The RDA Vocabularies: What They Are, How They Work

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The RDA Vocabularies: What They Are, How They Work

  1. 1. What They Are, How They Work
  2. 2.  Sorting out some important definitions  A brief history lesson on the RDA Vocabularies  A structural tour of the vocabularies, including:  Rationale and decision making  General and FRBR-constrained elements  Potential for extension  Putting it all together  Language versions of RDA Vocabularies  Important related work  Our focus is on ‘Why’ not ‘How’ (we’re not at ‘How’ yet) Nov. 17, 2011 2ALA TechSource Webinar
  3. 3.  How RDA will be working in the real world  WHY?: There aren’t tools yet, and we don’t really know what they’ll look like …  But maybe we can make some educated guesses?  Most likely the tools will be form-based (like the MARC tools are)  There are likely to be fewer places where text is typed in and more where pull-down lists are available  The FRBR structure, if used intelligently by vendors, should save time and money, as re-use of data will be possible (choices will still need to be made to identify the appropriate work and expression when these exist) Nov. 17, 2011 3ALA TechSource Webinar
  4. 4.  XML assumes a 'closed' world (domain), usually defined by a schema:  "We know all of the data describing this resource. The single description must be a valid document according to our schema. The data must be valid.”  XML's document model provides a neat equivalence to a metadata 'record’  RDF assumes an 'open' world:  "There's an infinite amount of unknown data describing this resource yet to be discovered. It will come from an infinite number of providers. There will be an infinite number of descriptions. Those descriptions must be consistent."  RDF's statement-oriented data model has no notion of 'record’ (rather, statements can be aggregated for a fuller description of a resource) Nov. 17, 2011 4ALA TechSource Webinar
  5. 5.  In XML these are ‘attribute/value pairs’  Ex.: Author = Twain, Mark  Where, in the context of a bounded record structure we know what we’re describing  In the Resource Description Framework (RDF, the language of the Semantic Web), these are independent statements:  Ex.: The author of Huckleberry Finn is Mark Twain, or  subject = Huckeberry Finn  predicate = hasAuthor  Object = Mark Twain Nov. 17, 2011 5ALA TechSource Webinar
  6. 6.  We need to expand our ideas of what machines can and should do for us  We need to articulate better what we, as humans, bring to the table (and stop thinking we need to control it ALL)  We need to educate ourselves about this new world we live in (what it is and isn’t)  We need to understand enough to work with our vendors to make it happen in our libraries Nov. 17, 2011 6ALA TechSource Webinar
  7. 7. A Brief History It all started in London, the last day of April 2007 Nov. 17, 2011 7ALA TechSource Webinar
  8. 8.  The participants agreed that DCMI and the Joint Steering Committee for the Development of RDA should work together to:  Develop an RDA Element Vocabulary  Expose RDA Value Vocabularies  Develop an RDA Application Profile, based on FRBR and FRAD  The first two are largely complete; the third is started 8Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar
  9. 9.  It represented a recognition on the part of library leaders that it was essential to break out of the data silo of the past  The collaboration started at that meeting is resonating throughout the world of library data standards (more on this later)  It started the process of exposing library experience and knowledge to a larger audience  It set the stage for libraries to broaden their view of what they do and what they offer the information world Nov. 17, 2011 9ALA TechSource Webinar
  10. 10.  We used the Semantic Web as our “mental model”  Wanted to create a “bridge” between XML and RDF to support innovation in the library community as a whole, not just those at the cutting edge or the trailing edge  We registered the FRBR entities as classes in a ‘FRBR in RDA’ vocabulary, to enable specific relationships between RDA properties and FRBR  IFLA has followed suit using the Open Metadata Registry to add the ‘official’ FRBR entities, FRAD, FRSAR and ISBD  This provides exciting opportunities to relate all the vocabularies together Nov. 17, 2011 10ALA TechSource Webinar
