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Crisis or Opportunity

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Workshop slides for Connecticut Library Association, November 20, 2009, Farmington Public Library.

Workshop slides for Connecticut Library Association, November 20, 2009, Farmington Public Library.

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  • Print version will probably not include the whole thing.
  • The CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) provides definitions and a formal structure for describing the implicit and explicit concepts and relationships used in cultural heritage documentation.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Crisis or Opportunity?
      Cataloging, Catalogers, RDA, and Change
      Diane I. Hilllmann
      Connecticut Library Association
      November 20, 2009
    • 2. It’s About Perspective …
      “Our traditions! Nothing must change. Everything is perfect as it is! We like our ways.” –Tevye
      11/20/09
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
      2
    • 3. I Much Prefer …
      “You never want a serious crisis to go to waste. And what I mean by that is an opportunity to do things you think you could not do before.” – Rahm Emmanuel
      11/20/09
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
      3
    • 4. Part 1: What’s the Crisis?
      Libraries are no longer the first place people come for information
      The Internet has changed the way people (including us) behave when seeking information
      Our former “granularity consensus” is coming apart
      To compete effectively for user attention, we must:
      Join the larger world of information, where our users are
      Learn how the competition attracts users, draws them in, and takes good advantage of their interest in participating
      Find a better balance between protecting privacy and capturing usage behavior
      11/20/09
      4
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
    • 5. And What’s Our Role?
      • The comfortable certainties we know are coming undone, whether we’re ready or not
      We have much experience and insight to offer the larger information world (but not everything we’ve learned is relevant)
      We are collectively about the size of the Queen Mary, unable to turn on a dime—this change will take time, and each of us has a role to play
      Resistance is futile—we are not in charge of this new world, and our options are two: adapt or retire
      11/20/09
      5
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
    • 6. The Map of Change
      Charting Our Course
      11/20/09
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      6
    • 7. What We Must Leave Behind
      A view of metadata based on catalog cards
      Library software that can’t sort search results better than “random” or “alphabetic”
      Search interfaces even Librarians hate (and we know the data!)
      Clunky static HTML pages that don’t attract our user’s interest, or guide them well
      One silo for books, others for journal articles, images, digitized books, etc. (explain that to a user!)
      11/20/09
      7
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
    • 8. Starting to Move Forward
      A Starting Point: The Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control (Library of Congress)
      “On the Record”—final report, January 2008 http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/
      A good, comprehensive overview of our new world and what we need to do
      Recommendations for LC, OCLC, ALA, library educators and all of us
      Extensively discussed at the Library of Congress and within the profession at large
      11/20/09
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
      8
    • 9. “The Web is our platform”
      1.2.4.2 All: Explore tools and techniques for sharing bibliographic data at the network level using both centralized and non-centralized techniques (e.g., OAI-PMH).
      3.1.2.1 All: Express library standards in machine-readable and machine-actionable formats, in particular those developed for use on the Web.
      3.1.2.2 All: Provide access to standards through registries or Web sites so that the standards can be used by any and all Web applications.
      11/20/09
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      9
    • 10. A New Look at Library Systems
      4.1.1.1 All: Encourage and support development of systems capable of relating evaluative data, such as reviews and ratings, to bibliographic records.
      4.1.1.2 All: Encourage the enhancement of library systems to provide the capability to link to appropriate user-added data available via the Internet (e.g., Amazon.com, LibraryThing, Wikipedia). At the same time, explore opportunities for developing mutually beneficial partnerships with commercial entities that would stand to benefit from these arrangements.
      11/20/09
      10
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
    • 11. Enriching Library Data
      4.1.2.1 All: Develop library systems that can accept user input and other non-library data without interfering with the integrity of library-created data.
      4.1.2.2 All: Investigate methods of categorizing creators of added data in order to enable informed use of user-contributed data without violating the privacy obligations of libraries.
      4.1.2.3 All: Develop methods to guide user tagging through techniques that suggest entry vocabulary (e.g., term completion, tag clouds).
      11/20/09
      11
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
    • 12. Exploring Our New World
      Avoiding the Traps of Wrongovia
      11/20/09
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      12
    • 13. Taking a Look Around
      What’s all this about new catalogs?
      Is RDA really going to happen?
      Is it that different from AACR2?
      Why can’t we use RDA with MARC?
