3.3 electron configuration

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  • 1. Electron Configuration 3.3
  • 2. Models • 1st model of the atom – Rutherford “plum pudding” • Next model – Bohr, 2 years later – Introduced the idea of energy levels • The difference between 2 energy levels is a quantum of energy.
  • 3. Present Model • Orbitals are like clouds. – Show areas where electrons are likely to be found. • Like the propellers on an airplane or helicopter.
  • 4. Light is a Wave… • Light travels in waves. • 2.998 x 108 m/s • ROYGBIV • Different colors have different energies. – Blue end is more energetic than the red end of the spectrum.
  • 5. Light is a particle? • Einstein said light is a particle. – Observed the photoelectric effect. • When light strikes metal, electrons are released. – This only happens at certain frequencies.
  • 6. Light Emission • When energy is absorbed, electrons move from a low to a higher energy level. BUT • They cannot maintain the higher state and fall back. – When this happens they release the energy they absorbed. • Produces light.
  • 7. State • Ground State – State of lowest possible energy – Where e- normally are • Excited State – Where e- moves when energy is absorbed – Can’t stay…Emit light & fall back to ground state
  • 8. Energy Levels • s – Can contain only 2 e- • p – Can contain 6 e- • d – Can contain 10 e- • f – Can contain 14 e-
  • 9. Aufbau Principle • The aufbau (German for “building up”) principle tells us the order to follow when writing energy levels and the e- they contain. • The next slide is extremely important.
  • 10. Aufbau Principle 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d10 5f14 6s2 6p6 6d10 6f14 7s2 7p6 7d10 7f14
  • 11. Practice Write electron orbital configurations for the elements below: 5 e- 27 e- 18 e- 19 e- 23 e-
  • 12. Answers B 1s22s22p1 Co 1s 22s22p63s23p64s23d7 Ar 1s22s22p63s23p6 K 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 V 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d3
  • 13. Electrons & the Periodic Table • The periodic table is arranged by increasing atomic number (# of p+). • Each element is 1 proton and electron higher than the one before it. • It is an acceptable shortcut to write the electron configuration for larger elements by noting the symbol of the noble gas on the previous line before it followed by the remaining orbitals. • ???
  • 14. Examples • Oxygen 1s22s22p4 can be written as [He] 2s22p4 • Br 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5 can be written as [Ar] 4s23d104p5
  • 15. Homework Page 99 1,2,4,5,6,7
  • 16. 1s2 2s 2 2p6 3s 2 3p 6 3d10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 4f14 5s 2 5p 6 5d 10 5f 14 6s 2 6p 6 6d 10 6f 14 7s 2 7p 6 7d 10 7f 14