexual experience were critical factors in the attitudes towards sex. The most influential variable was the parents which made huge contribution towards this theory. Puberty facilitates this developmental stage and has complex ramifications throughout. Although adults in American society usually deal with young persons' sexuality by trying to suppress or ignore it (Katchadourian, 1990), adolescents are bombarded with messages regarding sexuality and what is expected of them as sexual beings. The media, peers, social values and individual freedoms are all part of the messages that are confusing and contradictory for adolescents but parents are the main influence.
    Strengths and Weaknesses: The weakness of this research is linked to the cross-sectional design, which it puts a limit on the observations and studies. As for the strengths of this article was due to the fact that the research provided sufficient detail to make this study very clear.
  • 40. Research Skills
    Article: University of Montreal; Troubled girls from poor neighborhoods more likely to have sex in early adolescence. Anonymous.
    Summary: This survey was conveyed for a total of 2,596 Canadian adolescents that followed the ages of 12 to 15. Peers and the neighborhoods were a high influence on the sexual activity of these adolescents. Parents are also not as involved and not educating this group about sex. In additions to the peers and neighborhood characteristics, the families were also taken into consideration, including socio-economic background and family structure.
    Strengths and Weaknesses: The weakness in this research was that the participants in where mostly white. This will not give a chance to explore the different backgrounds and ethnicities. The strength of this research is that most of the information is correlating to the other information that has been viewed.
    Article: Older Sexual Partners during Adolescence: Links to Reproductive Health Outcomes in Young Adulthood. Suzanne Ryan, Kerry Franzetta, Jennifer S. Manlove, and Erin Schelar.
    Summary: This research has been gathered from logistic regression and contrast analysis of three different data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to seek whether individuals who had sex before the age of 16 were with an older partner. It had been concluded that teens with older partners have had an increase in not using protected sex and having an increase in getting a sexual transmitted disease (STD).
    Strengths and Weaknesses: The weakness of this article was mainly that the surveys that were looked at were inaccurate in not accounting for all live births.
  • 41. Research Skills
    The strength of this research was that the sample and the information given were seen from a different standpoint in time to compare the results and statistics to see the differences. This research also included different types of cultural backgrounds such as Hispanics.
    Article: The relationship between adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior. Kathleen Commendador.
    Summary: The relationship between self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior has been discovered by using questionnaires. “They view the decision-making process as one that involves choice, commitment, and conflict as well as the potential for loss” (Commendador, 2007).The targeted age in this study involved 14-17 year olds residing in Hawaii. It was found that adolescent mothers are more likely to have lower education, lower paying jobs, and higher levels of unemployment. An understanding of this is imperative due to the long term effects that the United States has been experiencing. Each year there are nearly one million teenage pregnancies occurring each year in the United States and it is costing 7 billion dollars each year.
    Strengths and Weaknesses: The weaknesses on this research included that there was no relevance found in correlation with the use of contraception in sexually active females. The strengths in this study is that there is sufficient information and a different variety of sources that is relevant in providing in-depth information
  • 42. Research Skills
    Article: Children’s Hospital Boston; Children who view adult-targeted TV may become sexually active earlier in life. Biotech Week.
    Summary: Based on a longitudinal study tracking 6- 18, researchers have found that the more exposure that adolescents are exposed to adult based television and movies, the earlier the y become sexually active. Television is the leading sources that engage in informing adolescents about sex. Researchers have also concluded that there should be a limitation on the hours per day in watching TV. There were 754 participants, 365 males and 389 females, who were tracked during the first two stages of their life and saw that the more TV they watched the earlier their sexual activity came into place.
    Strengths and weaknesses: The strength of this study was that the information was gathered from a longitudinal study. As for the negatives there could be a biased by the researcher who was involved with the longitudinal research.
  • 43. Research Skills
    Article: Teenage pregnancy: trends, contributing factors and the physician’s role. Donald B. Langille.
    Summary: This study looked up the rates of teenage pregnancy. It evaluated and compared the United States with Canada. In the year of 2002 the international data of Canada and the United States for teenage pregnancy was up to 33.9 percent. There may have been many reasons for this decline of teenage pregnancy. One of the factors involved having the use of a contraceptive. Females from the ages of 15-19 who reported using an oral contraceptive at last intercourse, alone or in combination with other methods increased from 32% to 49%. The injective hormonal contraceptive increased from 8-10 percent. The use of the use of no contraceptive declined from 39% to 18% of the respondents. Researchers found that due to the increase in use of contraceptives the teenage pregnancy declined. Most of the factors that influenced this type of thinking in adolescents involved the family, schools, and peers.
    Strengths and weaknesses: The inaccurate information given by the participants could be one of the factors that would change the results.
    All of these articles that have been reviewed have been involved with adolescent sex activity. For example, almost every article focused on the adolescent sex life, the influences, and the risks that are involved in having pre-marital sex. Evidence tells us that most adolescents are currently having sexual activities. The things that I had not realized was that in most of the influences in an adolescent’s life could have a dramatic life changing experience. These adolescents rely on their peers and family and could change their lives. It could lead to an STD, STI, and pregnancy due to their family influence. Also depression and low self-esteem could be a part in adolescents being sexually active.
     
     
     
     
  • 44. Research Skills
    References
    Chapman, E., & Werner-Wilson, R.. (2008). Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes About Sexuality? Adolescence, 43(171), 505-23.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1602814171).
    Children’s Hospital Boston; Children who view adult- targeted TV may become sexually active earlier in life. (2009). Biotech Week, 3039. Retrieved from ProQuest Health and Medical Complette. Document ID: 1707945831
    Commendador, K. A. (2010).Parental Influences on Adolescents Decision Making and Contraceptive Use. Pediatric Nursing, 36 (3), 147.
    Commendador, K. A. (2007). The relationship between female adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 19(11), 614-23.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete. (Document ID: 1385010131).
