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5.1 b groups oxidation states

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5.1 b groups oxidation states 5.1 b groups oxidation states Presentation Transcript

  • Transition Metals & Ionic Charge Group B elements Courtesy of: Mr. Boroski
  • Representatives
    • We have talked about the Representative elements…
    • Groups 1A through 8A
    • And ion formation
    Ion charge Group number valence number # of e- lost or gained
  • Transition elements
    • Found in the middle of the table
    • Known as the B group elements
    • Are called transition because they can change their charges!
    • How do they become charged?
    • By losing electrons.
  • Examples
    • Iron
    • Fe 2+
    • Fe 3+
    • Tungsten
    • W 2+
    • W 3+
    • W 4+
    • W 5+
    • W 6+
    • W 7+
  • How do we predict???
    • Cannot use group number!
    • Must see how it reacts with other elements.
    • Need to see its Oxidation state (+ or -).
  • Oxidation state
    • Represents the charge of an atom in a compound at a given time.
      • It is similar to the charge on the atom.
    • To figure, need to know the oxidation state rules…
  • OXIDATION RULES
    • Oxidation state of an element (in its pure form) is 0.
    • Oxidation state for representatives is their ionic charge most of the time.
    • Oxygen is always –2 unless in a peroxide, then it is –1.
    • H with nonmetals(covalent compounds) is given +1 oxidation state. Usually in the front of the formula.
    • The sum of oxidation numbers must be 0 for compounds and whatever the charge of the ionic species is.
  • To use rules:
    • You need to be able to do two things:
      • An atom inventory
      • Add and multiply whole numbers that are positive and negative.
  • Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present.
    • CO 2
    C O 1 2 x x = = 0 -2 -4 +4 +4 Total charge of compound # of atoms times Oxidation state Total charge per element Element symbol equals
  • Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present.
    • CuCl 2
    Cu Cl 1 2 x x = = 0 -1 -2 +2 +2
  • Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present.
    • H 2 SO 4
    H S 2 1 x x = = 0 +6 +6 +2 +1 O 4 x = -2 -8
  • Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present.
    • NO 3 1-
    N O 1 3 x x = = -1 -2 -6 +5 +5
  • Homework: Oxidation numbers problems.
    • DIRECTIONS: find the oxidation numbers of ALL elements in the compounds.
    1. CuCl 6. ZnBr 2 2. CuI 2 7. PbNO 3 3. Fe 2 O 3 8. Mg 3 N 2 4. Ag 3 N 9. KCl 5. KMnO 4 10. CrO 4 -2