Sandeep Arakali APUSH January 16, 2010 Imperialism
Definition of imperialism 6 dsof Imperialism Colonialism Latin america Samoa Hawaii alaska Early Imperialism
Definition of Imperialism Imperialism: the process by which one state possessing superior military strength and more advanced technology imposes its control over the land, resources, and population of a less developed region
6 Ds of Imperialism Dollars US started to produce more than it could consume; new colonial markets were needed to expand economy Businessmen upset about Panic of â93 began to invest overseas increasing total national exports from $392 million in 1870 to $1.4 billion in 1900 Defense Naval bases needed to defend national interests Pacific islands made excellent naval bases Democracy US believed political ideals should be spread to countries with unstable or oppressive governments Colonized in the name of freedom and liberty Darwinism Extended Social Darwinism to nations, saying the strongest nations should colonize and dominate weaker ones Believed in supremacy of whites over all other races Destiny Taking the concept of Manifest Destiny outside the continent Divinely ordained right of the US to annex other territories Deity Spreading Christianity to âsavagesâ Missionary work in foreign territories
Colonization Strong navy needed for colonization to protect colonies from foreign nations US needed market for goods Britain established itself as number one superpower by colonizing India and huge portions of Africa France and Russia were also gaining land United States fell behind when it came to power and world influence because of lack of colonies Navy eventually became third most powerful by 1900 Colonial divisions of each continent by European powers in 1900
Latin America In October 1889, James Blaine founded the Pan-American Union Pan-American Union was very weak and disconnected but it helped unite the stronger countries of North America to some extent America actively intervened in Latin American affairs and upheld Monroe Doctrine Almost went to war with Britain over boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana Roosevelt Corollary amended Monroe Doctrine saying that US could pay off debts of poorer Latin American countries on their behalf
Samoa Samoa became one of the first targets for American imperialists because of the strategic harbor at Pago Pago For ten years, US, Germany, and Great Britain eyed Samoa almost going to war over it In 1899, US and Germany split Samoa and gave Britain other islands in the Pacific
Hawaii American planters and missionaries first arrive in 1820 Planters establish sugar trade with China under King Kamehameha I Pearl Harbor opened in 1887 Queen Liluokalani, a powerful nationalist elected in 1891, revolted against American control Planters appeal to US government which sends Marines to peacefully overthrow the queen After Liluokalani abdicates, Republic of Hawaii is set up in 1893 and later annexed by President McKinley in 1898 A portrait of the regal Queen Liluokalani; her character was greatly admired by all including President Cleveland who called her overthrow âdespicableâ
Japanese family living on a Hawaiian sugar plantation The conditions on plantations in Hawaii were horrible. The vast labor force required planters to hire labor from China and Japan in addition to the native Hawaiians. Disease, liquor, and firearms brought by white settlers eroded the traditions of Hawaiian society along with missionaries who undermined native beliefs and replaced them with Christianity.
Alaska Secretary of State Seward convinces the Senate to purchase Alaska from Russia in 1867 for 2 cents per acre Critics ridiculed Alaska calling it Sewardâs Folly Eventually, rich deposits of gold, timber, and fish were found in Alaska sparking several gold rushes; Seward had the last laugh
China Open door policy Japan The Orient
China At the time, China was a country only by name In reality, European powers and Japan had split up China into âspheres of influenceâ Each sphere could only trade with its parent country and any crimes committed by civilians in the sphere had to be prosecuted by the parent countryâs court or appointed judge Spheres of Influence
Open Door Policy United States wanted to destroy spheres of influence and open up free trade in China Open Door Policy failed initially because it was rejected by European powers who wanted to keep their supremacy in their respective sphere US helped put down Boxer Rebellion to win the favor of the European powers Finally, Britain and Germany accepted the Open Door Policy the second time around causing the other to follow suit Subsequently, the US retained its lucrative trade with China
The Boxer Rebellion was instigated by a covert Chinese martial arts group called the Fists of Righteous Harmony. They were strongly nationalist and sought to drive out foreign influence. In 1900, they attacked foreign embassies capturing or killing diplomats. A strong coalition force led by Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States crushed the rebellion. The assistance of the US gained them favor with the European nations causing them to accept the Open Door Policy. Boxer Rebellion
Japan Japan was an isolationistcountry US wanted to trade with Japan In 1853 Commodore Matthew Perry entered Tokyo harbor with powerful battleships to intimidate the Japanese with might and coerce them to open up trade Japanese had never seen steam powered ships beforeâthey were very afraid Perry says he will return in 1 year to sign a treaty In 1854 Japan signs Treaty of Kanagawa granting US trading rights in Japan Commodore Matthew Perry meeting the Imperial Commissioners at Yokohama
Cuba Destruction of the Maine Yellow journalism âSplendid little warâ Racial tensions Puerto rico Spanish-American War
Cuban Revolution Revolts in Cuba helped spark the Spanish-American War Cuba was a colony of Spain Cuban colonists were angry at Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894 which had devastated the economy Spanish General Weyler fought against rebels in 1895 confining many to concentration camps where they were killed American press exaggerated brutality and blamed all atrocities on Spain to incite the public Hopes for peace disappeared when a Cuban revolutionary intercepted a letter from Spanish foreign minister Dupuy Lome; the letter dismissed President McKinley as a weak president Despite the fact that McKinley was actually pretty weak and that Lome resigned a few days later, Americans still wanted war
âThe Duty of the Hourâ This cartoon by Louis Dalrymple shows how American intervention is mandatory in Cuba. If the Spanish win, the mass oppression and murder continues; if the rebels win, the country will descend into a state of anarchy. In other words, Cuban civilians will go from the frying pan into the fire. Only the United States can stop Spain and secure Cuba so that it does not dissolve.
