References. American Society for Quality, 2004. Jim Biolos, Six Sigma Meets the Service Economy, Boston: Harvard Business School, 2002. David Garvin, and Artemis March. A Note on Quality: The Views of Deming, Juran, and Crosby. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1981.
References. Fredrick Reichheld, and W. Earl Sasser Jr., “Zero Deflections: Quality Comes to Services,” Harvard Business Review (September– October 1990). Otis Wolkins. Total Quality: A Framework for Leadership. Management Leadership Series. New York: Productivity Press, 1995.
References. Bruce E. Winston, Total Quality Management, a heartfelt approach to doing things right, 1997 Edition, With revisions in 1999. John S. Oakland, PhD, CChem, Professor of Business Excellence and Quality Management, Leeds University Business School, Executive Chairman, Oakland Consulting .
Introduction. For more than two decades “quality” and “quality management systems (QMS)” have been leading buzzwords in the business world. Numerous consultants have built their careers around these topics. Quality issues in business have been responsible for the development of new organizations and even industries. For instance, the American Society for Quality (ASQ) and Six Sigma consulting (6-σ).
Introduction. The notion of quality in business focuses on the savings and additional revenue that organizations can realize if they eliminate errors throughout their operations and produce products and services at the optimal level of quality desired by their customers. Errors can take almost any form, for example, producing the wrong number of parts, sending bank statements to customers who have already closed their accounts or sending an incorrect bill to a client.
In general, Quality is to reach (or exceed) the optimal leveldesired by the CUSTOMERS.
Introduction. All of these errors are very common, and the costs incurred seem minimal. But over time when errors (mistakes) are repeated the costs add up to a significant amount, so eliminating errors can result in significant increases to the bottom line of a business. Errors (mistakes) increase costs, then decrease revenue (profit).
What is Quality ? According to the American Society for Quality, “Quality” can be defined in the following ways: Based on customer’s perceptions of a product / service’s design and how well the design matches the original specifications. The ability of a product / service to satisfy stated or implied Customers’ needs. Achieved by conforming to established requirements within an organization.
Quality is the Ability of a product / service to satisfy (orexceeds) the Customers’ needs.
Quality Management System (QMS). A quality management system is a management technique used: To communicate to employees what is required to produce the desired quality of products / services. To influence employees actions to complete tasks according to the quality specifications.
(QMS) is a Management Technique used toCommunicate & Influence actions.
What Are The Purposes Quality Management System ?What Purpose Does a QualityManagement System Serve?
Purposes of Quality Management System. Establishes a Vision & a Mission for the Organization. Establishes a Vision & a Mission for the employees. Sets standards for employees. Sets goals for employees.
Purposes of Quality Management System. Helps Eliminating Errors. Builds motivation within the company. Helps fight the resistance to change within organizations. Helps direct the corporate culture.
Why is Quality Important ? Any Business success may simply be the extent to which your organization can produce a higher-quality product / service than your competitors are able to do at a competitive price. This means that, Quality is the main competitive edge, even versus low prices.
Why is Quality Important ? When quality is the key to a company’s success, quality management systems (QMS) allows organizations to: Keep the organization up with and meet the current quality levels (Standards). Meet the Customers’ (Consumers’) requirement for quality (Satisfy Needs). Keep employees up with the latest technology (Updating). Retain employees through competitive compensation programs & Attract others.
History of The Quality Movement. As early as the 1950s, Japanese companies began to see the benefits of emphasizing quality throughout their organizations and enlisted the help of an American. Dr. W. Edwards Deming, who is credited with giving Japanese companies a massive head start in the quality movement. His methods include Statistical Process Control (SPC) and Problem-Solving Techniques (PST).
History of The Quality Movement. (SPC) & (PST) were very effective in gaining the necessary momentum to change the mentality of organizations needing to produce high quality products and services. Deming developed his (14 points) to communicate to managers how to increase quality within an organization.
