WILLIAM               SHAKESPEARBorn                Baptised 26 April 1564 (birth date                    unknown)        ...
JULIUS CAESAR THE WRITTEN BY WILLIAMSHAKESPEAR Summary of the plot or story Julius Caesar is a highly successful but ambit...
Information provided about the playWilliam Shakespeare never published any of his plays and therefore none of theoriginal ...
The settings for the dramaThe settings for Julius Caesar are Verona and Mantua in ItalyThe theme of the playThe play Juliu...
History of the dramaJulius Caesar is a dramatization of actual events. Hewas assassinated in 44 B.C.It is believed that hi...
CHARECTERS OF JULIUS CAESARWilliam Shakespeare play charactersThis page contains a list of the characters in Julius Caesar...
Characters in Julius Caesar       Pindarus                                Casca         Portia                            ...
THE TARGEDY OF JULIUS    CAESARMarcellus and Flavius criticize the commoners for celebrating Caesars recentmilitary defeat...
Cassius is trying to convince Brutus to join too. Brutus, unable to sleep, tells himselfthat he fears Caesar will become a...
Antony forms a triumvirate with Octavius Caesar and Lepidus, to rule Rome.However, Brutus and Cassius are raising an army ...
JUIUS CAESAR BY WILLIAMSHAKESPEARWilliam Shakespear was an English poet and an author of manydramas and in the last years ...
When he was writing this drama, he read a lot about Ceasars life andtimes so that his work could be as similar to his real...
THE PROBLEM OF POWER              IN SHAKESPEAR ‘S DRAMALike in other Shakespears dramas, in Julius Ceasar there is a pict...
D. H. LAWERENCE  David Herbert Richards Lawrence  11 September 1885  Eastwood, Nottinghamshire, England  2 March 1930 (age...
A snake came to my water-troughOn a hot, hot day, and I in pyjamas for the heat,To drink there.In the deep, strange-scente...
The voice of my education said to meHe must be killed,For in Sicily the black, black snakes are innocent, the gold are ven...
THE POEM“Snake” is a seventy-four-line free-verse poem divided intonineteen verse paragraphs (stanzas of unequal length).L...
An analysis of Snake, by D.H. LawrenceThe Snake, by D.H. Lawrence narrates a man’s encounter with a snake at hiswater trou...
He uses the word “confess” as opposed to simply stating his feeling about theelement of nature. There is a shame that is i...
The internal struggle between our natural intuition and our social     instruction.     The Snake, a poem by D.H. Lawrence...
He begins to feel his instincts which tell him that he is in the presence of nature itself and that he is being honored wi...
All around, the heat of the day drips with oppression while the center of theearth smokes. The speaker is dwarfed by the o...
SNAKE BY D.H.LAWERENCEPOETRY IS A MEANS OF EXPRESSING A PERSON’S THOUGHTS,FEELINGS AND EXPERIENCES. EVERY POEM IS A...
AS LAWERENCE DEPARTED TOWARDS THE TROUGH WITH HIS PITCHER,HE HAD TO WAIT IN THE QUEUE, FOR THERE WAS SOMEONE BEFOREHIM.TON...
YOU WERE A NOT AFAID, YOU WOULD KILL HIM!’THERE IS THE USAGE OF EXCLAMATION MARK TO HIGHLIGHT THEEMOTION AND AS WEL...
THE THEME OF THE POEM IS ANIMAL LIFE IN NATURE. THE POEM IS AN EXTRACT FROM HIS COLLECTON ENTITLED BIRDS,BEASTS AND FLOWER...
D.H. Lawrence & Family.
SAMUEL TAYLORBorn         COLLERIDGE Devon,                  21 October 1772                  Ottery St. Mary,            ...
THE RIME OF ANCIENT          MARINERThe Rime of the Ancient Mariner (originally TheRime of the Ancyent Marinere) is the lo...
Plot summaryThe Rime of the Ancient Mariner relates the experiences of a mariner who hasreturned from a long sea voyage. T...
Day after day, day after day,We stuck, nor breath nor motion;As idle as a painted shipUpon a painted ocean.Water, water, e...
One by one, all of the crew members die, but the Mariner lives on, seeing for sevendays and nights the curse in the eyes o...
BackgroundThe poem may have been inspired by James Cooks second voyage of exploration (1772–1775) ofthe South Seas and the...
SUMMARY There is a Latin epigraph before the poem that is a quote by Thomas Burnet from Archaeologiae philosophicae. It sa...
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner  Here is what I wrote:  "Energy, energy, everywhere, nor any drop to eat."  Meant as a com...
Excerpts from The Rime of the             Ancient MarinerTHE RIME OF ANCIENT MARINERHe holds him with his glittering eye -...
In the antarctic ocean they getstuck in dangerous ice until analbatross seems to come to theirrescue. Then the idiot marin...
The loud wind never reach the ship,   Yet now the ship moved on!Beneath the lightning and the Moon   The dead men gave a g...
Things got really bad....Water, water, everywhere,   And all the boards did shrink;Water, water, everywhere,   Nor any dro...
