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These temporary partial charges can cause temporary partial charges on other molecules or atoms. London Dispersion Forces
Stronger intermolecular force = a solid at room temperature. dipole-dipole or hydrogen bond usually means solid.
Weak intermolecular forces = low boiling and low melting points. Strong intermolecular forces = high melting and high boiling points. Liquids with strong intermolecular forces will hold on to their molecules preventing them from escaping as a vapor.
Solid - Strong intermolecular forces hold molecules in a rigid & regular pattern (crystal).
Liquid - Some intermolecular forces are overcome and molecules can slip past each other.
Gas - Weak intermolecular forces can’t hold molecules together, so each molecule is free and independent.
States of Matter
Intermolecular forces Weakest lower melting point LDF Dipole-dipole H-bonds STRONGEST higher melting point Ionic compounds have even higher melting points because the ionic bond must be overcome to free the ions. Ionic bonds are much stronger than any intermolecular force. Intermolecular Forces