      What’s this Semantic Web thingy all about, and why do we care?
      How will RDA implementation affect cataloging?
      How can we best prepare for all this?
      11/20/09
      13
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
    • 14. First, Let’s Nix the Silos!
      Why not expand resource availability in the current catalog?
      Demo: Dartmouth College Library Summon Beta
      What you’ll see: combined newspaper, journal and traditional book data
      Only those resources, including licensed resources, available to Dartmouth community (no dead ends)
      Ranking by relevance, date, etc.
      Filtering by resource type (filtering of search result set immediately)
      How do they do this? What are the limitation?
      11/20/09
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      14
    • 15. What Does FRBR Buy Us?
      An interesting start:
      OCLC Fiction Finder
      What is it doing?
      Using standard MARC relationships (expressed in uniform titles, primarily) to build a more browsable view
      Filtering by language and format, various sort options
      What can’t it do?
      Provide explicit links between related editions
      Provide a more useful web of relationships that machines can interpret and use
      Note that this “experiment” is no longer an active project
      11/20/09
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      15
    • 16. A Quick Look at Standards
      11/20/09
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    • 17. The RDA You’ve Heard About …
      4th quarter calendar 2008 – Full draft of RDA available for constituency review (ending in early February 2009)
      http://www.collectionscanada.ca/jsc/rdafulldraft.html
      3rdquarter calendar 2009 – RDA content is finalized
      4th quarter calendar 2009 – RDA is released
      1st quarter calendar 2010 – Testing by national libraries
      2nd – 3rd quarters calendar 2010 – Analysis and evaluation of testing by national libraries
      4th quarters calendar 2010 and beyond – RDA implementation ?
      11/20/09
      17
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
      We are here
    • 18. Under the RDA Hood
      A FRBR-based approach to structuring bibliographic data
      Contains more explicitly machine-friendly linkages (preferably with URIs)
      MUCH more emphasis on relationships and roles …
      … and less emphasis on cataloger-created notes and text strings (particularly for identification)
      Less reliance on transcription (important in an increasingly digital world)
      11/20/09
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    • 19. RDA: The Text
      1300+ pages and counting
      Looks a lot like it was designed by a committee
      Available only electronically, although many have called for a printed version (obviously can’t include 1300 pages!)
      Costs not yet finalized for the online product
      Text designed explicitly for online access, with user-configurable aspects
      Still very oriented towards textual resources
      11/20/09
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    • 20. What You Might Not Have Heard
      JSC has gradually backed away from their original stance that RDA could be expressed easily in MARC
      Full integration of FRBR entities into RDA has made that problematic
      RDA has been developed explicitly to take advantage of the Semantic Web (although there are still residues of past practice)
      Changes made in MARC to support RDA are insufficient to allow full RDA expression (particularly relationships) in MARC
      11/20/09
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    • 21. JSC Scenarios
      Scenario 1: separate records for all FRBR entities with linked identifiers
      Scenario 2: composite bibliographic records (with authority records representing each entity)
      Scenario 3: one flat record, with all Group 1 entities on a single record
      This is the only scenario that MARC can handle
      11/20/09
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    • 22. The Rest of the Story
      RDA elements, roles and vocabularies have been provisionally registered
      The vocabularies and the text will be tied together in freely available RDA XML schemas
      Some efforts have begun to consider how MARC21 data can be parsed into FRBR entities and RDA
      eXtensible Catalog Project moving strongly in this direction
      Unfortunately, we don’t know much about what OCLC is planning
      Discussions about long term maintenance of both RDA and the vocabularies will begin after RDA release
      The push is already on for a multi-language RDA Vocabulary
      11/20/09
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      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
    • 23. RDF Vocabularies
      Hosted at the Metadata Registryhttp://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm
      7 Upper ontologies (+ FRBR in RDA)
      69 Value vocabularies
      Extracted from Entity Relationship Diagrams (built by RDA Online contractor, based on JSC decisions)
      11/20/09
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      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
    • 24. RDA & FRBR: Registered!
      RDA Group 1 Elements:
      http://metadataregistry.org/schema/show/id/1.html
      RDA Roles:
      http://metadataregistry.org/schema/show/id/4.html
      RDA Vocabulary example: Base Material
      http://metadataregistry.org/vocabulary/show/id/35.html
      FRBR Entities for RDA
      http://metadataregistry.org/schema/show/id/14.html
      11/20/09
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      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
    • 25. Who’s Doing This?