    Davies, P. T., & Windel, M. (2000). Middle adolescents’ dating pathways and psychosocial adjustment. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46, 90-118.
    Forhan, S. E., Gottlieb, S. L., Sternberg, M. R., Fujie, X., Datta, S. D., McQuillan, G. M., Bernan, S. M., & Markowitz, L. E. (2009). Prevalence of Sexual Transmitted Infections Among Female Adolescents Aged 14 to 19 in the United States [Abstract]. Pediatrics, 124 (6), 1505-1512.
    Katchadourian, H. (1990). Sexuality. In S. S. Feldman & G. R. Elliot (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 330-351). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
     
  • 45. Research Skills
    Langille, D. B. (2007). Teenage pregnancy: trends, contributing factors and the physician’s role. Canadian Medical Association, 176 (11), 160 1-2. Retrieved from Research Library. (Document ID: 1283183831).
    Ryan, S., Franzetta, K., Manlove, J., & Schelar, E.. (2008). Older Sexual Partners During Adolescence: Links to Reproductive Health Outcomes in Young Adulthood. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 40(1), 17-26.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1460772681).
    Schofield, H., Bierman, K., Heinrichs, B., & Nix, R.. (2008). Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(8), 1175-88.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1571804951).
    University of Montreal; Troubled girls from poor neighborhoods more likely to have sex in early adolescence. (2008, October). Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week,190.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1560499401).
  • 46. Communication Skills
    Running head: COMMUNICATION SKILLS 1
     
    Sexual Activity during Adolescence: Risks, statistics, and influences involving pre-marital sex.
    Miriam Perry
    Argosy University
  • 47. Communication Skills
    Abstract
    The study investigated was aimed to get an insight on what drives an adolescent to have pre-marital sex. There were seven articles that were taken into consideration. These seven articles showed the statistical data of current trends in sexual active adolescent, the risks that are involve, and the influences that take a place in the adolescents decision of being sexually active. Researchers recognize the influence that family values, where they live, and peers are all involved in adolescents decisions on having pre-marital sex. There was a significant relationship between self-esteem and sexual experience as being significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parental influences contributed the most influence on the outcome variable” (Chapman & Werner-Wilson, 2008).
  • 48. Communication Skills
    Sexual Activity during Adolescence: Risks, statistics, and influences involving pre-marital sex.
    “Nearly half of all 15-19 year olds in the United States have had sex at least once” (Abma, 2004). Sexual activity during adolescence causes an increase in teen moms, sexually transmitted infections (STI’s), school drop-outs, and higher effects on adolescent’s psychological state. To prevent or reduce the consequences of adolescents being sexually active, interventions, education, and awareness are used. A meta-analysis involving youth-focused intervention/prevention programs aimed at delaying sexual activity and reducing risky behaviors found no evidence of having beneficial effects (DiCenso et al., 2002). On the other hand, Brody et al. (2006) found that numerous family intervention techniques that focus on parent-child communication, parental monitoring, involved parenting, and limit settings have shown a dramatic effect on these outcomes. In this paper, the risks, statistics, and influences that are incorporated in an adolescent’s sexual activity are investigated. The following literature reviews demonstrate and support the hypothesis.
    In a research article by Forhan et al. (2009), the focus was on the prevalence of STIs among female adolescents in the United States. This research involved 838 females who were within the ages of 14 to 19. The participants were interviewed, examined, and provided biological specimens for laboratory testing to evaluate if any of these participants had Neisseriagonnorrhoear, Chlamydia trachomatis, trichomonasvaginalis, herpes simplex virus 2, or the human papillomavirus (HPV). Wimberly (2010) indicated that due to the biology of adolescent females, “the large mucosal surface of the adolescent vagina and cervix results in prolonged exposure to infected semen” (Biology Plays section, para. 1). With this being stated, it was hypothesized that young adolescent females are greatly exposed to STI’s from their risky sexual
  • 49. Communication Skills
    activities. Among these young women 37.7% were sexually experienced and 24.1% of them showed having one of the five STI’s mentioned. Within the adolescent females that were participating in this study, HPV was the most common STI (18.3%). C trachomatis infection was the second most common STI (prevalence of 3.9%). Most adolescent females in this study that had contracted an STI reported having only one lifetime partner. All of the results combined confirm that the hypotheses of female adolescent being sexually active have a high spread rate involving STIs. “These findings support early and comprehensive sex education, routine HPV vaccination at the age of 11 to 12 years, and C trachomatis screening of sexually active female adolescents” (Forhan et al., 2009). The results provided by this article could be incorrect due to the inaccurate information that participants gave. The strength in this article is that the participants were personally interviewed. The participants were also examined physically and provided laboratory results from the specimens that were given.
    Attachment in relation to the sexual activity during adolescence is addressed by the research of the involved influences. In this study Friedlander et al. (2007), focused on the influences that were involved in decisions that are involved in sexual activity during adolescence. This study examined 784 adolescents (394 boys and 390 girls). These boys and girls were followed for a year; they all were enrolled in grades 5, 6, and 7th. The hypothesis in this study was that biology, family, and peer influences were involved in dating in early adolescence, which would increase the risk of having sexual contact with their partner. The romantic interests of youth are central to the social activities of adolescence (Connolly & Goldberg, 1999). The joint contributions of parental monitoring, pubertal maturation, and peer group characteristics were gathered through survey questions and answers by the adolescents. Parental monitoring was found to be a major factor in this area. Putting attention to their children and tracking their whereabouts was found to decrease the adolescent’s sexual activity.
  • 50. Communication Skills
    Having social connections with others who are sexually active is also a main factor due to the pressures that are brought on by peers. “Peers set an example for the adolescent and the adolescent imitates the behavior of valued others because of a general desire to look and behave as their peers do” (Friedlander et al., (2007). Pubertal maturation is involved dramatically. The more intense pubertal maturation an adolescent has, the higher the sexual activity is seen. Another finding in this research was that girls having good parental ties were less likely to have sexual interactions at an early age. Findings of this research conjoined all of the three influences that were being studied and found that pubertal maturation was involved most in sexual and dating activities but with proper parental guidance and good peer experiences it would reduce the risks involved in adolescent sexual activity dramatically. The strengths in this study involved having every category; for example dating, and peers and dating going into extensive detail. There were graphs that also presented statistical information. There were no known weaknesses.
