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5.1 b groups oxidation states

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    5.1 b groups oxidation states 5.1 b groups oxidation states Presentation Transcript

    • Transition Metals & Ionic Charge Group B elements Courtesy of: Mr. Boroski
    • Representatives
      • We have talked about the Representative elements…
      • Groups 1A through 8A
      • And ion formation
      Ion charge Group number valence number # of e- lost or gained
    • Transition elements
      • Found in the middle of the table
      • Known as the B group elements
      • Are called transition because they can change their charges!
      • How do they become charged?
      • By losing electrons.
    • Examples
      • Iron
      • Fe 2+
      • Fe 3+
      • Tungsten
      • W 2+
      • W 3+
      • W 4+
      • W 5+
      • W 6+
      • W 7+
    • How do we predict???
      • Cannot use group number!
      • Must see how it reacts with other elements.
      • Need to see its Oxidation state (+ or -).
    • Oxidation state
      • Represents the charge of an atom in a compound at a given time.
        • It is similar to the charge on the atom.
      • To figure, need to know the oxidation state rules…
    • OXIDATION RULES
      • Oxidation state of an element (in its pure form) is 0.
      • Oxidation state for representatives is their ionic charge most of the time.
      • Oxygen is always –2 unless in a peroxide, then it is –1.
      • H with nonmetals(covalent compounds) is given +1 oxidation state. Usually in the front of the formula.
      • The sum of oxidation numbers must be 0 for compounds and whatever the charge of the ionic species is.
    • To use rules:
      • You need to be able to do two things:
        • An atom inventory
        • Add and multiply whole numbers that are positive and negative.
    • Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present.
      • CO 2
      C O 1 2 x x = = 0 -2 -4 +4 +4 Total charge of compound # of atoms times Oxidation state Total charge per element Element symbol equals
    • Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present.
      • CuCl 2
      Cu Cl 1 2 x x = = 0 -1 -2 +2 +2
    • Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present.
      • H 2 SO 4
      H S 2 1 x x = = 0 +6 +6 +2 +1 O 4 x = -2 -8
    • Examples: Find oxidation states for all elements present.
      • NO 3 1-
      N O 1 3 x x = = -1 -2 -6 +5 +5
    • Homework: Oxidation numbers problems.
      • DIRECTIONS: find the oxidation numbers of ALL elements in the compounds.
      1. CuCl 6. ZnBr 2 2. CuI 2 7. PbNO 3 3. Fe 2 O 3 8. Mg 3 N 2 4. Ag 3 N 9. KCl 5. KMnO 4 10. CrO 4 -2