      DCMI/RDA Task Group
      See: http://dublincore.org/dcmirdataskgroup/
      Set up during the April 2007 London meeting between JSC and DCMI
      Gordon Dunsire and Diane Hillmann, co-chairs
      Karen Coyle & Alistair Miles, consultants
      IFLA Classification and Indexing Section
      Gordon Dunsire, Centre for Digital Library Research, University of Strathclyde, will be registering FRBR entities and relationships
      Possible inclusion of ISBDs, FRAD, etc., in future
      11/20/09
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    • 26. How Soon Will All This Happen?
      The bad news: This isn’t like 1981, when there was a “start date” and we knew exactly when to change gears
      More bad news: This transition is likely to be a pretty messy one, and last longer than we would like
      One unknown is OCLC’s role—at present they seem to be focused on consolidating control over library data and promoting WorldCat Local
      What little they have said indicates that they’ll be cramming data into MARC for the foreseeable future …
      Some vendors are starting to announce plans …
      11/20/09
      26
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    • 27. What Are the Challenges?
      Coordination with JSC (or it’s successor, given the need to move beyond “Anglo-American”) on long-term maintenance planning
      Need for lightweight process for expansion and extension, where change is not a multi-year marathon
      Continuing development towards a more Semantic web-friendly RDA (less reliance on transcription, for instance)
      Tool development (at all levels, including ILS vendors)
      We need lots of innovation in this realm!
      11/20/09
      27
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    • 28. Yet More Challenges
      Description Set Profiles that express more than one notion of “Work” and more than one communitypoint of view
      JSC still seeing the process through the lens of a text cataloger
      Their “core elements” make most sense for traditional books, serials, and other text-based objects
      Moving the MARC legacy data into RDA
      Including authority files
      Multi-lingual and specialized extensions
      Non-Anglo-American communities eager to participate
      11/20/09
      28
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
    • 29. Multi-lingual RDA
      The NSDL Registry approach:
      Translations of labels, definitions and comments reside within the save vocabulary, with separate language attributes
      URIs stay the same, as do relationships
      Responsibility for updating translations rests with translation “owner”—who is enabled as a maintainer in the main vocabulary
      Disadvantages
      Unsure how extensively this strategy will “scale”
      Requires a “web of trust” and organizational commitment
      11/20/09
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
      29
    • 30. RDA With German
      The Registry team has been working with the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek to build German language labels, definitions, etc. into the RDA elements and vocabularies
      The group developing these extensions consists of librarians from an array of German and Austrian libraries
      See Veronika Leibrecht’s blog post: http://metadataregistry.org/blog/2009/10/12/the-german-national-library-translating-and-registering-rda-elements-and-vocabularies/
      A sample: RDA Content Type, still image:http://metadataregistry.org/concept/show/id/523.html
      11/20/09
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
      30
    • 31. Part 2: Whither Catalogers?
      What Happens When The Revolution Comes?
      11/20/09
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    • 32. Focus on Catalogers
      What do we anticipate will be different about our changed working environment?
      How will workflow change?
      How will the data look?
      What will the library vendor systems do with it?
      How will we integrate user data? What kinds of user data?
      What do we need to know to operate in this new environment?