    Next, the topic of attachment in relation to sexual activity during adolescence is addressed by testing environmental influences that are linked to the attachment. An investigation of troubled girls from poor neighborhoods linked to the likelihood of having sex in early adolescence was conducted by the University of Montreal (2008). According to Gravenor (2005) the poor neighborhoods include over 27% of families on welfare and earning approximately $17,000 per annum, making them the lowest-earning group in the city. For this study, a sub-sample of boys and girls aged 12 to 15 were gathered from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. In this study, researchers accounted for factors such as socio-economic background, family structure, and peer influences. Most of the participants in this study were Caucasian. Their findings included the results affecting girls in a poor neighborhood but it did
  • 51. Communication Skills
    not have a significant effect on boys. Another finding was that 13% of the girls at risk were also involved in misconduct and physical aggression (e.g. bullying and fighting). “Other studies show that early initiators are more likely to contract sexual transmitted diseases, undergo unwanted pregnancy and to report involuntary sexual experiences” (Dupree, 2008). The weakness in this research was that the participants in where mostly white. This will not give a chance to explore the different backgrounds and ethnicities. The strength of this research is that most of the information correlates to the other researches that have been done before.
    Next, the topic of attachment in relation to sexual activity during adolescent is addressed by testing behavioral conduct factors related to the attachment. This longitudinal study made by Hannah-Lise et al. (2008) involved 694 boys and girls from four geographical locations with collected data from kindergarten through high school. “Structural equation models revealed that, irrespective of gender or race, high rates of aggressive disruptive behaviors and attention problems at school entry increased risks for constellation of problem behaviors in middle school (school maladjustment, antisocial activity, and substance use) which, in turn, promoted the early initiation of sexual activity (Schofield et al., 2008). 13-15% of American teens report having sexual activities before the age of 15. After the fifteenth year 45% reported having sex before turning 17 years of age and about 70% reported having had sex by the age of 19 (Guttmacher Institute, 2006). The main aim for this study was to develop a cumulative model of risk over time and to also create a mediation model based on a behavioral problem factor and compare the results. The weakness in this study could involve the improper diagnosis of attention problems at school entry with kindergarten age children. The strength of this study is that it follows children from the ages of kindergarten to high-school.
  • 52. Communication Skills
    Next, the topic of attachment in relation to sexual activity during adolescence is addressed by analyzing the media factors related to attachment. This research article by Biotech Week (2009) was based on a longitudinal study tracking participants from the ages 6 to 18. It involved 754 participants, 365 males and 389 females, who were tracked during the first two stages of their life and saw that the more TV they watched the earlier their sexual activity came into place. Television is the leading source that informs adolescents about sex. Researchers concluded that there should be a limitation on the hours per day in watching TV. Accordingly, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) currently suggests that "pediatricians recommend to parents that they limit children's total media time (with entertainment media) to no more than 1 to 2 hours of quality programming per day and to remove television sets from children's bedrooms. In conclusion researchers have found that more exposure to adult based television and movies leads to earlier sexual activity. The strength of this study was that the information was gathered from a longitudinal study. As for the negative, it could have biased information given by the researcher who was involved with the longitudinal research.
    Next, the topic of attachment in relation to sexual activity during adolescence is addressed by evaluating positive factors related to attachment. This research made by Chapman & Werener-Wilson (2008) was based on a Positive Youth Development (PYD) program that promotes healthy sexuality. The philosophy of PYD made a connection between adolescents and sexuality, including attitude and behavior, and parental relationships. Self-esteem and sexual experience were critical factors in the attitudes towards sex. The most influential variable was the parents, which made huge contribution towards this theory. Puberty facilitates this developmental stage and has complex ramifications throughout. Although adults in American society usually deal with young persons' sexuality by trying
  • 53. Communication Skills
    to suppress or ignore it (Katchadourian, 1990), adolescents are bombarded with messages regarding sexuality and what is expected of them as sexual beings. The media, peers, social values and individual freedoms are all part of the messages that are confusing and contradictory for adolescents.  PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory ( Marcia, 1980) provided the foundation for this study. These theories and philosophies were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. The weakness of this research is linked to the cross-sectional design, which it puts a limit on the observations and studies. As for the strengths of this article was due to the fact that the research provided sufficient detail to make this study very clear.
    There have been so many reports on adolescents taking a risk on getting an STI or getting becoming pregnant, the question is why? What factors increase the risks of these adolescents having pre-marital sex? All of these studies taken together indicated that there are various players that are important in sexual activity during adolescence. “Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parental influence contributed the most influence on the outcome variable” Chapman & Werner-Wilson (2008). Adolescents that have a strong healthy relationship with their parents reduce the risks of having a sexually active life. An assumption can be made from these literature reviews that at an early age children are influenced by parental involvement, where they live, peers, and maturity. Due to the insufficient longitudinal studies, more longitudinal studies should be done. It is imperative to understand adolescent sexual behavior and how different lifestyles may affect their future in their sexually active lives.
     
  • 54. Communication Skills
    References
    Abma J. C. (2003). Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing. Vital and Health Statistics, 23 ( 24).
    American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Public Education. American Academy of Pediatrics: children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics. 2001;107 :423 –426[Abstract/Free Full Text]
    Brody, G.H., Murry, V.M., Kogan, S.M., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Molgaard, V., Brown, A.C., Anderson, T., Chen, Y., Luo, Z., & Wills, T.A. (2006). The Strong African American Families Program: A cluster-randomized prevention trial of long-term effects and a mediational model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(2),
    356-366.
    Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of human development. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol 1: Theoretical models of human development (5th ed., pp. 993-1028). New York: Wiley.