  11. 11.  Property and value vocabularies are registered in the Open Metadata Registry (formerly the NSDL Registry): http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm  Used RDF Schema (RDFS), Simple Knowledge Organisation System (SKOS) and Web Ontology Language (OWL)  Decisions oriented to favor approaches that can be generalized to make other vocabulary based standards web-friendly, available for use in applications, and easily updated by communities Nov. 17, 2011 11ALA TechSource Webinar
  12. 12.  FRBR in RDA Vocabulary declared as classes  RDA Properties declared as a ‘generalized’ vocabulary, with no explicit relationship to FRBR entities  Subproperties for the generalized elements may be explicitly related to FRBR entities (using ‘domain’)  Label/Name includes (Work) or other class to provide unique name (unless the entity name already appears in the name of the property)  Other generalized subproperties usable by others not tied to FRBR  All this is done according to available best practices for declaring vocabularies on the Web Nov. 17, 2011 12ALA TechSource Webinar
  13. 13.  We think of the ‘generalized’ RDA properties as the real RDA vocabulary  The ‘bounded’ properties should be seen as the first pass at an Application Profile  Extensions can be built more usefully from the generalized properties  Mapping will be cleaner using the generalized properties (since most properties mapped to or mapped from will not be based on FRBR)  Generalized properties much more acceptable to non- library implementers (not often using FRBR) Nov. 17, 2011 13ALA TechSource Webinar
  14. 14. Property (Generalized, no FRBR relationship) Subproperty (with relationship to one FRBR entity) FRBR Entity Semantic Web Library Applications The Simple Case: One Property-- One FRBR Entity Nov. 17, 2011 14ALA TechSource Webinar
  15. 15. Book format Book format (Manifestation) Manifestation Semantic Web Library Applications The Simple Case: One Property-- One FRBR Entity Nov. 17, 2011 15ALA TechSource Webinar
  16. 16. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 16 http://RDVocab.info/Elements/bookFormatManifestation
  17. 17.  There are multiple techniques used in RDA to make the connection between FRBR entities and RDA properties  We tried to reconcile those in the RDA Vocabularies  Some properties related to more than one FRBR entity  Relationships in Appendix J actually include the name of the FRBR entity in the name and have separate definitions (we re-used this strategy for the FRBR- bounded properties)  Other properties and sub-properties appear multiple times in the text and ERDs, with the same definitions and no indication that they might be repeated elsewhere (we consolidated these) Nov. 17, 2011 17ALA TechSource Webinar
  18. 18. Property (Generalized, no FRBR relationship) Subproperty (with relationship to one FRBR entity) Subproperty (with relationship to one FRBR entity) FRBR Entity FRBR Entity Semantic Web Library Applications The Not-So-Simple Case: One Property—more than One FRBR Entity Nov. 17, 2011 18ALA TechSource Webinar
  19. 19. Extent Extent (Item) Extent (Manifestation) FRBR Item FRBR Manifestation Semantic Web Library Applications The Not-So-Simple Case: One Property—more than One FRBR Entity Nov. 17, 2011 19ALA TechSource Webinar
  20. 20. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 20
  21. 21.  In 2005, the DC Usage Board worked with LC to build a formal representation of the MARC Relators so that these terms could be used with DC  This work provided a template for the registration of the role terms in RDA (in Appendix I) and, by extension, the other RDA relationships  Role and relationship properties are registered at the same level as elements, rather than as attributes (as MARC does with relators, and RDA does in its XML schemas)  Applications can choose either approach Nov. 17, 2011 21ALA TechSource Webinar
  22. 22. “Super” Property Subproperty (with relationship to one FRBR entity) Subproperty (Generalized, no FRBR relationship) FRBR Entity Semantic Web Library Applications The Roles Case: Properties, Subproperties and FRBR Entities Mapping, Etc. Nov. 17, 2011 22ALA TechSource Webinar
  23. 23. RDA:Creator RDArole:Composer (Work) RDArole:Composer Work Semantic Web Library Applications The Roles Case: Properties, Subproperties and FRBR Entities Mapping, Etc. Nov. 17, 2011 23ALA TechSource Webinar
  24. 24.  RDA sets up Publication, Distribution, Manufacture and Production statements very much the way they have been done since catalog card days:  Assumed aggregation of Place, Name and Date are obvious leftovers from catalog cards, and are not necessary to enable indexing or display of those elements together if libraries want to do that  We viewed those aggregations as ‘Syntax Encoding Schemes’ (as defined in the DCAM) and built in ways to accommodate them within the bounded properties  Those using the generalized properties (outside libraries, usually) need not be constrained by these traditional aggregations of properties Nov. 17, 2011 24ALA TechSource Webinar