      11/20/09
      CLA TSS Seminar, Farmington
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    • 33. Approaching Change
      Catalogers will need to separate what they know about information based on their current systems from what is more general in nature
      Much of the knowledge is portable, but needs updating
      The new environment is not as well organized (yet), so much learning will need to be self-directed
      Catalogers’ role may become closer to that of Metadata Librarian
      Managing data at a more abstract level (not as creators)
      Understanding the goals of changes anticipated and new requirements will be essential
      11/20/09
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      33
    • 34. Walking through a concrete example …
      From the DCMI/RDA Cataloger Scenarios
      11/20/09
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    • 35. Jane Cataloger is assigned to work on a gift collection. Her first selection is a Latvian translation of Kurt Vonnegut's "Bluebeard: a novel." She searches the library database for the original work, and finds:
      *Author: Kurt Vonnegut
      *Title of the work: Bluebeard: a novel
      *Form of work: Novel
      *Identifier for the work: W224578
      35
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      A Cataloger Scenario
    • 36. 11/20/09
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      Translated to RDA/XML:
      <frbrWork
      ID="rda.basic/01”>
      <rdarole:author>Kurt Vonnegut</rdarole:author>
      <titleOfTheWork>Bluebeard: a novel</titleOfTheWork>
      <formOfWork>Novel</formOfWork> <identifierForTheWork>W224578<identifierForTheWork>
      </frbrWork>
      Upgraded to RDA/XML with Links:
      <frbrWork
      ID="rda.basic/01”>
      <rdarole:author>http://lcnaf.info/79062641</rdarole:author>
      <titleOfTheWork>Bluebeard: a novel</titleOfTheWork>
      <formOfWork>http://RDVocab.info/genre/1008</formOfWork> <identifierForTheWork>http://purl.org/identifiers/W224578</>
      </frbrWork>
    • 37. 11/20/09
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      with links to the following expression information:
      *Language of expression: English
      *Content type: Text
      and one manifestation:
      *Edition statement: 1st trade edition
      *Place of publication: New York
      *Publisher’s name: Delacorte Press
      *Date of publication: 1987
      *Extent of text: 300 pages
      *Identifier for the manifestation: [ISBN]0385295901
    • 38. 11/20/09
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      Translated to RDA/XML:
      <frbrExpression
      ID="rda.basic/07”>
      <contentType>Text</contentType> <languageOfExpression>English<languageOfExpression>
      </frbrExpression>
      Upgraded to RDA/XML with Links:
      <frbrExpression
      ID="rda.basic/07”>
      <formOfWork>http://RDVocab.info/termList/RDAContentType/1020</> <languageOfExpression>http://marclang.info/eng </>
      </frbrExpression>
    • 39. 11/20/09
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      Translated to RDA/XML (with links below):
      <frbrManifestation
      ID="rda.basic/09”>
      <editionStatement>1st Trade Edition</>
      <placeOfPublication>New York<placeOfPublication>
      <publishersName>Delacorte Press</publishersName>
      <dateOfPublication>1987</dateOfPublication>
      <extentOfText>300 pages</extentOfText>
      <identifierForTheManifestation>[ISBN]0385295901</>
      </frbrManifestation>
      <frbrManifestatiion
      ID="rda.basic/09”>
      <editionStatement>1st Trade Edition</>
      <placeOfPublication>http://www.getty.edu/tgn/7007567</>
      <publishersName>http://onixpub.info/2039987</>
      <dateOfPublication>1987</dateOfPublication>
      <extentOfText>300 pages</extentOfText>
      <identifierForTheManifestation>urn:ISBN:0385295901</>
      </frbrManifestation>
    • 40. 11/20/09
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      FRBR Group 1
      Work
      Exp: eng
      Man: eng
    • 41. 11/20/09
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      Jane begins her description by linking to the existing Work entity. She then creates an expression description:
      *Content type: text
      *Language of expression: Latvian
      *Translator:Grigulis, Arvīds
      She creates an authority record for the translator since none yet existed. She continues by creating a fuller description for the new manifestation, linking to the authority record for the Latvian publisher (what luck, it already existed!).
      *Title: [in Latvian]
      *Place of publication: Riga
      *Publisher’s name: Liesma
      *Date of publication: 1997
      *Extent of Text: 315 pages
    • 42. 11/20/09
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      Translated to RDA/XML:
      <frbrExpression
      ID="rda.basic/11”>
      <contentType>text</contentType> <languageOfExpression>Latvian<languageOfExpression>
      <rdarole:translator>Grigulis, Arvīds</rdarole:translator>
      </frbrExpression>
      Upgraded to RDA/XML with Links:
      <frbrExpression
      ID="rda.basic/11”>
      <formOfWork>http://RDVocab.info/termList/RDAContentType/1020</> <languageOfExpression>http://marclang.info/lav</>
      <rdarole:translator>http://lcnaf.info/83219993
      </frbrExpression>
    • 43. 11/20/09
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      Translated to RDA/XML (with links below):
      <frbrManifestation
      ID="rda.basic/09”>
      <title>[in Latvian]</>
      <placeOfPublication>Riga<placeOfPublication>
      <publishersName>Liesma</publishersName>
      <dateOfPublication>1997</dateOfPublication>
      <extentOfText>315 pages</extentOfText>
      </frbrManifestation>