Forthwith this frame of mine was      wrenched   With a woeful agony,Which forced me to begin my tale;   And then it left ...
family of Samuel Taylor Coleridge
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  1. 1. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARBorn Baptised 26 April 1564 (birth date unknown) Stratford-upon- Avon,Warwickshire, EnglandDied 23 April 1616 (aged 52) Stratford-upon- Avon,Warwickshire, EnglandOccupation Playwright, poet, actorLiterary movement English Renaissance theatreSpouse(s) Anne Hathaway (m. 1582–1616)Children •Susanna Hall •Hamnet Shakespeare •Judith QuineyRelative(s) •John Shakespeare (father) •Mary Shakespeare (mother)
  2. 2. JULIUS CAESAR THE WRITTEN BY WILLIAMSHAKESPEAR Summary of the plot or story Julius Caesar is a highly successful but ambitious political leader of Rome and his goal is to become an unassailable dictator. Caesar is warned that he must "beware the Ides of March" . The prophecy comes true and Caesar is assassinated. Marcus Brutus is a well respected Roman senator who helps plan and carry out Caesars assassination which he believes will rid Rome of a tyrant. Caesars friend Mark Antony provides the famous funeral oration ("Friends, Romans, and countrymen…") Brutus and Cassius meet their inevitable defeat. Brutus, the noble Roman, whose decision to take part in the conspiracy for the sake of freedom, plunges his country into civil war.
  3. 3. Information provided about the playWilliam Shakespeare never published any of his plays and therefore none of theoriginal manuscripts have survived. Eighteen unauthorised versions of his playswere, however, published during his lifetime in quarto editions by unscrupulouspublishers (there were no copyright laws protecting Shakespeare and his worksduring the Elizabethan era). A collection of his works did not appear until 1623 (afull seven years after Shakespeares death on April 23, 1616) when two of his fellowactors, John Hemminges and Henry Condell, posthumously recorded his work andpublished 36 of William’s plays in the First Folio. Some dates are thereforeapproximate other dates are substantiated by historical events, records ofperformances and the dates plays appeared in print.Date first performedIt is believed that Julius Caesar was first performed between 1600 and 1601. In theElizabethan era there was a huge demand for new entertainment and Julius Caesarwould have been produced immediately following the completion of the play.Date first printedIt is believed that Julius Caesar was first printed in the First Folio in 1623. AsWilliam Shakespeare clearly did not want his work published details of the playwould have therefore been noted, and often pirated without his consent, followinga performance.
  4. 4. The settings for the dramaThe settings for Julius Caesar are Verona and Mantua in ItalyThe theme of the playThe play Julius Caesar is categorised as a TragedyNumber of words in the scriptThe number of spoken words in Julius Caesar, according to the Complete PublicDomain Text is 20,933Most important charactersThe most important characters in the play are:Julius Caesar, Mark Antony and Brutus Famous Quotes / Quotations The quotes from Julius Caesar are amongst Shakespeares most famous including Beware the Ides of March and Friends, Romans, countrymen. Details of these famous quotes follow, complete with information regarding the Act and the Scene, allowing a quick reference to the section of the play that these quotations can be found in. Please click here for the full text of the script of the play.
  5. 5. History of the dramaJulius Caesar is a dramatization of actual events. Hewas assassinated in 44 B.C.It is believed that his mother endured agonisingsurgery in order to extract him at birth. This beliefgave rise to the term "Caesarean birth"William Shakespeares Main Source for the workShakespeare found the story in Caesar, Parallel Lives,by Plutarch. He may have also referred to GeoffreyChaucers Canterbury Tales (The Monks Tale).Inspiration from Julius CaesarThe drama has inspired other works such as filmsstarring Marlon Brando and Charlton HestonThe Cast and CharactersClick the link at the top of the page to access a list ofall the cast and characters
  6. 6. CHARECTERS OF JULIUS CAESARWilliam Shakespeare play charactersThis page contains a list of the characters in Julius Caesar by WilliamShakespeare. A summary of the plot and many play details can be accessedvia Julius Caesar the play by William Shakespeare. The enduring works ofWilliam Shakespeare feature many famous and well loved characters. Thedescriptions of the characters in his plays paint clear pictures which enablethe audience to fully appreciate the plots. The Characters range from comedicto tragic. Figures from history become alive through the character drawingsof William Shakespeare. Detailed below are the list of characters in JuliusCaesar The appeal of the people that Shakespeare created The most famous of playwrights - the most famous of plays. The plots range from comedy to tragedy and the great male and female comic and tragic characters who bring the plots and stories to life are the wonderful people that the great Bard created. Not only do we remember the stories but we remember the people - we all have our favourites. But the plays of William Shakespeare go even further - we actually recall exactly what an individual character says!