    Children’s Hospital Boston; Children who view adult- targeted TV may become sexually active earlier in life. (2009). Biotech Week, 3039. Retrieved from ProQuest Health and Medical Complette. Document ID: 1707945831
    Commendador, K. A. (2010).Parental Influences on Adolescents Decision Making and Contraceptive Use. Pediatric Nursing, 36 (3), 147.
  • 55. Communication Skills
    Commendador, K. A. (2007). The relationship between female adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior. Journal of the American Academy of NursePractitioners, 19(11), 614-23.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete. (Document ID: 1385010131).
    DiCenso, A., Guyatt, G., Willan, A., & Griffith, L. (2002). Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMJ, 324, 1426.
    Friedlander, L., Connolly, J., Pepler, D., & Craig, W.. (2007). Biological, Familial, and Peer Influences on Dating in Early Adolescence. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36(6), 821-30.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1396577251).
    Guttmacher Institute. (2010). U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity. Retrieved from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/FB-ATSRH.html#9
    Gravenor, K. (2005). Poverty in Montreal: Where it’s at, where it came from, where it’s going. Retrieved from http://www.montrealmirror.com/2005/102005/watn24.html
    Katchadourian, H. (1990). Sexuality. In S. S. Feldman & G. R. Elliot (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 330-351). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Adleson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 159-187). New York: Wiley.
    Schofield, H., Bierman, K., Heinrichs, B., & Nix, R.. (2008). Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(8), 1175-88.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1571804951).
  • 56. Sexual Activity during Adolescence:
    Risks, statistics, and influences involving pre-marital sex.
  • 57. Nearly half of all 15-19 year olds in the United States have had sex at least once…
  • 58. What influences drives them to have pre-marital sex?
  • 59. FAMILY…
    • Putting attention to their children
    • 60. Spending time with them
    • 61. Talking about sexual relations and their consequences
    • 62. Knowing their whereabouts
  • PEERS…
    • Peers add pressure
    • 63. Friends follow friends
    • 64. The “FITTING IN” factor
  • BIOLOGY…
    The more intense pubertal maturation an adolescent has, the higher the sexual activity is seen.
  • 65. The environment is also an influence?
    Parents working more
  • 66. MEDIA is a huge influence…
    More exposure leads to more sexual action…
    Kids should be limited to at most 1-2 hours per day
    Kids should not have a TV in their room
    Most sexual facts are informed through the media
    Abercrombie and Fitch Ads
  • 67. Consequences
    Increase in Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI’s)
    Increase in Unwanted pregnancies
    Higher school drop out rates
    Increase in help for low income families
  • 68. ADOLESCENTS NEED?
  • 69. References
    Abma J. C. (2003). Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing. Vital and Health Statistics, 23 ( 24).
    American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Public Education. American Academy of Pediatrics: children, adolescents, and television. Pediatrics. 2001;107 :423 –426[Abstract/Free Full Text]
    Brody, G.H., Murry, V.M., Kogan, S.M., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Molgaard, V., Brown, A.C., Anderson, T., Chen, Y., Luo, Z., & Wills, T.A. (2006). The Strong African American Families Program: A cluster-randomized prevention trial of long-term effects and a mediational model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(2),
    356-366.
    Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of human development. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology, Vol 1: Theoretical models of human development (5th ed., pp. 993-1028). New York: Wiley.
    Children’s Hospital Boston; Children who view adult- targeted TV may become sexually active earlier in life. (2009). Biotech Week, 3039. Retrieved from ProQuest Health and Medical Complette. Document ID: 1707945831
    Commendador, K. A. (2010).Parental Influences on Adolescents Decision Making and Contraceptive Use. Pediatric Nursing, 36 (3), 147.
    Commendador, K. A. (2007). The relationship between female adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior. Journal of the American Academy of NursePractitioners, 19(11), 614-23.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete. (Document ID: 1385010131).
  • 70. References Cont.
    DiCenso, A., Guyatt, G., Willan, A., & Griffith, L. (2002). Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMJ, 324, 1426.
    Friedlander, L., Connolly, J., Pepler, D., & Craig, W.. (2007). Biological, Familial, and Peer Influences on Dating in Early Adolescence. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36(6), 821-30.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1396577251).
    Guttmacher Institute. (2010). U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity. Retrieved from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/FB-ATSRH.html#9
    Gravenor, K. (2005). Poverty in Montreal: Where it’s at, where it came from, where it’s going. Retrieved from http://www.montrealmirror.com/2005/102005/watn24.html
    Katchadourian, H. (1990). Sexuality. In S. S. Feldman & G. R. Elliot (Eds.), At the threshold: The developing adolescent (pp. 330-351). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Adleson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 159-187). New York: Wiley.
    Schofield, H., Bierman, K., Heinrichs, B., & Nix, R.. (2008). Predicting Early Sexual Activity with Behavior Problems Exhibited at School Entry and in Early Adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(8), 1175-88.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1571804951).
    University of Montreal; Troubled girls from poor neighborhoods more likely to have sex in early adolescence. (2008, October). Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week,190.  Retrieved September 18, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1560499401)
    Wimberly, Y. (2005). STDs, pregnancy risk, and fertility: Practical tips to address adolescent misconceptions and reproductive needs. Retrieved from http://www.srm-ejournal.com/article.asp?AID=8610
  • 71. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Running head: ETHICS AND DIVERSITY 1
    Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Miriam Perry
    Argosy University
  • 72. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Assignment 3: Final Project
    There are various psychoeducational or supportive approaches that might be used at a community level; the first treatment modality that is going to be evaluating about involves the One-on-one treatment. Vickerman & Margolin (2007) indicated, “One-on-one treatment permits attention to individualized traumatic cues, distorted thoughts, and behavioral interactions” (p.1). The second way of treatment involves the group treatment. Group treatments can be seen in schools, community shelters such as; violent shelters. Gender, diversity and ethics within the intervention approaches have been found imperative aspects for a child to get the right treatment. Vicherman & Margolin (2007) indicated, “A number of treatments are designed for violence-exposed youth at specific developmental stages, typically preschool children, school age children, or adolescents (p.1). The interventions for younger children that have been most useful in this type of situation frequently incorporate play. Interventions for adolescents involve trying to focus on adjustment problems such as aggression or any other conduct disorders that might be related to child abuse. Recent readings also have found that there are specialized educational and intervention programs such as Family Violence is not Okay, and Self-Esteem enhancement (Argosy Lecture Note, 2010). No matter what type of gender, diversity, and/or ethics, these type of interventions are mainly based on cognitive behavior models, which aim to optimize adaptive functioning. Argosy Lecture Notes (2010) indicated, “Overall, a child’s response to violence within the home depends on the duration and intensity of the violence and the personality characteristics of the child” (p.2).