      <frbrManifestatiion
      ID="rda.basic/09”>
      <placeOfPublication>http://www.getty.edu/tgn/7006484</>
      <publishersName>http://onixpub.info/6770094</>
      <dateOfPublication>1997</dateOfPublication>
      <extentOfText>315 pages</extentOfText>
      </frbrManifestation>
    • 44. 11/20/09
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      FRBR Group 1
      Work
      Exp: eng
      Exp: lav
      Man: eng
      Man: lav
    • 45. 11/20/09
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      FRBR Group 2
      FRBR Group 1
      Work
      Author
      Translator
      Publisher
      Exp: eng
      Exp: lav
      Man: eng
      Man: lav
    • 46. 11/20/09
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      FRBR Group 2
      FRBR Group 1
      Work
      Author
      Translator
      Exp: eng
      Exp: lav
      Publisher
      FRBR Group 3
      Concepts
      Objects
      Events
      Places
      Man: eng
      Man: lav
      Subjects
    • 47. 11/20/09
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      FRBR Group 2
      FRBR Group 1
      Work
      Author
      Translator
      Exp: eng
      Exp: lav
      Publisher
      FRBR Group 3
      Concepts
      Objects
      Events
      Places
      Man: eng
      Man: lav
      Subjects
      Relationship
      Vocabularies
      Content Vocabularies
      Other Information
      In the “Cloud”
      Media Vocabularies
    • 48. Examining the Genetics
      RDA’s model is primarily FRBR and FRAD, but also takes some of its DNA from Dublin Core
      DC’s Abstract Model de-composes traditional metadata “records” and re-composes them with additional levels above and below what we’ve traditionally thought of as our “atomic level”
      The DCAM also talks about “statements” in ways that help connect RDA to the Semantic Web
      The Semantic Web leads us into a different world of data
      11/20/09
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    • 49. 11/20/09
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      A Dublin Core View of the World
      DCMI Abstract Model: http://dublincore.org/documents/abstract-model/
    • 50. 11/20/09
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      A Dublin Core View of the World
      DCMI Abstract Model: http://dublincore.org/documents/abstract-model/
    • 51. 11/20/09
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      Anatomy of a Statement: Strings
      Property
      Value
      Place of Production: New York
      Value
      String
    • 52. 11/20/09
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      Anatomy of a Statement: URIs
      Property
      Value
      Place of Production: http://dbpedia.org/page/Daytona_Beach%2C_Florida
      For Related Description
    • 53. 11/20/09
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      A Related Description
    • 54. “The Semantic Web is a web of data, in some ways like a global database”1
      “first step is putting data on the Web in a form that machines can naturally understand...  This creates what I call a Semantic Web - a web of data that can be processed directly or indirectly by machines”2
      1. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Semantic.html
      2. Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web. Harper, San Francisco. 1999.
      Slide from presentation to UKOLN by Adrian Stevenson, 11/09
      11/20/09
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    • 55. Sets
      Cats, Descriptions, Whatever
      11/20/09
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    • 56. 11/20/09
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      Description Sets a Key Concept!
    • 57. Description Set=“A set of one or more descriptions, each of which describes a single resource.”*
      57
      *DCAM Definition
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    • 58. 11/20/09
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      FRBR Group 2
      FRBR Group 1
      Work
      Author
      Translator
      Exp: eng
      Exp: lav
      Publisher
      FRBR Group 3
      Concepts
      Objects
      Events
      Places
      Man: eng
      Man: lav
      Subjects
      Relationship
      Vocabularies
      Content Vocabularies
      Other Information
      In the “Cloud”
      Media Vocabularies
    • 59. 11/20/09
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      FRBR Group 2
      FRBR Group 1
      Work
      Author
      Translator
      Exp: eng
      Exp: lav
      Publisher
      FRBR Group 3
      Concepts
      Objects
      Events
      Places
      Man: eng
      Man: lav
      Subjects
      Relationship
      Vocabularies
      Content Vocabularies
      Other Information
      In the “Cloud”
      Media Vocabularies
    • 60. 11/20/09
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      FRBR Group 2
      FRBR Group 1
      Work
      Author
      Translator
      Exp: eng
      Exp: lav
      Publisher
      FRBR Group 3
      Concepts
      Objects
      Events
      Places
      Man: eng
      Man: lav
      Subjects
      Relationship
      Vocabularies
      Content Vocabularies
      Other Information
      In the “Cloud”
      Media Vocabularies
    • 61. 11/20/09
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      FRBR Group 2
      FRBR Group 1
      Work
      Author
      Translator
      Exp: eng
      Exp: lav
      Publisher
      FRBR Group 3
      Concepts
      Objects
      Events
      Places
      Man: eng
      Man: lav
      Subjects
      Relationship
      Vocabularies
      Content Vocabularies
      Other Information
      In the “Cloud”
      Media Vocabularies
    • 62. So, How Different Is This?
