José Andréu _ Mitigation Program Across Multiple Sectors - GHG Mitigation in urban areas
Smart City Expo & World Congress MITIGATION PROGRAM ACROSS MULTIPLE SECTORSGHG MITIGATION IN URBAN AREAS THROUGH A CITY-WIDE APPROACH CARBON FINANCE UNIT, THE WORLD BANKJosé Andréu BARCELONA, DECEMBER 1, 2011
Content1. Cities and GHG2. Multi-sector approach in Cities3. Cities and climate change4. On-going work in Cities on GHG mitigation
Why are Cities important for GHG mitigation? 67% of worlds energy supply Cities need to build infrastructure now, tosupport the large population inflow, makingthem the fastest growing source of GHGemissions Cities continuously face the challenge to 70%balance development and environmental needs global GHG emissions Access to finance is critical to facilitatelow-GHG development in cities Source: World Bank Institute 3
GHG emissions in Cities Transportation of Waste Transport Waste Sources of emissions: 1. Transport Traffic 2. Solid waste Biogas-to- management energy 3. Water systems 4. Energy usage Emission sink: Pedestrian Energy comfort Sludge treatment Urban forestry Heat island effect Efficient water pumping Urban Water Forestry Grey water reuse
Cities already work in a multi-sector framework Urban services like Regulations such as transport, waste, public building codes, vehicular buildings, water services City emission and specific and forestry (parks, Authorities awareness campaigns. recreation areas). are responsible for: Improving the quality of living for its residents Understanding the through urban planningneeds of their growing and improved delivery of population municipal services. Defining City’s future through exercises such as, Master plans and development strategies that outline a vision for the citySource: World Bank Institute
Marginal abatement cost curve for Mexico • Cities have a major role as emissions and mitigation options are concentrated there • Transportation has a large share • Municipal services and regulations under its direct control provide major potential • Benefits outweigh the costs of these mitigation actionsRecreated from Johnson et al. 2009
Illustration of GHG mitigation impactUnit Tons of CO2e GHG Emission(Cumulative) Reductions Year 1 10 Assumptions: • 10% Annual growth of emissions in the Business As Usual (BAU) scenario • Technology or measures implemented in each sector • Implementation start date and length varies for project interventions in the 10 year period • Emissions and emission reductions are cumulative
Cities are also engaged with climate change ICLEI’s Cities for Climate Protection Campaign 1 Conduct a baseline inventory of global warming pollutants 2 Establish a target to lower emissions Develop a local Climate Action Plan (CAP) to implement 3 actions that reduce global warming pollution 4 Implement the local Climate Action Plan 5 Measure, verify and report performance The CCP’s 5 Milestones provides a simple, standardized means to enable communities to effectively reduce the emissions from both government operations and the community as a whole. Other key initiatives supporting climate change agenda in Cities are: UNEP, UN-HABITAT, Cities Alliance, C40, UCLG A variety of ongoing tools are such as Global City Indicators program, GHG Emission Standard…Source: World Bank Institute Local Governments for sustainability – www.iclei.org
Greater Amman CWACF Program Framework Amman Green Growth Program Sustainable Urban Urban Waste Energy Transport Forestry EE street lighting Bus Rapid Transit Plantations Landfill gas to energy system Residential CFL Light Rail Transit Urban agriculture Plastics Recycling systemSlaughterhouse waste-to- Solar water heaters Fuel switch for public energy vehicles Wind farm Buildings EE
The Rio de Janeiro CWACF Program Framework Carbon Markets Sold Retired Registry Rio’s Reduction Target Businesses Industry $ Carbon Assets Rio Participants Project Data MRV System Verifier
Mexico -- Scaling-up of mitigation action: from a PoA to NAMA Increase in mortgage penetrationMitigation action is scaled up CONAVI INFONAVIT FOVISSSTE SHFfrom PoAs to NAMAs through CFL Eff WH SHW Imp Insu Eff Ref Eff AC LED light PVincremental enhancement to: PoA-1 increased penetration (more Esta es tu Casa houses covered during the same time) through additional mortage providing entities PoA-2 Hipoteca Verde and/or technology up-scaling (more ambitious efficiency standards More technologies used and/or inclusion of additional technologies). Residential NAMAResidential and UrbanNAMAs consist of measureswith robust MRV so that it willbe a creditable NAMA Urban NAMA 11
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