Creating Smarter Cities 2011 - 12 - Mark Deakin - The Triple Helix of Smart Cities
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Creating Smarter Cities 2011 - 12 - Mark Deakin - The Triple Helix of Smart Cities

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Mark's presentation demonstrates how the Triple Helix model enables us to study the knowledge base of an urban economy in terms of civil society’s support for the evolution of cities as key ...

Mark's presentation demonstrates how the Triple Helix model enables us to study the knowledge base of an urban economy in terms of civil society’s support for the evolution of cities as key components of innovation systems. It argues that cities can be considered as densities in networks among three relevant dynamics: the intellectual capital of universities, industry of wealth creation and their participation in the democratic government of civil society. It goes on to suggest the effects of these interactions generate dynamic spaces within cities where knowledge can be exploited to bootstrap the technology of regional innovation systems. Dynamic spaces, this paper suggests, that can best be explored through the all-pervasive technologies of information-based communications (ICTs) and those which are currently being exploited to generate the notion of “smart cities,” as the knowledge base of regional innovation systems.

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Creating Smarter Cities 2011 - 12 - Mark Deakin - The Triple Helix of Smart Cities Creating Smarter Cities 2011 - 12 - Mark Deakin - The Triple Helix of Smart Cities Presentation Transcript

  • The Triple Helix of Smart CitiesMark Deakin, Edinburgh Napier UniversitySchool of Engineering and Built Environment, Edinburgh NapierUniversity, Edinburgh, EH10 5DT, Scotland: m.deakin@napier.ac.uk
  • The triple helixUnlike other accounts of knowledge production, theTriple Helix model: • studies networks of university-industry-government relations and offers a neo-evolutionary model of a knowledge-based economy; • proposes the three evolutionary functions shaping the selection environments of a knowledge-based economy are: (i) organized knowledge production, (ii) the intellectual capital of economic wealth creation and (iii) reflexive control; • suggests that as reflexivity is always involved in knowledge production, the functions which they serve are not given, but socially constructed.
  • The triple helix of (smart) citiesFrom this neo-evolutionary perspective, the knowledge-baseeconomy of cities can be modelled as networks of organizedknowledge production. That is to say, networks of organizedknowledge production in which: • universities generate intellectual capital, industry create economic wealth and government regulate civil society; • the dynamic inter-play of their intellectual capital, creativity and regulation promote innovation; • the innovation is systematic, networked and organized around information and communication technologies (ICTs); • the services this produces are in turn subject to the reflexivity of social construction.
  • the propositionUsing this model, it is also possible to suggest: • The dynamics currently at play in the reflexive overlay of these technologies, are themselves being exploited to generate the notion of: • “creative cities” (Landry, 2008); • “intelligent cities” as the knowledge base of such creativity (Komninos, 2008); • “smart cities” whose creativity is even “smarter” (Hollands, 2008). Not just in the way their technologies generate intellectual capital, or create economic wealth, but communities within environments that co-produce knowledge in innovation systems which are sufficiently creative to co-evolve with the socially-constructive nature of such developments; • “selection environments” (Deakin, 2010). That co-produce knowledge in innovation systems which are able to co-evolve as part of a meta- stabilization. That is by way of environments which replace the destabilizing, dis-organizing and fragmentation tendencies of existing systems, through the configuration of a “smarter” alternative offering a socially-constructive integration….. of the services under development.
  • The typologyemerging smart cities typology eGov service development stages policy drivers service developments in knowledge economy and information society• “creative cities” of ideas and • Customisation • Information • Competition learning (Landry, 2008);• “intelligent cities” as the • Communication • Competition and social knowledge base of such learning • Capacity-building cohesion and creativity (Komninos, 2008);• “smart cities” whose creativity is • Co-design of services • Transaction • Competition, social even “smart-er” (Hollands, 2008). cohesion and Not just in the way the ICTs of environmental quality community development generate intellectual capital, or create wealth, but environments that govern the collective learning and co-production of knowledge in innovation systems which are sufficiently creative to co-evolve with such regional innovation systems;• “selection environments” that • Multi-channel • Customer- • Transformational collectively learn from and co- communications centric government as a basis produce knowledge in innovation related to given user- • User-friendly for sustainable systems which are able to co- profiles • Open, development evolve as part of a meta- transparent, stabilization. That is by way of accountable environments which replace the and destabilizing, dis-organizing and democratic fragmentation tendencies of existing systems, through the configuration of a “smarter” alternative offering the prospect of integration.
  • The critical insightSeeing cities as a co-evolutionary mechanism for the meta-stabilization of existing institutional arrangements offers a criticalinsight taking us beyond the dismantling of national systems andconstruction of regional advantages, i.e. that “terms of reference”which currently falls under the remit of “innovations systems”.It suggests: • the reinvention of cities which is currently taking place cannot be defined as a top-level “trans-disciplinary” issue without a considerable amount of “bottom-up” cultural reconstruction. • this cultural reconstruction has not yet been given the consideration it demands. For existing accounts tend to reify the global status of the process and fail to appreciate the meta-stabilizing dynamic of the technologies underlying this and supporting the knowledge-based economy.