      A “Description Set” is an aggregation of statements …
      A MARC Record is an aggregation of fields
      Each has rules and specifications
      Each has ways of relating to other kinds of related information
      How hard can it be?
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    • 63. New Tools, New Knowledge
      Getting There From Here
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    • 64. 11/20/09
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    • 65. Semantic Web Standards
      RDF: Resource Description Framework
      Statements about Web resources in the form of subject-predicate-object expressions, called triples
      E.g. “This presentation” –“has creator” –“Diane Hillmann”
      RDF Schema
      Vocabulary description language of RDF
      SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organisation System
      Expresses the basic structure and content of concept schemes such as thesauri and other types of controlled vocabularies
      An RDF application
      OWL (Web Ontology Language)
      Explicitly represents the meaning of terms in vocabularies and the relationships between them
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    • 66. Semantic Web Building Blocks
      Each component of an RDF statement (triple) is a “resource”
      RDF is about making machine-processable statements, requiring
      A machine-processable language for representing RDF statements
      A system of machine-processable identifiers for resources (subjects, predicates, objects)
      Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
      For full machine-processing potential, an RDF statement is a set of three URIs
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    • 67. Things Requiring Identification
      Object “This presentation”
      e.g. its electronic location (URL)
      Predicate “has creator”
      e.g. http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator
      Object “Diane Hillmann”
      e.g. URI of entry in Library of Congress Name Authority File (real soon now?)
      NAF: nr2001015786
      Declaring vocabularies/values in SKOS and OWL provides URIs—essential for the Semantic Web
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    • 68. What Happened to XML?
      Nothing: XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is most likely how library systems will evolve after MARC
      It makes sense to use XML to exchange data between libraries, and some external services
      But RDF is gaining ground, and libraries will need to be able to accommodate it, and understand it
      An XML record is essentially an aggregation of property = value statements about the same resource
      RDF triples can also be aggregated using XML, but this isn’t necessarily the best way to realize the potential of RDF
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    • 69. New Sources of Data
      Governments
      The UK government is looking for ways to distribute it’s data widely: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/8311627.stm
      The US government is joining the party: http://www.data.gov/
      Geographic names: http://www.geonames.org/
      New York Times: http://data.nytimes.com/
      Other information (being used by the NYTimes)
      Dbpedia: http://dbpedia.org/About
      Freebase: http://www.freebase.com/
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      http://dbpedia.org/page/Daytona_Beach%2C_Florida
    • 71. Can Libraries Participate?
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    • 72. Users
      Bringing Users (and Usage) Into the Conversation
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    • 73. User Data “R” Us
      Sources of ‘active’ user data
      Tagging, etc.
      Review and rating systems
      Courseware systems
      Sources of ‘passive’ user data
      Logs of user activity
      Circulation or download data
      “Making data work harder …” –Lorcan Dempsey
      Collaborative filtering
      Data mining
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    • 74. Active User Data
      User tagging and description
      Ex.: The LC Flickr Project
      Ex.: LibraryThing
      Review and rating systems
      Ex.: Penn Tags
      Ex.: Amazon
      Courseware Systems
      Making connections so that courseware can reuse catalog information; catalogs can know what has been used in courses, when, and who assigned it
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    • 75. LC-Flickr Project
      Library of Congress and Flickr--“In a very elegant way, Flickr solves the authority conundrum of exposing collections content to social process. No need to worry if some comments or tags are misleading, arbitrary or incorrect - it’s not happening on your site, but in a space where people know and expect a wide variety of contributions. On the other hand, LC selectively reaps the benefit of these contributions.”
      (http://hangingtogether.org/?p=401)
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      An Example: http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/2536800324/
    • 76. Librarything
      What is it? From the homepage:
      Join the world’s largest book club
      Catalog your books from Amazon, the Library of Congress and 690 other world libraries. Import from anywhere
      Find people with eerily similar tastes.