  7. 7. Characters in Julius Caesar Pindarus Casca Portia Cinna Popilius Lena Cicero Murellus Caius Cassius Marcus Brutus Artemidorus Messala Calpurnia Metellus Cimber Caius Ligarius Publius Cinna the PoetMarcus Aemilius Lepidus Gaius Trebonius Mark Antony Flavius Octavius Caesar Lucilius Volumnius Julius Caesar Strato Clitus Titinius Claudius Varro Decius Brutus Lucius Dardanius Cato
  8. 8. THE TARGEDY OF JULIUS CAESARMarcellus and Flavius criticize the commoners for celebrating Caesars recentmilitary defeat of Pompey since they feel its actually a sad day. During a victorymarch, a soothsayer warns Caesar to "Beware the Ides of March" (March 15);Caesar ignores him. A race is run, wherein Marc Antony, in the course ofcompeting, touches Caesars wife Calphurnia in hopes of curing her infertility.During the race, Cassius tries to convince Brutus that Caesar has become toopowerful and too popular. Brutus neither agrees nor disagrees. Caesar conferswith Antony that he fears Cassius is evil and worth fearing. Casca explains toBrutus and Cassius that shouting they heard was caused by Caesars thricerefusal of a crown offered to him by Antony (though confusing, the commonersrejoiced that he had refused it for it indicated he is a noble man). At the thirdoffering, Caesar collapsed and foamed at the mouth from epilepsy. Afterwards,Caesar exiled/executed Flavius and Marcellus for pulling scarves off of Caesarsimages (statues). In a thunderstorm, Casca meets Cicero and tells him of manyominous and fearful sights, mostly of burning images, he has seen. Cassius thenmeets Cicero and tells him the storm is a good sign of the evil he and his othercohorts plan to do to Caesar. It seems the senators plan to crown Caesar King,but Cassius aims to prevent it, or else commit suicide. Casca agrees to helpCassius. Cinna informs Cassius that Decius Brutus (actually Decimus),Trebonius, and Metallus Cimber will help them to kill Caesar.
  9. 9. Cassius is trying to convince Brutus to join too. Brutus, unable to sleep, tells himselfthat he fears Caesar will become a tyrant if crowned king. Cassius et al. come toBrutus and resolve to murder Caesar the next day (March 15). Metallus alsoconvinces Caius Ligarius to join their cause. The men leave and Portia (Brutus wife)begs Brutus to tell her what is happening, but he does not (though he does tell herbefore he leaves for the Senate). At Caesars house, Calphurnia begs Caesar to stayhome for fear of danger (based on a foreboding dream and the nights storm). Holypriests pluck the entrails of an animal and find no heart in it, another bad sign.Caesar declares he will stay home, to calm his wives fears. Decius, though,convinces Caesar to come to the senate. On the way, the soothsayer Artemidorustries to warn Caesar of impending death, to no avail. At the Senate, Trebonius leadsAntony away from Caesar, then the conspirators murder Caesar. They coverthemselves in his blood and go to the streets crying, "Peace, freedom, and liberty."Antony comes back and mourns Caesars murder. Antony pretends to support theclan, yet yearns for great havoc to occur as a result of the death. Brutus explains tothe crowd that they killed Caesar because he was too ambitious. Antony replieswith reverse psychology to incite the commoners to riot in grief over Caesarsmurder. Antony also reads them Caesars (supposed) will, wherein he leaves moneyto all the citizens, plus his private gardens. In the ensuing riots, Cinna the poet iswrongly killed by a mob that believes him to be Cinna the conspirator.
  10. 10. Antony forms a triumvirate with Octavius Caesar and Lepidus, to rule Rome.However, Brutus and Cassius are raising an army to defy them. Brutus learns thathis wife Portia kills herself by swallowing hot coals. Messala tells Brutus that thetriumvirate has killed 100 senators. Titinius, Messala, Brutus, and Cassius decideto confront Antonys army at Phillipi. At Brutus tent, the ghost of Caesar comesand tells Brutus he will see him at Phillipi. The battle indeed ensues at Phillipi.Cassius confers to Messala that it is his birthday and that he fears defeat. Inbattle, Titinius is captured by Octavius. Cassius convinces Pindarus to help himcommit suicide. Pindarus, in grief, flees after the deed is done. In a twist, Brutusoverthrows Octavius and Cassius army, defeating part of Antonys army. Titinius,in grief over Cassius death, kills himself with Cassiuss sword. The battle turnsagain, this time against Brutus army. Cato is killed and Lucilius is captured,while pretending to be Brutus. Brutus successively asks Clitus, Dardanius, andVolumnius to help him commit suicide, yet all refuse. Brutus finally convincesStrato to hold the sword while he (Brutus) runs onto it and dies. Thus, Antonyand Octavius prevail, while Cassius and Brutus both commit suicide, assumedlypartly in grief over murdering Caesar.
