Creating Smarter Cities 2011 - 04 - Rudolf Giffinger - VUT - The need for place related understanding
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Creating Smarter Cities 2011 - 04 - Rudolf Giffinger - VUT - The need for place related understanding

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Because of different processes like economic restructuring, socio-demographic processes and technological progress cities are facing new challenges in the run of their recent trends of urbanization ...

Because of different processes like economic restructuring, socio-demographic processes and technological progress cities are facing new challenges in the run of their recent trends of urbanization and metropolisation. These processes are assumed to have specific impacts on the cohesive territorial development in economic, social and spatial terms. As a consequence new strategic governance approaches became necessary steering development in different fields. In this context rankings have experienced a remarkable boom.
In front of this development, this paper concentrates first on the question how to define a ‘smart’ city which is able to cope with such challenges. Based on this understanding the own ranking approach („European Smart Cities“) is described systematically. Based on a hierarchical approach with a sample of relevant factors the paper describes in short how cities cope with the results and what are typical reactions of local governments and stakeholders. In this context two specific urban strategies for steering development and processes of learning in general, but especially with respect to urban governance, are discussed within this paper. Finally, the paper elaborates that here the buzz-word ‘smart’ is not used in an explicit technology perspective but in a clear place based understanding similar to the EU-Territorial Agenda 2020. Accordingly an outlook describes how ‘smart’ will be used and understood in a place based and territorial perspective including technological impacts.

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Creating Smarter Cities 2011 - 04 - Rudolf Giffinger - VUT - The need for place related understanding Creating Smarter Cities 2011 - 04 - Rudolf Giffinger - VUT - The need for place related understanding Presentation Transcript