      Find new books to read
      Free Early Reviewer books from publishers and authors
      An example: http://www.librarything.com/work/112603
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      What is PennTags?
      “PennTags is a social bookmarking tool for locating, organizing, and sharing your favorite online resources. Members of the Penn Community can collect and maintain URLs, links to journal articles, and records in Franklin, our online catalog and VCat, our online video catalog. Once these resources are compiled, you can organize them by assigning tags (free-text keywords) and/or by grouping them into projects, according to your specific preferences. PennTags can also be used collaboratively, because it acts as a repository of the varied interests and academic pursuits of the Penn community, and can help you find topics and users related to your own favorite online resources.nPennTags was developed by librarians at the University of Pennsylvania. “
      An example: http://tags.library.upenn.edu/
    • 78. Passive User Data
      Logs of user activity
      Usually locally maintained and analyzed
      Third party services like Google Analytics can provide important aggregate information
      Circulation or download data
      Tricky in library settings, where user privacy an important value, but can be successfully agregated
      Anonymized data can be stored and used for relevance ranking
      Take a cue from successful commercial sites like Amazon!
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    • 79. Hard Working Data
      Collaborative filtering
      Wikipedia: “ … the process of filtering for information or patterns using techniques involving collaboration among multiple agents, viewpoints, data sources, etc.”
      Ex.: Amazon (people who bought “X” also bought “Y”)
      Data mining
      Wikipedia: “ … statistical and logical analysis of large sets of transaction data, looking for patterns that can aid decision making.”
      Ex.: LibraryThing Zeitgeist
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    • 80. User Data Issues
      Privacy
      Being able to use information about a contributing user without violating personal privacy
      Complicated by differences in generational ideas about what privacy is
      Authority (who said?)
      Librarians have traditionally valued “objectivity,” but there’s no evidence that users see this as a value
      Management
      Keeping spammers out
      Filtering language and malicious intent
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    • 81. Sharing User Contributions
      Note how LibraryThing pulls Amazon descriptions
      Amazon has an API that allows other services to use its data
      Positioning Amazon data in other sites drives users back to Amazon—Libraries need to do this!
      As libraries move more of their unique data to the Web, they need to be aware of the marketing value of sharing data and allowing other services to combine it in new ways
      To do this, libraries will need to be able to package the data in ways hat others can capture it
      Ex.: XC Project is planning to share Courseware information
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    • 82. Preparing Ourselves
      Figuring Out What We Need To Know
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    • 83. Learning Strategies
      Group Learning
      Seminars (like this one!)
      Conference presentations
      Local study groups
      Self-directed learning
      Tutorials
      Blogs
      Keeping up with the discussion--You need a plan!
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    • 84. Self-directed Learning
      Web tutorials:
      http://www.w3schools.com/
      Blogs
      Get a Bloglines account (free)
      Start with a few, and expand:
      Lorcan Dempsey (http://orweblog.oclc.org/)
      Karen Coyle (http://kcoyle.blogspot.com/)
      The FRBR Blog (http://www.frbr.org/)
      Catalogablog (http://catalogablog.blogspot.com/)
      Cataloging Futures (http://www.catalogingfutures.com/)
      Metadata Matters (http://managemetadata.org/blog/)
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    • 85. Mailing lists
      Evaluate your current reading habits
      Are you spending too much time on lists that focus on MARC and AACR2 problem solving?
      Do you hear too much whining about change?
      Migrate to some of the lists discussing newer ideas
      web4lib@webjunction.org
      metadatalibrarians@lists.monarchos.com
      RDA-L@INFOSERV.NLC-BNC.CA
      DC-RDA@JISCMAIL.AC.UK
      Ask questions! Network!
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    • 86. Acronymia, We Are Here
      RDA: Resource Description and Access
      RDF: Resource Description Framework (a W3C standard)
      FRBR: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records
      FRBRoo: Object Oriented FRBR (harmonized with CIDOC CRM)
      FRAD: Functional Requirements for Authority Data
      FRASAR: Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Records
      SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organisation System (a W3C standard)
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    • 87. Thanks & Acknowledgements
      Thanks for your attention!
      Slides and ideas from Karen Coyle, Gordon Dunsire, and too many others to count!
      Contact for Diane:
      Email: metadata.maven@gmail.com
      Website: http://managemetadata.com/
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