  • 73. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Vicherman & Margolin (2007) have found the following:
    These interventions typically use a combination of the following treatment components: trauma re-exposure, violence education and cognitive restructuring, emotion expression and regulation, social problem solving, safety planning, and parent training. (p.1)
    Gender, diversity, and ethics hold a dramatic impact on the effect within the intervention approaches. Gender has been found to have a major impact due to the interparental violence being a predictor of most problems. Kerig (1998) indicated, “Inerparental violence was related to appraisals in gender-differentiated ways, particularly to increased threat for boys, and self blame for girls” (p.1). Boys were found to have an increase in anxiety, which made an impact their violent behavior and the girl’s self blame made an impact on having a relationship that exploited violence towards them. Glicken (2003) presented a Case Study that included Jolene. Jolene was a young female that came from a different diversified and ethical background that had different expectations of the world due to the experiences that molded her beliefs. Jolene had a different attitude about survival. As Glicken (2003) mentioned, “You got to be tough where I come from,” she said. “If you’re not, someone hurts you. I’d rather do the hurting” (p.13). She presented a mentality of showing no empathy. These factors all involve how gender, diversity and ethics may affect different intervention approaches.
    Glicken (2003) found the following:
    Possibly the best treatment approach at present is the use of a mentor, a female role model who has gone through what she has and has come out of it, with help.
     
     
  • 74. Ethics and Diversity Awareness
    Due to the difference in diversity, ethics, and gender it might be best to capture the best way that the child can work with another. Gragam-Bermann & Hughes (2003) indicated, “… many questions remain regarding which interventions are beneficial for diverse children with different kinds and intensities of problems” (p.1).
     
    References
    Argosy. (2010). PSY301: Children and Violence: Module one. Retrieved July 6, 2010, from www.myeclassonline.com
    Glicken, M. D. (2003) Violent Young Children. Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
    Graha,-Bermann, S. A. & Hughes, H. M. (2003). Intervention for Children Exposed to Interparental Violence (IPV): Assessment of needs and research priorities. Retrieved July 6, 2010, from http://resources.metapress.com/pdfpreview.axd?code=qj79175v83610983&size=largest
    Kerig, K. (1998). Gender and appraisals as mediators of adjustment in children exposed to interparental violence. Retrieved July 6, 2010, from http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=m24983726711wx65&size=largest
    Vickerman, K. A. & Margolin, G. (2007). Post-Traumatic Stress In Children And Adolescents Exposed To Family Violence: II. Treatment. Retrieved July 6, 2010, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2810871
  • 75. Foundations of Psychology
    Running head: KNOWLEDGE OF FOUNDATIONS 1
    Knowledge of foundations of the field
    Miriam Perry
    Argosy University
  • 76. Foundation of Psychology
    Assignment 2: Final Project
    The diagnostic categories for Katherine’s condition include dissociative disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorder, and substance related disorders. This conclusion was obtained by observing the past sessions that Katherine had attended. In Katherine’s second session she was diagnosed with a panic attack which is under the anxiety disorder group. Butcher et al. (2010) indicated the following symptoms of a panic attack have to experience at least 4 of 13 symptoms most of which are physical; depersonalization (a feeling of being detached from one’s body) or de-realization (a feeling that the external world is strange or unreal), fear of dying, or fear of “going crazy” or “losing control”. (p. 73). While Katherine was in the car she showed 4 symptoms out of 13; depersonalization, sensation of shortness of breath, nausea, dizziness, and most importantly it occurred while Katherine was driving a car. All of these physical reactions were reacted by the thought of her father abusing her. Since she also experiences lack of sleep due to the nightmares she may also be experiencing nocturnal panic. Due to her exposure to a traumatic event, in this case sexual abuse, Katherine fits the criterion of having Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) which is also under the anxiety disorder group. This gives an explanation in re-experiencing the traumatic even through the nightmares, avoiding her parents due to association with the trauma, and is experiencing persistent symptoms of increased sleep problems and irritability; this links her to dissociative disorder. “Dissociative Disorders are related to anxiety disorders because they are severe reactions to stress and anxiety” (Argosy Lecture Notes, 2010). As seen before her anxiety disorder where due to her repressed memories of being sexually abused by her father. In the third session she was diagnosed with Major Depressive disorder which is involved with Mood disorders. Evidence that supports the diagnosis include, she often wishes she were dead, sadness throughout the day, crying several
  • 77. Foundation of Psychology
    times daily, disturbed sleep, feeling of fatigued all day, having no interest in sex or spending time with her friends or being around other people, and having and extremely difficult time concentrating; which all follows the scenario. In conclusion a diagnosis of a Major Depressive Episode is apparent; Katherine exhibits at least five of the nine criteria specified by the DSM-IV-TR (Butcher, 2010). In the last therapy session Katherine's presentation was conclusive of caffeine intoxication, which is considered a substance-induced disorder. The DSM-IV-TR indicated that caffeine-induced organic mental disorder (also referred to as “caffeinism”) involves symptoms of restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, muscle twitching, and gastrointestinal complaints. She comes into the session with a flushed face, excitement, restlessness, rambling flow of thought and speech, and insomnia. Due to her symptoms she is diagnosed with Caffeine intoxication.  
