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State Estimation - A presentation at Grid Analytics Europe 2013

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A joint presentation with Scottish and Southern Power Distribution considering Distribution State Estimation, using the Orkney Smart Grid as a case study.

A joint presentation with Scottish and Southern Power Distribution considering Distribution State Estimation, using the Orkney Smart Grid as a case study.

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  • 1. State Estimation A Joint Presentation at Grid Analytics Europe 2013 London, 24 October 2013 David MacLeman Distribution R&D Manager SSEPD Euan Davidson Senior Engineer Smarter Grid Solutions © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 2. Grid Analytics: State Estimation David MacLeman Distribution R&D Manager
  • 3. Overview • • • • • SSE and SSEPD The Grid Analytics Challenge The Orkney Smart Grid Distribution State Estimation on Orkney Bringing Advanced Analytical Functions into the Business • Lessons Learned
  • 4. SSE • • • • • 30th largest company in the FTSE 100* £13.8 Bn market capitalisation Around 19,500 employees Delivered a real dividend increase every year since 1999 UK’s broadest-based energy company • Electricity generation, transmission, distribution, supply and services • Gas production, storage, distribution, supply and services • Telecoms networks and data storage • Ireland’s fastest-growing energy company • Electricity generation • Electricity and gas supply • Street lighting maintenance * As at 11 January 2013
  • 5. SSEPD • We own • one electricity transmission • two electricity distribution networks • 106,000 substations • 130,000 km of overhead lines and underground cables • 100+ submarine cable links • Across one third of the UK landmass. • Serving 3.5Million Customers 5
  • 6. The Orkney Smart Grid Gallowhill NNFG 1.8 MW 19 Westray Westray Load 1 MW 37 Spurness II NNFG 2.5 MW Eday FG 4 MW Eday Load 1 MW Rousay Sigurd FG 3 1.5 MW Thorfinn FG 4.2 MW 16 Burgar Hill Load 8 MW 24 4 Rousay Load 1 MW Stronmness Load 2x8 MW 32 Eday Zone 2b 23 1 Bu Farm FG 2.7 MW Stronsay Stronsay Load 1 MW Dounby NNFG 0.9 MW Hammars Hill NNFG 4.5 MW 17 36 Stronsay NNFG 0.9 MW Zone 2a Shapinsay Zone 1 33 18 Shapinsay Load 1 MW Zone 2 Mainland 10 Sanday Spurness FG 7.5 MW Sanday Load 1 MW Zone 1a 15 Billia Croo FG 7 MW 9 25 Eday Wind NNFG 0.9 MW Rousay NNFG 0.9 MW Burgar Hill Ren. NNFG 13 2.3 MW Burgar Hill Wind FG 8 5 MW 12 31 14 7 Shapinsay NNFG 0.9 MW . Hatston 21 NNFG 0.9 MW Kirkwall Load 28 Kirkwall 2x24MW MW 6 FG 15 MW 35 Core 22 Zone 4 Thorkell NNFG 0.9 MW Scorradale Traditional Reverse Power Power flow Flow St Mary Load 4 MW Zone 3 North Hoy Load 0.1 MW 34 30 2 Hoy Lyness Load 1 MW Westfield FG 2 MW Flotta Load 26 8 MW 29 20 Ore NNFG 0.9 MW 11 27 Flotta Elf Load 12.5 MW Northfield FG 1 MW Burray Flotta 5 Flotta FG 10.5 MW South Ronaldsay National Grid © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 7. The Orkney Smart Grid Challenge SSEPD seeking cost-effective alternative to grid upgrades to provide connections for new renewable generators: network already at ‘full capacity’ Approach Non-firm actively managed grid connections for distributed generation Delivered Benefits • 12 Generators and 6 constraint locations deployed to date – more to follow: o Demand 6-31 MW o Additional 26 MW of generation contracted to connect (14 MW connected already)   Connected >20 MW new renewable generation capacity to 33 kV grid previously considered to be full Estimated savings of £30million for SSEPD © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 8. The Orkney Smart Grid © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 9. © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 10. New Technology A New Type of Distribution Network New Operational Challenges and Opportunities? © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 11. An increased requirement for visibility: - For the control room - For the Active Network Management system - For supporting system planning © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 12. Prerequisites for Distribution State Estimation 1. Measurements + 2. Knowledge of the accuracy of those measurements 3. A model of the network 4. Pseudo-measurements 5. Knowledge of the accuracy of those pseudo measurements © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 13. Distribution State Estimation Two Families of Techniques: 1) WLS-style State Estimators with Pseudo-measurements 2) Load Estimators © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 14. Requirements-driven Distribution State Estimation Future Future Known branch and bus state variables before state estimation Known branch and bus state variables before state estimation Observability Analysis Future Future Known branch and bus state variables after state estimation Known branch and bus state variables after state estimation Future Future Island 3 Distribution State Estimation Future Future Cleave network into Observable Islands: Areas of the network where a state estimate can be calculated. Island 4 Future Future Island 2 Island 2 Island 1 Bad Data Detection and Removal Island 1 Future Future Error Estimation Island 5 Island 3 Future Future Future Future © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 15. Requirements-driven Distribution State Estimation Observability Analysis Distribution State Estimation Calculate State Estimate using advanced numerical methods Bad Data Detection and Removal Error Estimation © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 16. Requirements-driven Distribution State Estimation Observability Analysis Distribution State Estimation Bad Data Detection and Removal Detect bad data and remove from the scope Error Estimation © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 17. Requirements-driven Distribution State Estimation Observability Analysis Distribution State Estimation Bad Data Detection and Removal Error Estimation Use optimisation methods to calculate the upper and lower bounds of each estimated parameter 70 bus network involves solving 140 LPs © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 18. Error Estimation Error accumulates down 11kV feeders Tightening of Bounds were there are multiple measurements at 33kV © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 19. Other Challenges: Integration with other systems Embedding knowledge within the business © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 20. “The data itself is not enough” © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.
  • 21. Lessons Learned • Distribution State Estimation can increase network visibility on Orkney • Systems integration is challenging (but not insurmountable) • A key area of development are the analytical methods themselves • These methods are domain specific –power systems data presents challenges that need domain specific solutions. • How to you make best use of the additional data? • Essential to engage all stakeholders in the business to understand both the positive impact of Grid Analytics and the change in working practices and corporate knowledge required to bring that into the business.
  • 22. www.smartergridsolutions.com © 2013: Smarter Grid Solutions Ltd. (SC344695). All rights reserved.