  11. 11. JUIUS CAESAR BY WILLIAMSHAKESPEARWilliam Shakespear was an English poet and an author of manydramas and in the last years of his life also an actor. He lived inthe times when Elisabeth I and Jackob I ruled in England andwhen the Queen Elizabeth Theatre came into existence. He wrote36 plays. He also wrote historical chronicles and comedies andtragedies, but only his chronicles described the history ofEngland of the XVIth century. In his dramas Shakespear oftendescribed power as a corrupting force. William was interested inthe mechanism of power - the aim of many people. This topicappears mostly in chronicles and tragedies along with the JuliusCeasar. Shakespear Julius Ceasar WilliamWilliam Shakespear based his works not only on Englands history, but also thehistory of other countries. He was fascinated by great commanders and so hedecided to write a drama about the life of a well-known Roman leader - JuliusCeasar. Shakespear tried to undestand the secrets of human soul and mind,which make people hungry for power and needing control over others. He basedhis conclusions on the history of past leaders and his own observations.
  12. 12. When he was writing this drama, he read a lot about Ceasars life andtimes so that his work could be as similar to his real history as possible.As a great poet should, he introduces us in a very vivid way to the ancientRoman world, where people are hypocritical and trying to get an office atall costs. Shakespear describes Ceasar not only as a great leader and ahero, who was followed by a huge army and many people, byt also as ahuman being which longs for power, which leads him to solitude andbeing surrounded by fake friends and political friends. Shakespear triesto show Ceasar not only as a ruthless leader but also a human, who has tofight his own weaknesses and face obstacles which appear in everyoneslife and finally achieve his goal.
  13. 13. THE PROBLEM OF POWER IN SHAKESPEAR ‘S DRAMALike in other Shakespears dramas, in Julius Ceasar there is a picture of alust for power, which leads to death. The power, that becomes soimportant, that the one, who possesses it forgets about the whole world.The power, which brings doom and not happiness and joy. Theobsessive greed of power and need of command which brings onlydeath to the main hero, caused by a plot created by his closestassociates - people, who he had called his friends.The genius of Shakespears dramaShakespear broke the rules of the drama and was an examplar for a long time. Hehas shown, that real dramas take place first of all in our life and that great workscan be based on them. He proved that not only currently living people makeexcellent charachters, but also people from the past, who were considered greatonly because of their historical achievements. Shakespear tried not only to showhistory and lives but also find their reasons, which guided them in their lives. InJulius Ceasar he has shown that Ceasar wasnt important as a human being, but asa great politic and when he started to bother others, he was removed in the mostcruel way, but also the only way, which allowed other Roman leaders to get his
  14. 14. D. H. LAWERENCE David Herbert Richards Lawrence 11 September 1885 Eastwood, Nottinghamshire, England 2 March 1930 (aged 44) Vence, France Novelist British 1907–1930 modernism the social subject, travel, literary criticism Novel: Sons and Lovers, The Rainbow, Women in Love, Lady Chatterleys Lover Short Story: Odour of Chrysanthemums, Daughters of the Vicar, The Man who loved Islands Play: The Widowing of Mrs Holroyd
  15. 15. A snake came to my water-troughOn a hot, hot day, and I in pyjamas for the heat,To drink there.In the deep, strange-scented shade of the great dark carob-treeI came down the steps with my pitcherAnd must wait, must stand and wait, for there he was at the trough before me.He reached down from a fissure in the earth-wall in the gloomAnd trailed his yellow-brown slackness soft-bellied down, over the edge ofthe stone troughAnd rested his throat upon the stone bottom,And where the water had dripped from the tap, in a small clearness,He sipped with his straight mouth,Softly drank through his straight gums,into his slack long body, Silently.Someone was before me at my water-trough,And I, like a second comer, waiting.He lifted his head from his drinking, as cattle do,And looked at me vaguely, as drinking cattle do,And flickered his two-forked tongue from his lips, and mused a moment,And stooped and drank a little more,Being earth-brown, earth-golden from the burning bowels of the earth.
  16. 16. The voice of my education said to meHe must be killed,For in Sicily the black, black snakes are innocent, the gold are venomous.And voices in me said, If you were a manYou would take a stick and break him now, and finish him off.But must I confess how I liked him,How glad I was he had come like a guest in quiet, to drink at my water-troughAnd depart peaceful, pacified, and thankless,Into the burning bowels of this earth?
  17. 17. THE POEM“Snake” is a seventy-four-line free-verse poem divided intonineteen verse paragraphs (stanzas of unequal length).Like many modern lyrics, it incorporates a narrativeelement, recording the poet’s encounter with a snake at hiswater-trough. Through this structure and carefullymobilized imagery, the poet reveals his conflicted,deepening consciousness, which moves from casualdescription to epiphanic confession. Written when D. H.Lawrence and his wife Frieda were living in Taormina,Sicily, in 1920-1921, the poem is derived from Lawrence’sactual experience..