    The chosen model for Katherine was the Psychodynamic Model. Argosy Lecture Notes (2010) indicated that the Psychodynamic Model “… is based on the belief that a person’s behavior is determined largely by underlying dynamic psychological forces of which the person is not aware” (p.3). The conflicts that are presented with this module have the origins in early childhood. Katherine’s childhood was tainted due to her experience of sexual child abuse. The Major Themes and Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory (2003) indicated, “It is within the hidden unconscious that much of the conflict takes place, and these conflicts in the unconscious mind are seen as the root of behavior and conscious experience” (Main thrust section, para.7). This explained that her problem started at such an early age and could not do anything besides hide it within the unconscious. As she grew she was experiencing conflicts within herself and started to affect her daily life. One of the major instances where the Psychoanalytic theory helped was in explaining why she had Dissociative Disorder; this also helped explain the feeling of being estranged from her parents. Butcher
  • 78. Foundation of Psychology
    et al. (2010) indicated, “…dissociative disorders involve disruptions in certain aspects of a person’s consciousness, memory, identity, or perception” (p.288). Due to humans revolving its life around mental unconsciousness and consciousness it is important to include the Psychoanalytic theory. The use of a different module was used to understand Katherine’s action even more is when it came to the method of treatment. One instance was when she was diagnosed with major depressive disorder.
    The treatment options selected throughout Katherine’s therapy sessions were suppose to be through the model that was primarily chosen but at times the Cognitive module fit better than the Psychoanalytic treatments, for example, treating depression. This kind of treatment would help with the maladaptive thoughts that Katherine had when she was diagnosed with Major depressive disorder. Now that there is an entire analysis of her case, there should have been more Psychoanalytic methods of treatments. If there was another chance to go back there would be the use of free association and dream and analysis with the use of medicine with her major depressive disorder.
    The cultural and ethical considerations were pertinent to this case when she came in expressing her visual and auditory delusions. If those two aspects of Katherine are not taken into consideration it could lead to an incorrect diagnosis. Schizophrenia, Brief Psychotic Disorder and Delusional disorder are relevant involving cultural religion aspects. The visual and auditory hallucinations that Katherine had may be a normal part of the religious experience of the culture and group. Katherine’s religious beliefs, practices and her ethnic background also have an influence on how she views certain situations. One example that in included in her ethnic background, which is important to note, is the discrimination in the past that has affected her, over time. Due to Katherine’s ethnic group, the DSM-IV-TR note that it is at risk of overidentification of schizophrenia (along with Asian-Americans). 
  • 79. Foundation of Psychology
    Katherine’s strengths include admitting to herself that she needed helped and looking for it. This is the first step that she needed to take to help her get through her personal conflicts. Another strength that Katherine has is that with the proper help, therapy, and psychopharmacological drugs, she can overcome the problem. She also has a gob job and the people that surround her to help her get through this.
    The affects of a child being sexually abused include fears of the dark, night terrors, poor self-image, depressions, anxiety disorders, stress, trust and intimacy issues, blocking memories, multiple personalities, and signs of post-traumatic stress disorder (Bogorad, 1998). Katherine’s childhood traumatic experience of sexual abuse would bring post-traumatic stress disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders.
    One of the main psychological problems that occur as people age is that “disorders found in people of all ages but connected to the process of aging such as depression, anxiety, and substance related disorders” (Argosy Lecture Notes, 2010). Most of the aspects that the elderly face connected to the process of aging are already appearing in Katherine’s case and it might just get worse.
     
    References
    Argosy. (2010). PSY401: Maladaptive Behavior and Psychopathology: Module eight. Retrieved from www.myeclassonine.com
    Bogorad, B. E. (1998). Sexual Abuse: Surviving the pain. Retrieved fromhttp://www.aaets.org/arts/art31.htm
    Butcher, J. N., Mineka, S. & Hooley, J. M. (2010). Abnormal Psychology (14th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon
    DSM-IV-TR Casebook: A Learning Companion to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (Copyright 2002). American Psychiatric Association.
     
     
  • 80. Applied Psychology
    Running head: KNOWLEDGE OF APPLIED 1
    Knowledge of Applied Psychology
    Miriam Perry
    Argosy University
  • 81. Applied Psychology
    Knowledge of Applied Psychology
    In this section an assignment from a Social Psychology Courses encourages to demonstrate your ability to apply psychology to social problems.
    The assignment was based on these requirements:
    An environmental organization recently completes filming a pro-recycling public service announcement. They want you to join their team as a volunteer to design a test for the message's persuasive power.
    • How would you recruit participants from the public to take part in this research? 
    • 82. What methods would you use to assign the participants to either the experimental group or the control group? 
    • 83. What would the participants in the control group do? 
    • 84. What are the independent and dependent variables for the experimental group?
    • 85. How would you measure the persuasiveness of the message? 
    • 86. Would you use a self-reported survey measure or an unobtrusive behavioral measure? Explain your rationale. 
    • 87. What are the advantages and disadvantages of self-reported measures in this type of study? 
    • 88. What are the advantages and disadvantages of nonreactive behavioral measures in this type of study? In what ways could a pretest interfere with your results? 
    • 89. Why would you have stronger confidence in your results if you had 200 participants as opposed to only 10?
  • Applied Psychology
    Assignment 2: Project
    In order to recruit participant from the public to take part in this research it should involve being honest and being trustworthy communicators. Argosy Lecture Notes (2010) indicated, “The more honest the communicator appears, the more likely we are to be persuaded” (p.1). The pro-recycling public announcement should also have the viewer’s best interests. The viewer’s best interest is to maintain the earth clean and re-use what we use to better the environment. Cialdini (2007) indicated, “Frequently, people want to be accurate but don’t have the time or ability to analyze the evidence closely (p.161). In order to get to the people that do not have time to get the pro-recycling public service announcement there can be the use of good short-cuts. “This shortcut evidence can be gathered from three sources: credible communicators, others’ responses, and ready ideas” (Cialdini, 2007). The Disney Channel is a great example, they are using young celebrities to come together and promote recycling to better the future with factual evidence.