  • European Smart Cities:the need for a place related Understanding Rudolf Giffinger Creating Smart Cities Department of Spatial Development, Edinburgh Napier University Infrastructure and Environmental Planning June 30 / July 1, 2011 Centre of Regional Science Operngasse 11, 6. Stock 1040 Wien +43 1 58801 26621 http://www.srf.tuwien.ac.at/
  • Focus in this contributionNeed for positioning • Urbanisation and technological innovations • territorial perspective on smart cityPlace based Smart City Ranking (SCR) approach • Ranking based on urban characteristics • Basic features and results for medium sized cities • Identifying  a city’s specific profile – drawing lesson / Evidence based Outlook: Smart metropolitan development  • Enhanced concept in territorial perspective • metropolisation and polycentricity • 2 hypotheses on smart metropolitan development 2
  • introductiontechnology based urban development  • Urbanisation and industrialization  • Metropolisation and competitivenessdifferentiation of urban development • cities and metropolises show different standards • only 10% of all European regions show  corresponding standards of a knowledge  society according to different indicators What should we understand under ‚smart city‘?Why a place based approach regarding territorial development?Which challenges for research and for governance ? 3
  • Smart City RankingNeed for positioning • Urbanisation and technological innovations • territorial perspective on smart cityPlace based Smart City Ranking (SCR) approach • Ranking based on urban characteristics • Basic features and results for medium sized cities • Identifying  a city’s specific profile – drawing lesson / Evidence based Outlook: Smart metropolitan development • Enhanced concept in territorial perspective • metropolisation and polycentricity • 2 hypothesis on smart metropolitan development 4
  • Why medium sized cities? Medium sized cities • Usually forgotten in discussion about  • Challenges of globalisation and Trends of metropolisation An important group of cities in Europe 27+NO+CHSource of data:Nordregio (2004),Espon project 1.1.1 5
  • Medium sized cities: EU27+NO+CHImportance in Europe: • 270 million Europeans live in city regions > 100,000 residents • 120 million live in city regions with 100,000 ‐ 500,000 residents Selection of the city sample Cities 1 Functional Urban Area in Europe (EU27+NO+CH) 1,595 2 100,000 – 500,000 inhabitants 584 3 At least 1 University 364 4 Catchment area less than 1.500,000 persons 256 5 Covered by the Urban Audit database 94 6 Consolidation and adaptation by the project team 70Smart City Ranking Approach  for 70 medium sized cities in Europe • to identify the position in a comparable way • to elaborate the profile of cities on different levels • to discuss future challenges 6
  • Definition of Smart City: www.smart‐cities.eu „A Smart City is a city Smart City well performing in these 6 characteristics, built on the Characteristics: ‘smart’ combination of endowments and activities of self-decisive, independent Smart Economy and aware citizens.” Smart People up-to-now: drawing a picture of the Smart Governance current state of a city. Smart Mobility perspective: a relaunch based on more Smart Environment recent data is planned Smart Living  stimulating discussion through showing profiles and changes over time Endowments Activities (Local conditions) (Application) 7
  • Description of Smart City: www.smart‐cities.eu Smart Economy Smart‐City rank: Smart City result of 6  characteristics Smart People 6 characteristics: Characteristics Smart Governance result of group of  factors Factors Smart Mobility 31 factors: result of group of  Indicators indicators  Smart Environment data base: Smart Living 75 indicators 8
  • Characteristics & bundles of factors Smart City: 6 characteristics are defined through bundles of factors in a comprehensive way 31 factors are operationalised through bundles of indicators (in total 75 ind.) 9
  • Ranking based on data 2001/2004Ranking: best performing cities Ranked groups of smart cities‐ Luxembourg, Denmark, Finland ‐ poor in transition countries‐ Ljubljana already on 17th placeCities show different performance in its characteristics 10
  • Smart City Ranking Results: www.smart‐cities.eu 11
  • Smart City Ranking: drawing lesson Good to have a look  ‐ at ‚smart living‘ in Linz ‐ Cultural facilities, individual safety or  Touristic attractivity ‐ …or at any other city perfoming better ..… … an effective way how a city may learn good practice in a specific field from another city …12
  • Smart City Ranking: evidence based strategy Characteristics at a first glance  ‐Some strenghts in ‐ Smart economy, people and governance ‐Clear weaknesses in ‐ Smart environment and living Factor values indicating low  performance facilitate more evidence ‐ International accessibility ‐ Sustainable innovative and safe  transportation system ‐ Attractivity of nat. conditions ‐ Pollution ‐ some factors of smart livingAre there specific issues which are clearly interlinked factors? Are there specific topics which indicate strengths or weaknesses?Which strategic projects may meet specific challenges?13
  • OutlookNeed for positioning • Urbanisation and technological innovations • territorial perspective on smart cityPlace based Smart City Ranking (SCR) approach • Ranking based on urban characteristics • Basic features and results for medium sized cities • Identifying  a city’s specific profile – Lesson drawing / Evidence based Smart metropolitan development • Enhanced concept in territorial perspective • metropolisation and polycentricity • 2 hypothesis on smart metropolitan development 14
  • Smart City Ranking approach for metropolises metropolisation • a process of attracting   • high ranked functions • in particular knowledge intensive new activities • jobs and residents polycentricity • a process of allocation of specific metropolitan functions • based on a cities specific assets and potentials regarded as specific area  based advantages  • often far beyond city borders in a larger metropolitan regionSCR approach in a territorial perspective will describe the characteristics of its territorial capital in these two dimensions • recently done in ESPON project POLYCE 15
  • policy relevance of a place based approach  economic technological restructuring sociodemographic innovations processes Inclusion Policy advice ‐ identifying and assessing impacts of Metropolisation smart Polycentricity three macro‐trends metropolitan development ‐ Assessing the meaning of techno‐ logical innovations Competitiveness regarding competiti‐ veness and inclusion governanceResearch  • regarding economic restructuring  & sociodemographic issues already  sufficient? • but scarce knowledge on innovation processes • dependent on spatial diffusion and local adaption processes 16
  • Conclusions: from evidence to governance of  smart city developmentenhanced smart metropolitan approach‘Smart metropolis’ indicates the capability of a  city with its metropolitan region to cope with the challenges of competitiveness and inclusive development steered by the attraction of metropolitan functions and through polycentric development which is enforcing its territorial cohesion. Besides, this capability is not related to local facilities of endowment as potentials only, but it also considers covering the activities of self‐decisive and independent citizens in terms of awareness and participation of a city’s inhabitants in addressing and activating new potentials and supporting and strengthening existing assets. 17
  • 2 hypotheses (1) Even in next decades on the global level the process of urbanization and metropolisation is driven by and dependent on technological innovations. But only those cities will show ‘smart development’ in form of a balance between competitiveness and inclusion which are capable to introduce, adapt and diffuse technological innovations according to territorial conditions and needs.(2) In particular, a place based Smart City Ranking approach which considers metropolisation and polycentricity in a territorial perspective will foster ‘smart metropolitan development’. This is in particular realized through governance initiatives based on … • drawing lesson • not reasonable to follow best‐practice strategies at random • relevant evidence   • in form of comparative benchmarking or of differentiated profile assessment, and • activating potentials and enhancing existing assets 18
  • Thank you for your attention www.smart‐cities.eu www.polyce.eu rudolf.giffinger@tuwien.ac.at 19