History of The Quality Movement. Deming believed that (85 percent) of all quality problems were the fault of management. In order to improve, management had to take the lead and put in place the necessary resources and systems. For example, consistent quality in incoming materials could not be expected when purchasers (buyers) were not given the necessary tools to understand quality requirements of those products and services.
History of The Quality Movement. Purchasers (buyers) needed to fully understand how to assess the quality of all incoming products and services, understand the quality requirements, as well as be able to communicate these requirements to vendors. In a well managed quality system, purchasers (buyers) should also be allowed to work closely with vendors and help them meet or exceed the required quality requirements.
History of The Quality Movement. According to Deming, there were two different concepts of improvement process that quality systems needed to address: 1- Common (systematic) causes of errors. 2- Special (individual) causes of errors.
History of The Quality Movement.1- Systematic causes are shared by numerous personnel, machines, or products. Systematic causes of error include:- Poor product / service design- Materials are not suited for their use.- Improper bills of lading.- Poor physical conditions.
History of The Quality Movement.2- Special causes are associated with an individual employees or equipment. Special causes of error include:- lack of skills- Lack of training.- Poor lot of incoming materials.- An equipment out of order.
- Edwards Deming.- Common Causes of Errors.- Special Causes of Errors.
History of The Quality Movement. Another influential individual in the development of quality control was Joseph M. Juran, who, like Deming, was working in Japanese organizations focusing on improving quality. Juran also established the Juran Institute in 1979; its goals and objectives were centered on helping organizations improve the quality of their products and services.
History of The Quality Movement. Juran defined quality as “fitness for use” meaning that the users of products or services should be able to rely on that product or service with (100 percent) all the time without any worry of defects. If this was true, the product could be classified as fit for use (Qualified).
History of The Quality Movement. Quality of design could be described as what distinguishes a Yugo from a Mercedes-Benz and involves the design concept and specifications. The quality of a product or service is only as good as its design and specifications (intention).
History of The Quality Movement. Thus, it is important to include quality issues in the design process, as well as to have in mind during the design phase … The difficulties one might have in replicating the product or service with the intended quality level.
History of The Quality Movement. Quality of conformance is reflected in the ability to replicate each aspect of a product or service with the same quality level as that intended in the design. This responsibility is held by individuals to develop the processes for replication, the workforce and their training, supervision, and adherence to test programs.
History of The Quality Movement. Availabilityrefers to freedom from disruptive problems throughout the process and is measured by the frequency or probability of defects. For example, if a process does not have a steady flow of electricity and this causes defective parts, or when an employee must complete two jobs at once and is therefore forced to make concessions on the quality of both products or services.
History of The Quality Movement. Safety is described by Juran as calculating the risk of injury due to product hazards. For example, even if the product or service meets or exceeds all quality standards and expectations, but there is a possibility that if it is not used properly it could injure someone, the product will not be considered high-quality. For example auto switched-off heater.
History of The Quality Movement. Field Service use refers to the ability of the product to reach the end user (consumer) with the desired level of quality. This involves packaging, transportation, storage and field service competence, and promptness.
History of The Quality Movement. Juran also developed a comprehensive approach to quality that spanned a product or service’s entire life cycle. From design to customer relations and all the steps in between.
History of The Quality Movement. Juran preached that an organization should dissect all processes and procedures from a quality perspective and analyze for a “fitness for use.” Once this is completed, the organization can begin to make changes based on the “fitness for use” model.
- Joseph M. Juran. - Fitness for use.- Design & Specifications. - Ability to Replicate.- Availability. - Safety.-Field Service. - Fitness for use Model.
The Rationale Behind TQM. Why TQM ? Ithas become a question of survival in the intense competitive environment. Increasing customer consciousness all over the world.
The Rationale Behind TQM. Why TQM ? The Need for earning profit instead of making profit. Crucial role played by organizational issues, such as leadership, human resource, revolution in IT, etc. ,in quality management.