  • Getting beyond national and – The triple helix represents the “modes” ofregional systems communication currently operating as the informational technologies (ICTs) of such It is the potential of this “manifestations”. cultural reconstruction to – “Manifestations” of organized knowledge work as a meta-stabilizing production whose generation of intellectual dynamic and reflexive layer that lies behind the surge capital, creation of economic wealth and ICTs of academic interest which produce a meta-stabilizing dynamic. is currently being directed – That meta-stabilization played out on a global at communities as the stage and within (trans-national) regions, “practical” manifestation whose ICT-related environments not only of organized knowledge reflect, but are the medium by which their production and the cultural reconstruction becomes manifest. intellectual capital of wealth creation. This goes manifest as “world class” cities, not – Becomes some way to account for why the ICT-related the intellectual capital they just in terms of environments of e- government are currently such critical but generate, or economic wealth this creates, issues and to the ICT-related environments civil in relation the e-service developments society assembles as a means to govern the associated of thisthem are also so standards with regulating dynamic. significant.
  • the SmartCities baseline study University 60.0 50.0 First Cut 40.0 Knowledge 30.0 Learning 20.0 http://www.smartcities.info 10.0 EU27 0.0 Smart cities Smart Cities in the Industry Government North Sea Region: BremerhavenUniversity: % people aged 20-24 Edinburghenrolled in tertiary educationIndustry: Number of companies per Groningen1,000 inhabitants KarlstadGovernment: % labour force in Kortrijkgovernment sector-L to QLearning: Labour force with ISCED 5 Market Kortrijk regionand 6 education KristiansandMarket: Per capita GDPKnowledge: Patent applications to the NorfolkEPO per 1,000 inhabitants Osterholz-ScharmbeckBaseline data is for 2006
  • the SmartCities baseline study University 60.0 Second Cut knowledge economy50.0 Information Society 40.0 i2010 Knowledge 30.0 Learning http://www.smartcities.inf 20.0 o 10.0 e-services IP EU27 0.0 Smart cities Smart Cities in the North Sea Region: Industry Government BremerhavenUniversity: % people aged 20-24 Edinburghenrolled in tertiary educationIndustry: Number of companies per ICT-related Groningen1,000 inhabitants employment RTD KarlstadGovernment: % labour force in Kortrijkgovernment sector-L to QLearning: Labour force with ISCED 5 Kortrijk regionand 6 education Market KristiansandMarket: Per capita GDPKnowledge: Patent applications to the NorfolkEPO per 1,000 inhabitants Osterholz-ScharmbeckBaseline data is for 2006
  • The emergence of “world class” cities:the case of Montreal• Montreal is recognized as a city particularly successful in reinventing itself as “world class” and emerging as a “creative” force within the region (Florida, 2004; Slolarick and Florida, 2006).• So far the only thing offered to explain the growth of Montreal as a leading exponent of “cultural reconstruction” has been a list of enabling conditions, such as: • a strong research, development and technological culture; • university involvement underpinned by industry; • industry supported by policy makers, strong leadership and corporate strategies directed towards the creative sector.This reconstruction thesis is sometimes referred to as “pickingup and capitalising on the creative slack”
  • some marginal notes on the • The cultural reconstruction of cities like Montreal show howevolving cultural reconstruction the creative ecology of an entrepreneur-based and market Breaking News..... Triple Helix - representation of knowledge-intensive firms, is dependent Building a Canadian Socialof “world class” cities Innovation Marketplace currently in the process of being replaced with a community of policy makers, academic leaders and corporate strategists. The Canadian government has issued an in turncall for input on how to so much • Communities that open have the potential not their R&D innovation system could be improved. Despite pumping from the “rise-up as a creative class”, but liberate cities in over $7 billion a year the country continues to fallpreviously been locked into by stagnation which they have further and further behind other nations in offering them freedomcapability. polices, with the academic terms of innovation to develop leadership and corporate strategies capable of reaching Using the Triple Helixevidencebeyond thethat many Canadian universities are The balance of suggests idea of “creative slack”. • To reach beyond this and for something smart-er, first-rate scientific institutions. But in the context of the knowledge- cities need model, it can be recognized such a cultural nottheir intellectual capital to notcountrys universities based economy, it is considered sufficient for a only meet the requirements of reconstruction of cities economic wealth creation, but become the regional centres to produce groundbreaking scientific research in isolation. A growing however liberal and of such “knowledge producing communities”. Knowledge potentially free, is not suggests that effective links between the three body of research producing communities whose intellectual capital and merely the creative principle innovation funding/performing sectorsisof academia, by virtue of the economic wealth creation distinguished business outcome of market economics, but of the are an academic leadership, corporate strategies and ICT-enabled and government important contributor to a successful national innovation system. policies, academic environments understood to be socially-constructive in leadership and corporate opening-up, reflexively absorbing and discursively shaping strategies which operate the governance of such developments. Source: Cloud Computing Journal, January, 6th, 2011 within ICT-enabled environments .
  • Thank you...... 13