  25. 25. Aggregated Statement (no domain or range) Aggregated Statement Subproperty Range: RDA Syntax Encoding Scheme (Subclass of RDF Datatype) Domain:FRBREntity Range: [Specific] Encoding Scheme (Subclass) General Property (no domain or range) Subproperty Pre-coordinated Statements: Structure Option 1 Nov. 17, 2011 25ALA TechSource Webinar
  26. 26. Publication Statement (no domain or range) Publication Statement (Manifestation) Range: RDA Syntax Encoding Scheme (Subclass of RDF Datatype) Domain:Manifestation Range: Publication Statement Encoding Scheme (Subclass) Place of publication (no domain or range) Place of publication (Manifestation) Pre-coordinated Statements: Example Option 1 Nov. 17, 2011 26ALA TechSource Webinar
  27. 27.  Release from the tyranny of records  Potential for use with a variety of encodings  Ability to maintain statements at a more granular level  Opportunity to re-think how we build, maintain and share data  Potential for sharing data beyond the library silo  Both directions!  A challenge to our old notions of what library data can do and should be doing  As our users migrate to the web and away from library catalogs, we need to follow them (and lead them appropriately!) Nov. 17, 2011 27ALA TechSource Webinar
  28. 28. Nov. 17, 2011 28
  29. 29.  How do we take advantage of the RDA Vocabulary infrastructure?  Relationships between properties is built-in, allowing ‘bottom up’ aggregation of data  Tools to enable easier data creation (with machine assistance) are critical  Our thinking about how we build and share data needs to reflect modern ideas about data use, not MARC  Ex.: records as aggregations of information, not templates to be filled in (although some tools may continue to look like that’s what they’re doing) Nov. 17, 2011 29ALA TechSource Webinar
  30. 30. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 30 ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut” ID=23456 isFormOfWork “Novel” Statements on the Floor?
  31. 31. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 31 ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut” ID=23456 isFormOfWork “Novel” Is This Really Chaos?
  32. 32. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 32 ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut” ID=23456 isFormOfWork “Novel” Or Just an Aggregation In the Making?
  33. 33. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 33 ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut” ID=23456 hasPreferredTitle “Bluebeard, a novel” ID=23456 isFormOfWork “Novel”
  34. 34. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 34 ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut” ID=23456 hasPreferredTitle “Bluebeard, a novel” ID=23456 isFormOfWork “Novel” ID=23456 hasOriginalLanguage “English”
  35. 35. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 35 ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut” ID=23456 hasPreferredTitle “Bluebeard, a novel” ID=23456 isFormOfWork “Novel” ID=23456 hasOriginalLanguage “English”
  36. 36. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 36 ID=23456 hasAuthor “Kurt Vonnegut” ID=23456 hasPreferredTitle “Bluebeard, a novel” ID=23456 isFormOfWork “Novel” ID=23456 hasOriginalLanguage “English” Work
  37. 37. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 37 ID=23456 hasLanguageOfExpression “English”
  38. 38. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 38 ID=23456 hasStatementOfEdition “1st trade edition” ID=23456 hasLanguageOfExpression “English”
  39. 39. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 39 ID=23456 hasStatementOfEdition “1st trade edition” ID=23456 hasLanguageOfExpression “English” Expression
  40. 40. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 40 ID=23456 hasPlaceOfPublication “New York”
  41. 41. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 41 ID=23456 hasPlaceOfPublication “New York” ID=23456 hasPublisher “Delacorte Press”
  42. 42. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 42 ID=23456 hasPlaceOfPublication “New York” ID=23456 hasPublisher “Delacorte Press” ID=23456 hasPublicationDate “1987”
  43. 43. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 43 ID=23456 hasPlaceOfPublication “New York” ID=23456 hasPublisher “Delacorte Press” ID=23456 hasPublicationDate “1987” Manifestation
