Covalent Bonding 6.1 0 0.5 2.1 >3.3 + - + -
Covalent Bonding <ul><li>Different from ionic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic is transferring electrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Hydrogen gas  <ul><li>Example of sharing, but what happens? </li></ul>r e p u l s i o n s attractions They SHARE the e-, c...
The distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy is known as bond length. -436 kJ/mol 0.074 nm 0 En...
Bond Energy <ul><li>H 2  gives off 436 kJ of energy when the bond is broken. </li></ul><ul><li>H 2  needs 436 kJ of energy...
Electronegativity and bonding <ul><li>Electronegativity: The ability of an atom to attract e - . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thi...
3 types of bonds Nonpolar covalent polar covalent ionic Electronegativity differences  +  - + - 0 0.5 2.1 >3.3
Determine the type of bond. <ul><li>NO 2  ……………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>CaCl 2  …………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>CF 4  ……………...
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6.1 Covalent Bonding

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6.1 Covalent Bonding

  1. 1. Covalent Bonding 6.1 0 0.5 2.1 >3.3 + - + -
  2. 2. Covalent Bonding <ul><li>Different from ionic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic is transferring electrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalent is SHARING ELECTRONS. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Hydrogen gas <ul><li>Example of sharing, but what happens? </li></ul>r e p u l s i o n s attractions They SHARE the e-, creating a molecular orbital. + - + -
  4. 4. The distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy is known as bond length. -436 kJ/mol 0.074 nm 0 Energy (kJ/mol) Internuclear distance(nm)
  5. 5. Bond Energy <ul><li>H 2 gives off 436 kJ of energy when the bond is broken. </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 needs 436 kJ of energy to make they bond between them. </li></ul><ul><li>This is bond energy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every bond is different, see chart p. 193 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Electronegativity and bonding <ul><li>Electronegativity: The ability of an atom to attract e - . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This causes some atoms to “share” electrons unequally. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How is this determined? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find the difference (subtract) in electronegativity. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 3 types of bonds Nonpolar covalent polar covalent ionic Electronegativity differences  +  - + - 0 0.5 2.1 >3.3
  8. 8. Determine the type of bond. <ul><li>NO 2 ……………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>CaCl 2 …………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>CF 4 ……………………………… </li></ul><ul><li>3.4 - 3.0 </li></ul><ul><li>= 0.40 </li></ul><ul><li>= Nonpolar covalent </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 - 1.0 </li></ul><ul><li>= 2.2 </li></ul><ul><li>= Ionic </li></ul><ul><li>4.0 - 2.6 </li></ul><ul><li>= 1.4 </li></ul><ul><li>= Polar covalent </li></ul>

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