  18. 18. An analysis of Snake, by D.H. LawrenceThe Snake, by D.H. Lawrence narrates a man’s encounter with a snake at hiswater trough. In my opinion D.H Lawrence attempts to expound upon theinternal conflicts that arise when social instruction conflicts with naturalinstincts. The speaker in the poem is internally battling with his desire toadmire and befriend this creature and his opposing desire to kill it. Heobserves the snake with care and pays close attention to its actions as hestates, “He lifted his head from his drinking, as cattle do, And looked at mevaguely, as drinking cattle do, And flickered his two-forked tongue from hislips, and mused a moment, And stooped and drank a little more…” As heobserves the snake the only negative feelings he explicates are those he feltwere imposed by society. The speaker purports that he should perhaps kill thesnake because that is what a “man” should do, and then immediately curseshis human education that provided him with the thought. There is an emphasis on the indecisiveness of the speaker, as he waivers all throughout the poem until it is too late for his opinion to matter. When he speaks of the snake it is clear that he is pleased with the snake’s company, while also torn as to whether or not he should interact with nature in this way. When he states, “But must I confess how I liked him, How glad I was he had come like a guest in quiet, to drink at my water-trough…’ he reveals his feeling in a way that imply a deeper sense of guilt or shame in wanting to befriend the snake.
  19. 19. He uses the word “confess” as opposed to simply stating his feeling about theelement of nature. There is a shame that is implicated in the preservation ofnature as if it is a threat to his manhood. Even after he confesses his delightand honor in spending time with the snake he reverts to questioning whetheror not he is a coward because he chose not to kill him.In closing I believe it is important to note the idea of remorse of the decisionsmade by the human in the poem. As a result of his indecisiveness he ends upregretting his loss of the snake as well as cursing his human education. It waswell within his power to let the snake remain in his company but he let it getaway. Towards the end he states, “I despised myself and the voices of myaccursed human education. And I thought of the albatross, And I wished hewould come back, my snake.” Not only does he miss the snake deeply but herefers to the snake as “my snake,” when he had previously contemplatedkilling the snake. For me this poem well exemplifies the struggle of man vs.nature. What do we owe nature on the path to preserve human life. Is itcowardice to maintain a relationship with that animal as opposed to killing it?When he speaks of fear, is it of the snake or of man? These are all questionsthat are provoked by Lawrence’s poem.
  20. 20. The internal struggle between our natural intuition and our social instruction. The Snake, a poem by D.H. Lawrence examines the interior conflicts that are placed upon man by the conflicting forces of our innocent instincts and theThecommonwalks from his house in the dead heat of summer to be speaker sense of the kingdom of manconfronted head on with nature itself and caught up in a dreamlikeinstant in which he faces what he feels to be truth and what other menhave told him to be reality.The speaker begins in conflict and in innocence wearing “pajamas forthe heat.”(2)On his way to get water to relieve the heat, he comes face to face with thereality of nature. A golden bellied king of the earth, dressed in the colorsof his world. Not dark, to hide, but rather brilliant “earth-brown, earth-golden from the burning bowels of the earth”(20).The colors of this snake show that he does not hide in the jungle. He isstrong enough to walk proudly in the world and, according to the voicesin the speakers head, venomous as well (24). The speaker is suddenlyjolted into a state of dreamlike compression. The actions of the worldseem to slow down while his awareness of the world seems to increase.
  21. 21. He begins to feel his instincts which tell him that he is in the presence of nature itself and that he is being honored with its presence (34) while he also hears the voices of men which tell him that he must kill this creature (25). He stands and watches as the beast drinks from the supply of his civil world while he examines every movement in slow motion detail and debates the correct idea to stand upon. To be a man, he must be prepared to kill this threat, but he does not feel the need. The snake is clearly a son of nature, an equal, a “someone” who simply arrived at the trough first and perhaps even lives as a superior even to man. If not superior, then clearly an early arrival to whom the speaker is content to wait behind like “a second comer”(15). The voices of men point out his fear and make this a flaw which they contend server to stop him in his duty.The speaker admits his fear (37) but it is secondary in stationto the honor he instinctually feels. The speaker wrestles withthese conflicting thoughts while the snake continues itsmission with an air nobility. The snake does not movequickly, like prey in danger, but rather “slowly, very slowly, asif thrice adream”(47) almost without equal or enemy.