  44. 44.  The inclusion of generalized properties provides a path for extension of RDA into specialized library communities and non-library communities  They may have a different notion of how FRBR ‘aggregates’  For example, a colorized version of a film may be viewed as a separate work  They may not wish to use FRBR at all  They may have additional properties to include, that have a relationship to the RDA properties  This allows other communities to use this data without problems Nov. 17, 2011 44ALA TechSource Webinar
  45. 45. RDA:adaptedAs RDA:adaptedAsARadioScript Nov. 17, 2011 45ALA TechSource Webinar
  46. 46. RDA:adaptedAs RDA:adaptedAsARadioScript KidLit:adaptedAsAPictureBook Nov. 17, 2011 46ALA TechSource Webinar
  47. 47. RDA:adaptedAs RDA:adaptedAsARadioScript KidLit:adaptedAsAPictureBook KidLit:adaptedAsAChapterBook Nov. 17, 2011 47ALA TechSource Webinar
  48. 48.  We wrote about the decisions we made for RDA in DLib: http://dlib.org/dlib/january10/hillmann/01hillmann.h tml  Need to continue to disclose what we’ve learned and work on building best practices documentation in this environment  We need research and innovation to help us move forward Nov. 17, 2011 48ALA TechSource Webinar
  49. 49. Nov. 17, 2011 49
  50. 50.  Registered elements and vocabularies can include multiple languages  The Open Metadata Registry has been working with the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek to demonstrate this with German translations in the OMR for specific vocabularies  Other language versions being discussed with national libraries and language groups by ALA Publishing in conjunction with translations of RDA guidance text  OMR enhancements planned to make building of language versions easier Nov. 17, 2011 50ALA TechSource Webinar
  51. 51. Nov. 17, 2011ALA TechSource Webinar 51
  52. 52.  “Functional Requirements” family or “FRBR family of models”:  FRBR, 1998: Bibliographic Records [data]  FRAD, 2009: Authority Data  FRSAD, [2010]: Subject Authority Data  Consolidated model in development  RDF/XML representation of the consolidated edition of ISBD.  Relating FR, ISBD and RDA, SKOS, FOAF, etc. Nov. 17, 2011 52ALA TechSource Webinar
  53. 53.  Representation of FRBRer model element set is mainly complete  Classes and properties have “approved” status  FRAD and FRSAD close behind  Representation in Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS) is informing work on combining and consolidating the model family  Also supplies “learning curve” for Semantic Web environment  FRBR is a conceptual model built on the E-R methodology which is intrinsically applicable to representation in RDF, while ISBD is a data standard ALA TechSource Webinar Nov. 17, 2011 53
  54. 54. Extent Extent of text Extent of still image Extent of text (I/) Extent of still image (I/)Extent of text (M/) Extent of still image (M/) Extent (M/) Extent (I/) Label (Domain/Range) Subproperty RDA properties Nov. 17, 2011 54ALA TechSource Webinar
  55. 55. Extent Extent of text Extent of text (M/) Extent (M/) Label (Domain/Range) Subproperty RDA has extent of the carrier (M/) FRBR SameAs has extent (R/) ISBD has extent of the carrier FRBR lite ISBD lite has extent RDA/IFLA properties (minimal linkage) Note: Manifestation sub-class-of Resource Nov. 17, 2011 55ALA TechSource Webinar
  56. 56. Extent Extent of text Extent of text (M/) Extent (M/) Label (Domain/Range) Subproperty RDA has extent of the carrier (M/) FRBR SameAs has extent (R/) ISBD has extent of the carrier FRBR lite ISBD lite has extent RDA/IFLA properties (maximum linkage) Nov. 17, 2011 56ALA TechSource Webinar
  57. 57. Label (Domain/Range) Subproperty RDA FRBR SameAs ISBD FRBR lite ISBD lite RDA/IFLA/other properties (minimal linkage) DCT Extent (/S) DC format Extent Extent of text Extent of text (M/) Extent (M/) has extent of the carrier (M/) has extent (R/) has extent of the carrier has extent BIBO numPages (D/l) numVolumes (C/l) Classes: Manifestation, Resource, Collection, Document, SizeOrDuration, literal Note: Document sub-class-of Resource Nov. 17, 2011 57ALA TechSource Webinar
  58. 58.  DCMI/RDA Task Group Wiki: http://dublincore.org/dcmirdataskgroup/  RDA Vocabularies: http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm  Diane: metadata.maven@gmail.com Slides on IFLA Vocabularies by Gordon Dunsire Flickr images thanks to: Trois Têtes (TT), Craft*ology Nov. 17, 2011 58ALA TechSource Webinar

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