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3.2 structure of atoms
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3.2 structure of atoms

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    3.2 structure of atoms 3.2 structure of atoms Presentation Transcript

    • Structure of Atoms 3.2
    • Who discovered what?
      • Thompson discovered electrons by using cathode ray tubes.
      • Rutherford discovered the nucleus . He also reasoned that it was positively charged. Gold foil experiments.
      • Chadwick discovered that a beam was not deflected in a magnetic field. The particles in the beam were named neutrons .
      • Read pages 79-82
    • Subatomic Particles
      • Proton +
        • 1.673 x 10 -27 kg.
      • Neutron : no charge.
        • 1.675 x 10 -27 kg.
      • Electron –
        • 9.109 x 10 -31 kg
    • The AMU
      • AMU stands for Atomic Mass Unit.
        • Because the subatomic particles are so small the AMU was created to describe them.
      • Proton = 1 AMU
      • Neutron = 1 AMU
      • Electron = 0 AMU
    • Atomic # & Atomic Mass
      • The atomic # of an element is the same as the number of protons in one atom of that element.
      • The atomic mass of an element is the number of protons + the number of neutrons in one atom of that element.
    • The Periodic Table
      • Symbols on the periodic table hold a lot of information.
      • Protons
      • Electrons
      • Mass
      • Element symbol
      • Neutrons?
      O 8 15.9994 2s 2 2p 4
    • C 6 12.011 S 16 32.066 Zn 30 65.39 H 1 1.007 Si 14 28.085 Li 3 6.941
    • Atomic Structure and Symbols
      • It is common notation to write an element’s atomic number and mass number next to their symbol.
      Br 80 35
    • Isotopes
      • Some atoms of the same element have different numbers of neutrons. They are called isotopes.
      • Example:
      • Both helium because they both have 2 protons.
      He He 4 3 2 2
    • Isotopes
      • Elements and isotopes may also be written with the mass number followed by the name of the element.
      • Examples:
      • Oxygen-16 = normal oxygen, 8 protons, 8 neutrons.
      • Oxygen-17= isotope of oxygen, 8 protons, 9 neutrons