  22. 22. All around, the heat of the day drips with oppression while the center of theearth smokes. The speaker is dwarfed by the ostentatious set on which he is aplayer. It is not until the snake turns away that he is shaken from his dream(54). Out of fear or perhaps out of shame, he takes up the mantle ofmankind and makes a last effort to fulfill his charge. The prince of the worldquickly escapes uninjured while the speaker is left only with his regret.The employment of imagery in this piece is strong with the use of the brutalheat and slow motion movement to create a sense of solitude and stillness.The speaker paints the liquid posture of the snake with strong use of “S”words which seem almost to turn the readers tongue into the very reptileitself. The speaker is on his own and must choose between honoring thesnake in the way that his soul directs and walking in the shoes ofcontemporary man voices of the men of his past, he sees these words only as While he hears the the thoughts of a demagogue and prefers instead to embrace the actuality of his own feelings. It is only at the end that he gives in to his weakness and puts forth a half hearted attempt which fails miserably. This collapse only helps to illuminate the speaker’s true choice and he instantly knows that he has sinned against himself and against nature. In the end,
  23. 23. SNAKE BY D.H.LAWERENCEPOETRY IS A MEANS OF EXPRESSING A PERSON’S THOUGHTS,FEELINGS AND EXPERIENCES. EVERY POEM IS A RESULT OF A POET BEINGINSPIRED. SIMILARLY, D.H.LAWERENCE WROTE ‘SNAKE’ AFTERBEING INSPIRED BY HIS ENCOUNTER WITH THE SNAKE AT HIS WATERTROUGH IN 1920-21 WHEN HE LIVED IN A TOWN IN SICILY INSIGHT OFMT.ETNA. HE USES THE TRUE VERSE AND SENSES TO CREATE A VIVDPICTURE OF HIS EXPERIENCE.LAWERENCE’S TITLE IS A COMMON NOUN, WHICH FORMS THEINSPIRATION AND MAIN SUBJECT OF THE POEM., BEING DIRECTLY RELATEDTO THE POEM AND CONTENT, IS EASY FOR THE READER TO COMPREHENDTHE POEM.THE POEM THOUGH DESCRIPTIVE IS REFLECTIVE BECAUSE AT THE END OFTHE POEM, THE POET’S THOUGHTS ON HIS BEHAIVOUR ANDPETINESS ARE DWELT UPON. IT STATES THE IDEA BEING CONVEYEDEFFECTUALLY. LAWERENCE CAREFULLY STRUCTURES THE POEM. ITCONSISTS OF STANZAS WITH DIFFERENT LENGTHS. LONG LINES AE WRITING IN FREE VERSE, LAWERENCE PAINTS THE SETTING ON A HOTINTERSPURSED WITH SHORT LINES. HE ALSO MAKES USE OF ISOLATED JULY DAY. FOR THE HEAT, HE HAD TO BE DRESSED IN PYJAMAS AND VISITWORDS LIKE ‘SILENTLY’ TO DRAW READERS ATTENTION TO HIS WATER TROUGH TO QUENCH ITS THIRST. THE USAGE OF REPITIONTHE POETS ATTITUDE. IN LINE 2 ‘HOT, HOT’ DWELLS ON THE HEATNESS OF A JULY DAY.
  24. 24. AS LAWERENCE DEPARTED TOWARDS THE TROUGH WITH HIS PITCHER,HE HAD TO WAIT IN THE QUEUE, FOR THERE WAS SOMEONE BEFOREHIM.TONE OF DISMAY IS EVIDENT AT THIS MOMENT.LAWERENCE MAKESUSE OF DESCRIPTIVE WORDS TO PORTRAY THE SNAKES MOVEMENT. THEPOET STOOD AWESTRICKEN AND ADMIRED THE MAJESTIC BEAUTY OFTHE SNAKE AS IT REACHED DOWN FROM THE FISSURE IN THEEARTHWALL, TRAILED ITS YELLOW-BROWN SLACKNESS SODT BELLIEDDOWN, SLOWLY OVER THE EDGE PF THE WATER TROUGH ANDPROCEEDEDTO DRINK FROM THE ‘SMALL CLAERNESS’.THISDESCRIPTION EMPHASIZES THE SOFT MOVEMENT OF SNAKE.THE USAGE OF SIMILIE EXPRESSES THE HUMAN EGO.‘AND I LIE A SECOND COMER, WAITING’THIS EXPRESSES HIS PERSONALITY OF SELF-IMAGE OF BEING WAITED IN AQUEUE AS IF HE IS A SECOND COMER FOR THE FIRST TIME.LAWERENCE HAS MADE USE OF MANY HYPHENTED WORDS SUCH AS‘TWO-FORKEDГUSING VIVID IMAGERY IN THE FIFTH STANZA, THEPOET CONTRAST THE SNAKEГўв‚STYLE OF DRINKING WITH CATTLES.THE SNAKES ALSO LOOK AT HIM VAGUELY LIKE THE CATTLES ANDCONTINUE TO DRINK. MT.ETNA WAS ACTIVE WHEN LAWERENCE WROTESNAKE THROUGHOUT WHICH HE ANTHROPOMORPHIZES THE EARTH ASAN UNDERWORLD BRINGER OF DEATH AND LIFE, USING IMGERY THATUNITES SCATOLOGY AND EATING
