Putting it all together… Chapter 12 section 3 Slides 1-5 = Ideal Gas Law
Ideal Gas Law Relates 4 Gas Variables   <ul><li>PV  =  nRT </li></ul><ul><li>The value for R  depends on the units used fo...
R <ul><li>For problems that use units of  kilopascals  and  liters  when using the ideal gas law, the value you will use f...
Ideal Gas Law Sample Problem How many moles of gas are contained in 22.41 liters at 101.325 kPa and 0°C?
1.00 mol Ideal Gas Law Sample Problem Solution V  = 22.41 L   T  = 0°C P  = 101.325 kPa n  = ? 0°C + 273 = 273 K PV = nRT
Diffusion <ul><li>Gaseous molecules travel at high speeds in all directions and mix quickly with molecules of gases in the...
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure <ul><li>In 1805, John Dalton showed that in a mixture of gases, each gas exerts a certain...
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure <ul><li>Dalton’s law of partial pressure can be written as follows. </li></ul><ul><li>P t...
Gas Volumes Correspond to Mole Ratios <ul><li>Ratios of gas volumes  will be the same  as mole ratios of gases in balanced...
Gas Volumes Correspond to Mole Ratios <ul><li>For example, consider the following equation for the production of ammonia. ...
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12.3

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Transcript of "12.3"

  1. 1. Putting it all together… Chapter 12 section 3 Slides 1-5 = Ideal Gas Law
  2. 2. Ideal Gas Law Relates 4 Gas Variables <ul><li>PV = nRT </li></ul><ul><li>The value for R depends on the units used for pressure and volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume must be in liters </li></ul>
  3. 3. R <ul><li>For problems that use units of kilopascals and liters when using the ideal gas law, the value you will use for R is as follows. </li></ul><ul><li>If the pressure is expressed in atmospheres , then the value of R is 0.08206 (L•atm)/(mol•K) . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ideal Gas Law Sample Problem How many moles of gas are contained in 22.41 liters at 101.325 kPa and 0°C?
  5. 5. 1.00 mol Ideal Gas Law Sample Problem Solution V = 22.41 L T = 0°C P = 101.325 kPa n = ? 0°C + 273 = 273 K PV = nRT
  6. 6. Diffusion <ul><li>Gaseous molecules travel at high speeds in all directions and mix quickly with molecules of gases in the air in a process called diffusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion is the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density. </li></ul><ul><li>During diffusion, a substance moves from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration . </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, the mixture becomes homogeneous. </li></ul><ul><li>Large molecules diffuse slower than small molecules. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure <ul><li>In 1805, John Dalton showed that in a mixture of gases, each gas exerts a certain pressure as if it were alone with no other gases mixed with it. </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure of each gas in a mixture is called the partial pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases. This principle is known as Dalton’s law of partial pressure. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure <ul><li>Dalton’s law of partial pressure can be written as follows. </li></ul><ul><li>P total = P A + P B + P C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P total is the total pressure, and P A , P B , and P C are the partial pressures of each gas. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Gas Volumes Correspond to Mole Ratios <ul><li>Ratios of gas volumes will be the same as mole ratios of gases in balanced equations. </li></ul><ul><li>Avogadro’s law shows that the mole ratio of two gases at the same temperature and pressure is the same as the volume ratio of the two gases. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gas Volumes Correspond to Mole Ratios <ul><li>For example, consider the following equation for the production of ammonia. </li></ul><ul><li>3 H 2 ( g ) + N 2 ( g ) -> 2 NH 3 ( g ) </li></ul><ul><li>3 L of H 2 react with 1 L of N 2 to form 2 L of NH 3 , and no H 2 or N 2 is left over </li></ul><ul><li>If we know the number of moles of a gaseous substance, we can use the ideal gas law to calculate the volume of that gas. </li></ul>

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