- When ionic compounds dissolve in water they:
- Break down into single molecules.
Na Cl water Na Cl + - this is called dissociation
- Break down into their ions.
- This occurs because ions have charged particles.
- Water is polar because it has a positive and a negative side.
- Some substances are nonpolar.
LIKES DISSOLVE LIKES POLAR DISSOLVES IN POLAR NONPOLAR DISSOLVES IN NONPOLAR
- How much of a substance will dissolve in a given amount of water.
- SOLUBLE: substance will dissolve .
- INSOLUBLE: substance will not dissolve.
States of Solubility
- Unsaturated: When a solvent holds less solute than it normally could at a given temperature.
- Saturated: When a solvent holds as much solute as it normally could at a given temperature.
- Supersaturated: When a solvent is holding more solute than it would at a given temperature.
SOLIDS VS. GASES
- solubility increases as temp. increases
- solubility decreases as temp. decreases
- solubility increases as temp. decreases
- solubility decreases as temp. increases
Reading a Solubility Curve: Above line = supersaturated On the line = saturated Below the line = unsaturated
KCl To make a saturated solution of KCl at 60ºC, how much would I add to 100 ml of water? 46g
KNO 3 At what temperature will 80g of KNO 3 dissolve in 100ml of water to make a saturated solution? 48ºC
NH 4 Cl What kind of a solution would 75g of NH 4 Cl dissolved in 100 ml of water at 55ºC be? Point falls above the line supersaturated