  25. 25. YOU WERE A NOT AFAID, YOU WOULD KILL HIM!’THERE IS THE USAGE OF EXCLAMATION MARK TO HIGHLIGHT THEEMOTION AND AS WELL THE REFLECTION.HAVING QUENCHED ITS THIRST,THE SNAKE ADVANCED TO WITHDRAW INTO THE HOLE. THE SIGHT OF THEDIMINISHING SNAKE FILLED THE POET WITH A ‘SORT OFDISMAY’ AND ‘PROTEST’. THE SNAKE DRANK TO HISFILL AND LIFTED HIS HEAD LIKE A DRUNKARD, AND ‘FLICKERED HSTONGUE LIKE A FORKED NIGHT ON THE AIR, SO BLACK’, THISREMINDES US OF THE MT.ETNA.THE ACCURSED VOICE OF EDUCATION URGED HIM TO PICK UP A LOG ANDTHROW AT THE SNAKE, NOW ITS BACK WAS TURNED. THE POET USESPERONIFICATION ‘CLUMSY LOG’ WHICH PERSONIFIES ABORKEN PIECE OF WOOD TO HIT HIM WITH. THOUGH THE LOG DID NOTHIT THE SNAKE BUT ‘CONVULSED IN DIGNIFIED HASTE’,‘WRITHED LIKE LIGHTINING’ AND ‘VANISHED’FROM VIEW. THIS REMINDED LAWRENCE THE PETTY ACT OF THE ANCINETMARNINER WHO HAD KILLED THE HARMLESS ALBATROS.HE FELT THE NEEDOF AMMENCE FOR HIS ACT OF BETRAYEL AND CURSED THE VOICES OFEDUCATION THAT HAS PROVOKED HIM TO EXECUTE ‘MEAN, VULGARTHE EXTENDED SIMILE ‘LIKE A KING IN EXILE’ SHOWS ANAND PETTY ACT’. HE ACTS POSSESSIVE BY SAYING BE CROWNEDEXAMPLE HOW HE WAS BANISHED BUT NOW DUELY TO ‘MYSNAKE’ TO SHOW GUILT. IN LAWRENCE’S HEART THAT HASAGAIN.THIS SHOWS US RESPECTARISEN. A METAPHOR IS ALSO USED IN THE END ‘LIFE OFLORDS’ SNAKE IS CONSIDERED TO BE LORD OF LIFE AS IT CAN BITE
  26. 26. THE THEME OF THE POEM IS ANIMAL LIFE IN NATURE. THE POEM IS AN EXTRACT FROM HIS COLLECTON ENTITLED BIRDS,BEASTS AND FLOWERS. THE MOOD OF THE POEM IS THE STATE OF MIND OR FEELING CONVEYED IN THE POEM. THE POEM BEGINS WITH AWE ON SEEING THE SNAKE. IT THEN TRANSISTS TO JEALOUSY SINCE THE SNAKE WAS DRINKING AND NOT SHOWING ANY SIGN OF RESPECT. THE POET CONTINUES HIS ROLLER COASTER RIDE OF EMOTIONS. HE BEHAVES BADLY AND FRIGHTENS THE SNAKE. AS A RESUT HE IS ASHMED AND NOSTALIGIC ABOUT HIS ACTIONS. THROUGHOUT THE POEM THE POET VOICES HIS FEELINGS, HIS OPINIONS AND HIS EMOTIONS ABOUT HIS SUBJECT ‘SNAKE’. IT REFLECTS HIS INSTIGUE, HIS SUPERSTITION, HIS SUPIDITY AND EVENTUALY HIS REPENTANCE. HE DOES STRESS HIS POINT OF VIEWTHAT EDUCATION CAN LEAD TO SUPERSTITIONS AND BAUBARIC BEHAIVOUR.THE POEM IS WRITTEN IN FREE VERSE TO OFFER FELXIBILITIY. THE POEMDOES HAVE EXAMPLES OF RHYMING COUPLETS AND IREGULAR RHYMING.THE POEM TENDS TO FOLLOW CLOSELY THE SPEECH RHYTHMS OF THELANGUAGE AND LAWRENCE USES THE LINE AS THE BASIC UNIT OFRHYTHM. THE SPACE ON THE PAGE INDICATES PAUSES IN THE MOVEMENTOF THE POEM. EACH LINE EXPRESSES A SINGLE FEELING OR OBSERVATION.IT IS THE DIRECT UTTERANCE FROM THE INSTANT WHOLE MAN.
  27. 27. D.H. Lawrence & Family.
  28. 28. SAMUEL TAYLORBorn COLLERIDGE Devon, 21 October 1772 Ottery St. Mary, EnglandDied 25 July 1834 (aged 61) Highgate, EnglandOccupation Poet, critic, philosopherLiterary movement RomanticismNotable work(s) The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,Kubla KhanSpouse(s) Sarah FrickerChildren Sara Coleridge, Berkeley Coleridge,Derwent Coleridge, Hartley Coleridge
  29. 29. THE RIME OF ANCIENT MARINERThe Rime of the Ancient Mariner (originally TheRime of the Ancyent Marinere) is the longestmajor poem by the English poet Samuel TaylorColeridge, written in 1797–98 and was published in1798 in the first edition of Lyrical Ballads. Moderneditions use a later revised version printed in 1817 thatfeatured a gloss. Along with other poems in LyricalBallads, it was a signal shift to modern poetry and thebeginning of British Romantic literature. The Mariner up on the mast in a storm. One of the wood- engraved illustrations byGustave Doré.