    A method that should be used to randomly assign the participant to either the experimental group or the control group can be the before-after design. The experimental group is sent a statistical letter which would educate them about the subject. The control group is not sent anything. After the letters are sent the pro-recycling service announcement should be played and test the difference. Cialdini (2007) indicated, “If the difference between the before- and the after-measure is significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group, the message was probably effective” (p. 153). The independent variable (IV) is the one that is being manipulated by the researcher and the dependent variable is just observed. For example, "There will be a statistically significant difference in graduation rates of at-risk high-school seniors who participate in an intensive study program as opposed to at-risk high-school seniors who do not participate in the intensive study program." (LaFountain & Bartos, 2002). In this case the IV is the participation in intensive study program
  • 90. Applied Psychology
    and the DV is the Graduation rates. Cialdini (2007) indicated, “Consequently, a before-measure is not necessary to establish persuasiveness, provided that a basic but powerful research procedure is used: random assignment, in which participants are placed in one or another condition of the study completely by chance” (p. 153). When random assignment is done both groups start of as equal and then the measure of persuasiveness would by collecting the measures the reactions after the IV saw or heard the pro-recycling public service announcement.
    In this study the unobtrusive behavioral (covert) measure is the best. “Under these circumstances, covert techniques are preferred because they are a more nonreactive measurement than are self-reports; that is, using them to record a response is less likely to distort the response” (Cialdini, 2007). Having a nonreactive measurement than self-reports is best at collecting this kind of data due to the fact that actions speak louder than words. If there is a self-report measure being used then people might find it insignificant and ignore the questions that report the feelings. Another negative aspect is that they may falsify their answers or pretend that they are someone else. On the other hand, self-reporting might be easier to answer certain questions with honesty due to the privacy of their own home. This can also help people analyze and gather their thoughts and feelings in paper. There are also advantages and disadvantages that are involved with the unobtrusive (covert) behavior. One of the disadvantages is that there are no interactions with the variables. The advantage of the unobtrusive behavior is that the researchers are doing the evaluation without either variable knowing it. The unobtrusive behavior also has a higher chance of getting the correct evaluation due to the actions.
  • 91. Applied Psychology
    A pretest can interfere with results because of an instrumentation threat or a testing threat. A testing threat affects how the group does in the post-test. Instrumentation threat would affect the results due to the way that the test was implemented. Mortality threat also affects if the pre-test is made. Mortality threat is when people drop out of the participation. When a test is made it involves comparing it to the entire population, therefore the more people involved gets closer it is to the actual answer.
     
    References
    Argosy. (2010). PSY310: Social Psychology: Module three. Retrieved from www.myeclassonline.com
    Cialdini, R., Kenrick, D., & Neuberg, S. (2007) Social Psychology: Goals in Interaction. McGraw Hill-Pearson.
    LaFountain, R. M., & Bartos, R. B. (2002). Research and statistics made meaningful incounseling and student affairs. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
     
  • 92. Interpersonal Effectiveness
    In this PowerPoint presentation that is presented demonstrates my ability to communicate effectively, appreciate diversity and cultural sensitivity and awareness of your impact on others.
  • 93. Why Men and Women have Different ways of Learning
    The difference between female and male brain
  • 94. Introduction
    The way humans function, think, speak and learn are directly affected by the activation of the brain. This amazing and mysterious organ provides all of these similarities and differences that are foreseen in each and every one of us. Researchers have discussed three theories:
    the theory of biology
    which involves the anatomical differences in the brain
    theory is the theory of adaptive evolution
    which involves the societies influence on the roles of gender
    theory of nature versus nurture
    which includes the biological influence and the influence of one’s personal background
  • 95. Focal Question
    What are the differences between the female and male brains and how does it effects the educational process?
  • 96. Importance
    Benefits
    To have a better understanding on the opposite gender
    Learn about the mechanical differences in each brain
    Both genders have different ways of dealing with any situation
    Better relationships (e.g. bosses, marital, and other engagements)
    Learn the best means of communication with one another
    Patients/doctors have to have an understanding that both genders should be treated differently
    Importance/benefit of studying the topic
  • 97. The first literature was on the anatomical evidence has been provided by the use of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), and PET (Positron Emission Tomography) (Lancaster, J.L., Hardies, L. J., Zamarripa F., Ingham J.C., Fox P.T., & Ingham R.J., 2004). This allows researchers to see the brain in 2 to 3 dimensions and enables them to conduct brain research on a functioning human brain. This also includes a view of what parts of the brain are activated while instructed to do a certain task.
  • 98. Anatomical evidence through MRI, fMRI and PET
    Researchers have identified (about) 100 structural differences between the two brains (King, 2006)
    At birth, the male brain is between 12-20% larger than the female brain.
    On average, the male brain weighs 1-12% more than women; this is due to the physical stature of men. Male’s larger muscle mass and larger body size requires more neurons to control them. It is a misleading fact to believe that due to the larger brain, males are smarter than females.
  • 99. Female and Male differences include:
  • 100. Female and Male differences cont.
  • 101. Literature Findings
    The theory of adaptive evolution involves an explanation of the biological differences between genders and the original differences that society has created for us to abide by (Ginger, 2003). An example of adaptive evolution is given when men adapted to hunting (Pease & Pease, 2001) over large spaces and distances (and also to struggle and war between tribes). Usually they had to silently pursue game (animals), sometimes for several days, and then find their way back to their cavern (sense of orientation). Very little verbal sharing occurred (it has been estimated that a prehistoric man met not more than 150 persons during his whole life). During the same period, the woman’s brain adapted to children’s breeding and education—which implies verbal sharing in the limited space of the cave (Baron-Cohen, 2005).