Destruction of the Maine The USS Maine was a ship docked in the harbor at Havana On Feb. 15, 1898, the Maine blew up spectacularly killing 260 Americans The American public blamed the Spanish for the explosion in retaliation for the protests against their treatment of Cubans The blowing up of the Maine was the main cause of the Spanish-American War When the US Army engaged the Spanish, their battle cry was âRemember the Maineâ It was later found that the Maine actually exploded because of an accident in the boiler room, not by a bomb or torpedo The Maine blowing up
Yellow Journalism âYellow Journalismâ referred to the sensational newspapers produced in the late 1800s. These newspapers tried to sway the American public by lavishly exaggerating stories to provide drama and controversy. Advent of color printing helped journalists create more stunning illustrations and comics. Naturally, the cheap prices and exciting stories made the papers sell very well. Pulitzer and Hearst were the biggest âyellow journalistsâ of the time. They sensationalized the Maine explosion by blaming it on Spanish saboteurs when it was really an accident. They also dramatized the atrocities in Cuba by blaming it all on the Spanish when really, the rebels had a part in it as well.
âSplendid Little Warâ The Maine incident and the continued atrocities in Cuba forced President McKinley to go to war Secretary of State John Hay called the Spanish-American war a âsplendid little warâ because it lasted only five months but resulted in huge gains for the US Despite massive inefficiency and disorganization, the American fleet crushed the Spanish fleet at San Juan, Santiago, and Manila Theodore Roosevelt led a famous charge up Kettle Hill at the Battle of San Juan which won him the Medal of Honor 460 Americans died in battle while 5200 died from disease and bad food Roosevelt, who was a strong imperialist, ordered General Dewey to invade the Philippines and capture it for the Americans Cuban rebels had severely weakened the Spanish so it was easy for American troops to crush them The war officially ended in December with the Treaty of Paris; Spain ceded Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the US A famous painting of Colonel Roosevelt leading the Rough Riders cavalry unit up Kettle Hill
Racial Tensions African-Americans were determined to prove their loyalty by fighting the Spanish They were unaccustomed to the rigid segregation in Florida causing riots In Cuba itself, whites took credit for heroic black regiments on the battlefront Blacks were fully integrated into the Cuban rebel army causing American blacks to realize the injustice being done to them
philippines Debate over Philippines Philippine war Puerto rico Cuba Postwar Period
Philippines Imperialists and Anti-Imperialists were split over whether to annex the Philippines The US paid $20 million to Spain in order to add the Philippines to the ceded territories in the Treaty of Paris Election of 1900 saw McKinley win over Bryan again Bryan was a fervent anti-imperialist, but since he lost, McKinley decided to go ahead and annex the Philippines
Annexation Returning Philippines to Spain Imperialists such as Roosevelt believed colonies reinvigorate nations Very easy to annex because military was already positioned on the island US could dominate Oriental trade with a base in the Philippines Spread Christianity to natives US was the only power that did not possess colonies Returning the islands to Spain would be âcowardly and dishonorableâ Granting Filipinos independence would be irresponsible because the natives were unfit to govern themselves Believed imperialism was immoral Fear of introducing âinferiorâ Asian foreigners to America Fear that outsourcing would steal jobs from American workers Sugar growers feared unwelcome competition Large standing army and aggressive foreign policy required to hold Philippines might undermine democracy Powerful magnates such as Carnegie opposed annexation Debate Over Philippines
Philippine War The conflict was one of the least remembered American wars Filipinos accused America of hypocrisy and revolted under the strong leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo Brutal guerilla warfare and massacres by both sides left 220,000 Filipinos and 4300 American Marines dead Soldiers often killed unarmed POVs en masse and stormed villages killing men, women, and children Fighting ended four years later in 1901 with the capture of Aguinaldo who peacefully surrendered and retired Philippines became stable and increasingly autonomous until their independence granted by the US in 1946
Puerto Rico Annexed by Spain in 1521 Diseases soon killed off most of the natives; the rest became slaves to coffee and sugar planters Lares Rebellion of 1868 was the first revolt but it was crushed After war, US made Puerto Rico a commonwealth with American governor and bicameral legislature with Foraker Act of 1900 Jones Act of 1917 made all Puerto Ricans citizens To this day, Puerto Ricans are split on whether to accept statehood or fight for independence
Cuba Cuba was the hardest colony to govern Constant revolts against âYankee imperialismâ required a standing army Platt Amendment passed by Congress in 1901 attempted to force more restrictions on Cuba by banning it from making treaties and giving the US permission to build a naval base at Guantanamo However, after a few years, Cuba stabilized and became an extremely prosperous and wealthy territory until the Revolution of 1958
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