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1.1&1.2
 

1.1&1.2

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States of Matter

States of Matter

Chemical/Physical Change

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    1.1&1.2 1.1&1.2 Presentation Transcript

    • What is Chemistry? 1.1
    • Properties and Changes of Matter
      • A chemical is any substance that has a definite composition.
      • A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more new substances.
    • Physical States of Matter
      • The states of matter are the physical forms of matter which are:
        • Solid
        • Liquid
        • Gas
        • Plasma
    • Properties of the Physical States
      • Solids have a fixed volume and shape.
      • Liquids have a fixed volume but not a fixed shape.
      • Gases have neither fixed volume nor shape.
    • Changes of Matter
      • Physical changes are changes in which the identity of a substance doesn’t change.
        • Changes of state are physical changes.
        • It can go back.
      • Chemical changes occur when the identities of substances change and new substances form.
    • Chemical Changes
      • Na + Cl  NaCl
      • Reactants ( Na + Cl ) are the substances are the left-hand side of the arrow.
        • They are used up in the reaction.
      • Products ( NaCl ) are the substances are the right-hand side of the arrow.
        • They are made in the reaction.
    • Evidence of a Chemical Change
      • Evidence that a chemical change may be happening generally falls into one of the following categories.
        • effervescence (bubbles)
        • formation of a precipitate
        • release or absorption of energy
          • a change in temperature or the giving off of light
        • color change in the reaction system
    • Describing Matter 1.2
    • Matter Has Mass and Volume
      • Volume is the space an object occupies.
      • Mass is the quantity of matter in an object.
      • Weight is the force produced by gravity acting on a mass .
    • SI ( Système Internationale d’Unités )
      • Base SI Units:
      • Length = Meter
      • Volume = Liter
      • Mass = Gram
    • SI Conversion
      • Base units can be too large or too small for some measurements, so the base units may be modified by attaching prefixes.
    • Derived Units
      • These units are derived by multiplying or dividing the base units.
        • Speed is distance divided by time. The derived unit of speed is meters per second (m/s).
        • A rectangle’s area is found by multiplying its length (in meters) by its width (also in meters).
          • Its unit is square meters (m 2 ).
    • Physical Properties
      • A physical property of a substance is a characteristic that does not involve a chemical change.
      • Physical properties of a substance can be determined without changing the nature of a substance.
      • Physical properties include: texture, state, melting point, and boiling point.
    • Density is a physical property.
      • Densities are expressed in derived units such as g/cm 3 .
      • The density of a substance is the same no mater what the size of the sample is.
    • Chemical Properties
      • A chemical property a property of matter that describes a substance’s ability to participate in chemical reactions.
      • Examples:
        • A chemical property of many substances is that they react with oxygen like rusting.
      • Iron (Fe) + Oxygen (O 2 ) FeO 2 (rust)