  • 102. Adaptive evolution continued …
    Adaptive evolution has created a great deal of social identities, which also influences the way women and men think (Rydell, 2009). Researchers conducted a stereotype threat, which examined closely how activating culturally shared, negative stereotypes, reduces the performance of stereotyped group members (Steele & Aronson, 1995).
  • 103. Literature Findings
    Until the late 1980s, it was both legitimate and acceptable to take seriously the role of nurture in debates about gender differences, gender-power relations and gender-specific behaviors such as childcare, subordinate working and domestic roles (Nicolson, 2002). On the other hand, research, neuroscience and genetics consider that our personality is determined by one-third heredity; chromosomes of our cells and mitochondrial DNA heredity, coming from the mother.
  • 104. Conclusion
    “The lack of understanding of gender differences has the unintended consequence of REINFORCING gender stereotypes.” (Doubleday, 2005)
    Why is this so important? Here's why. If you teach the same subjects to girls and boys in the same way, then by the age of 12 or 14, you will have girls who think "geometry is tough" and boys who believe "art and poetry are for girls." Conversely, if you understand these differences, you can break down gender stereotypes.
  • 105. Conclusion
    Harriet Hanlon and her associates at Virginia Tech had previously examined brain activity in 508 normal children -- 224 girls and 284 boys -- ranging in age from two months to 16 years. This study, the largest and most carefully executed of its type, demonstrated striking and consistent sex differences in the speed with which the brain matures. It also showed that boys’ brains develop differently than girls’ brains do. It’s not correct to say, “boys develop along the same lines as girls, only slower.” The truth is more nuanced.
  • 106. Conclusion
    These researchers found that while the areas of the brain involved in language and fine motor skills mature about six years earlier in girls than in boys, the areas of the brain involved in targeting and spatial memory mature about four years earlier in boys than in girls. These researchers concluded that the areas of the brain involved in language, in spatial memory, in motor coordina­tion, and in getting along with other people, develop in a “different order, time, and rate” in girls compared with boys. Over all in a personal opinion, the involvement of all of the three theories play an important role on who people become and why their learning process is the way it is.
  • 107. References
    Adler, R.,B., Rosenfeld, L.,B., Proctor, R.,F(2009) Interplay: The process of interpersonal
    communication. (pp 166-169) New York: Oxford University Press
    Arroyo, M., Davis,G. & Falter, C., (2006) Testosterone: Activation or organization of spatial
    Cognition? Biological Psychology, 37, 132-140
    Blumenthal, J., Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Jeffries, N. O., Liu, H., & Rapoport, J. L.
    others. (1999). Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 861-863.
     
     
     
  • 108. References
    Campbell, I. G., Darchia, N., Khaw, W. Y., Higgins, L. M., & Feinberg, I. (2005). Sleep EEG
    evidence of sex differences in adolescent brain maturation. Sleep 2005; 28(5):637-43.
    Frith, U., & Vargha-Khadem, F. (2001). Are there sex differences in the brain bases of literacy related skills? Evidence from reading and spelling impairments after early unilateral brain damage, Neuropsychologia 2001; 39(13):1485-8
    Gary, J. (1992). Men are from Mars, women are from Venus. (pp.5) New York: Harper Collins.
    Ginger, S. (2003) Female brains vs. male brains. International Journal of Psychotherapy, 9, 139- 145.
    Kelly, D.B, & Columbia U. (1986). The genesis of male and female brains. Trends in
    Neurosciences, 9, 499-502.
  • 109. References
    Kimura, D., (1987) Canadian Psychology/PsychologieCanadienne: Vol.28 (2) Are men’s and women’s brains really different? (Vol.28 (2) pp.133-147). Canada: University Western Ontario.
    Kimura, D., (1999). Sex and cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT, Press; 1999
    Neace, N. (2008) Hormones and behavior: A psychological approach. (pp.355) New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press
    PEASE, A. & PEASE, B. (2001). Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. Canada: Orion.
  • 110. My Future in Learning
    The experiences as a teenager made me have the desire to work with the students. As a teenager it was unfortunate to have a guidance counselor who was available in the time of need. I think that if I had a more available resources and counselor I would have made the most out of the decisions that I made during my high school years. Being a high school counselor will be part of a contribution for the future leaders in our society getting ready to take charge. In order to fulfill the goal in mind of being a high school counselor the requirement to take would involve finishing graduate school. This will prepare me to be the best at my job. In the meantime, after I finish my bachelor’s degree there are three different choices in positions that correlate with my future career. The first positions that will give me experience, and would go hand in hand, is a counselor aide, this will give me the proper tools that are needed in my career. It will make me a better person, it will also let me see the areas that I am struggling with and better them, and most importantly I will see the expectations that the students hold from me. The second position that would benefit my career would involve the holding a position as a residential youth counselor. Being a youth counselor carries responsibilities that help the residential group. Such responsibilities involve teaching them how to reach and maintain their goals, counseling towards resource developments, developing strong relationships with the youth, and organizing different activities that can help the youth better themselves. All of the responsibilities that a residential youth counselor would maintain will help better me to become one of the best high school counselors. The third would inquire a position as a social worker. Social workers work with the families in the community that are in need of assistance with their daily lives, illnesses, circumstantial family relationships, inadequate housing, employment, and also even to help with terminal illnesses that a person may need help coping with. Lastly, a position in human resources, human resources can give me knowledge on the requirements that are applicable for the jobs that students might be looking into. All four of these jobs will give me the opportunity to work and get experience in the proper areas in counseling, communicating, and advising. The concerns that come with my interests involve not being hired due to low positions in the area that I live in and not fitting into the top qualifiers for the job due to inexperience. Even though the level of education that is needed to qualify for these positions is having a bachelor in psychology I want to do more and I am determined to be in top of my class.
  • 111. Contact Me
    Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.
    For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below.
    perry.miriam@yahoo.com