Definition. Definitions: Total = Made up of the whole. Quality = Degree of excellence of provided product or service. Management = The act, the art, or the manner of handling, controlling, directing, counseling, etc.
Difinition. Definition of TQM: SoThat, Total Quality Management is the art of managing the whole process to achieve excellence.
Difinition. Other Definitions: “TQM is the management approach of an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long- term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society”
TQM.Managing the entire organization so that it excels in all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer. 1- Philosophical 3- Tools of the 2- Generic tools. element. department.
Seven Tools of Quality (Q-7).Professor Ishikawa proposed seven elemental (Q-7) tools based on statistical techniques.The seven basic tools are used to facilitate successful accomplishment of quality improvement objectives.
Seven Tools of Quality (Q-7). The Seven tools of Quality are:1- Check sheets.2- Histograms.3- Cause and Effect diagrams.4- Pareto diagrams.5- Stratification analysis.6- Scatter diagrams.7- Control charts.
1- Chick Sheets.A check-Sheet may be constructed using the following steps:1- Formulate the objective for collecting data.2- Decide which data is necessary.3- Determine who and how data will be analyzed.4- Draw a format to record data.
1- Chick Sheets.A check-Sheet may be constructed using the following steps:5- Collect and record data problem-wise by putting tally lines.6- Start counting by tallying on the list; |,||,|||, |||| and |||| represent the numbers 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively.7- Mark on the list the total number of facts which were noticed.
2- Histograms. Definition: Histogram is a bar chart / diagram showing a distribution of variable quantities or characteristics. It is a graphical display of the frequency distribution of the numerical data.
2- Histograms. Histogram is a bar chart / diagram showing a distribution of variable quantities or characteristics. It is a graphical display of the frequency distribution of the numerical data. The data are displayed as a series of rectangles of equal width and varying heights.
2- Histogram. Applications & Uses: is used to show clearly where the most frequently occurring values are located and the data is distributed. It enables the analyst to quickly visualize the features of a complete set of data.
Application of Histogram. Uses of Histogram: is used to show clearly where the most frequently occurring values are located and the data is distributed. It enables the analyst to quickly visualize the features of a complete set of data.
2- Histogram. A Histogram may be constructed using the following steps:1- After the data collection, count the number of data values collected.2- Determine the range of data.3- Range = Highest value - Lowest value.4- Divide the data values in groups or classes and count the number of values in each class.
2- Histogram. A Histogram may be constructed using the following steps:5- Width of the class = Range/Number of classes selected.6- Draw a frequency table for all values.7- Construct a histogram based on the frequency table. For that, mark the class limits on the horizontal axis and the frequency on the vertical axis.8- Finally write the title and number of values on the diagram.
3- Cause and Effect Diagram. Definition: Is a graphical-tabular chart to list and analyze the potential causes of a given problem.
3- Cause and Effect Diagram. Note That: The cause and effect diagram is also called the fishbone diagram because of its appearance and the Ishikawa diagram after the man who developed it in 1943.
3- Cause and Effect Diagram. The Basic Structure (Fishbone): WORK PEOPLE MATERIAL METHODS QUALITY CHARACTE RISTIC ENVIRONMENT MEASUREME EQUIPMENT NT
3- Cause and Effect Diagram. Application: The CE diagram has unlimited applications in research, manufacturing , marketing, office operations, services and so forth.
3- Cause and Effect Diagram. Uses of the CE diagrams:1- To analyze cause and effect relationships.2- To facilitate the search for the solutions of related problems.3- To standardize existing and proposed operations.4- To educate and train personnel in decision-making and corrective actions activity.
3- Cause and Effect Diagram. The CE diagrams are used:1- To analyze cause and effect relationships.2- To facilitate the search for the solutions of related problems.3- To standardize existing and proposed operations.4- To educate and train personnel in decision-making and corrective actions activity.