  30. 30. Plot summaryThe Rime of the Ancient Mariner relates the experiences of a mariner who hasreturned from a long sea voyage. The Mariner stops a man who is on the way toa wedding ceremonyand begins to narrate a story. The Wedding-Guests reactionturns from bemusement to impatience and fear to fascination as the Marinersstory progresses, as can be seen in the language style: for example, Coleridge usesnarrative techniques such as personification and repetition to create either a senseof danger, of the supernatural or of serenity, depending on the mood of each of thedifferent parts of the poem.The Mariners tale begins with his ship departing on its journey. Despite initialgood fortune, the ship is driven south off course by a storm and eventuallyreachesAntarctica. A bird called an albatross (symbolizing the Christian soul)appears and leads them out of the Antarctic, but, even as the albatross is praisedby the ships crew, the Mariner shoots the bird ("with my cross-bow / I shot thealbatross"). The crew is angry with the Mariner, believing the albatross brought thesouth wind that led them out of the Antarctic. However, the sailors change theirminds when the weather becomes warmer and the mist disappears ("Twas right,said they, such birds to slay / that bring the fog and mist"). However, they made agrave mistake in supporting this crime as it arouses the wrath of spirits who thenpursue the ship "from the land of mist and snow"; the south wind that had initiallyled them from the land of ice now sends the ship into uncharted waters, where it isbecalmed.
  31. 31. Day after day, day after day,We stuck, nor breath nor motion;As idle as a painted shipUpon a painted ocean.Water, water, every where,And all the boards did shrink;Water, water, every where,Nor any drop to drink.Here, however, the sailors change their minds again and blame the Mariner for thetorment of their thirst. In anger, the crew forces the Mariner to wear the dead albatrossabout his neck, perhaps to illustrate the burden he must suffer from killing it, or perhapsas a sign of regret ("Ah! Well a-day! What evil looks / Had I from old and young! /Instead of the cross, the albatross / About my neck was hung"). Eventually, in an eeriepassage, the ship encounters a ghostly vessel. On board are Death (a skeleton) andthe "Night-mare Life-in-Death" (a deathly-pale woman), who are playing dice for thesouls of the crew. With a roll of the dice, Death wins the lives of the crew members andLife-in-Death the life of the Mariner, a prize she considers more valuable. Her name is aclue as to the Mariners fate; he will endure a fate worse than death as punishment forhis killing of the albatross.
  32. 32. One by one, all of the crew members die, but the Mariner lives on, seeing for sevendays and nights the curse in the eyes of the crews corpses, whose last expressionsremain upon their faces. Eventually, the Mariners curse is temporarily lifted when hesees sea creatures swimming in the water. Despite his cursing them as "slimy things"earlier in the poem ("Yea, slimy things did crawl with legs / upon the slimy sea"), hesuddenly sees their true beauty and blesses them ("a spring of love gushd from myheart and I blessd them unaware"); suddenly, as he manages to pray, the albatrossfalls from his neck and his guilt is partially expiated. The bodies of the crew, possessedby good spirits, rise again and steer the ship back home, where it sinks in a whirlpool,leaving only the Mariner behind. A hermit on the mainland had seen the approachingship and had come to meet it with a pilot and the pilots boy in a boat. This hermit mayhave been a priest who took a vow of isolation. When they pull him from the water,they think he is dead, but when he opens his mouth, the pilot has a fit. The hermitprays, and the Mariner picks up the oars to row. The pilots boy goes crazy and laughs,thinking the Mariner is the devil, and says, "The Devil knows how to row." As penancefor shooting the albatross, the Mariner, driven by guilt, is forced to wander the earth,tell his story, and teach a lesson to those he meets:He prayeth best, who loveth bestAll things both great and small;For the dear God who loveth us,He made and loveth all.After relating the story, the Mariner leaves, and the Wedding Guest returns home, andwakes the next morning "a sadder and a wiser man".
  33. 33. BackgroundThe poem may have been inspired by James Cooks second voyage of exploration (1772–1775) ofthe South Seas and the Pacific Ocean; Coleridges tutor, William Wales, was the astronomeron Cooks flagship and had a strong relationship with Cook. On this second voyage Cook crossedthree times into the Antarctic Circle to determine whether the fabled great southern continentexisted.[1] Critics have also opined that the poem may have been inspired by the voyageof Thomas James into the Arctic. "Some critics think that Coleridge drew upon Jamess account ofhardship and lamentation in writing The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.[2]According to William Wordsworth, the poem was inspired while Coleridge, Wordsworth andWordsworths sister Dorothy were on a walking tour through the Quantock Hills in Somerset in thespring of 1798.[3] The discussion had turned to a book that Wordsworth was reading, A VoyageRound The World by Way of the Great South Sea (1726) by Captain George Shelvocke. In thebook, a melancholy sailor, Simon Hatley, shoots a black albatross:We all observed, that we had not the sight of one fish of any kind, since we were come to the Southward of the streights of le Mair, nor one sea-bird, except a disconsolate black Albatross, who accompanied us for several days ..., till Hattley, (my second Captain) observing, in one of his melancholy fits, that this bird was always hovering near us, imagind, from his colour, that it might be some ill omen. ... He, after some fruitless attempts, at length, shot the Albatross, not doubting we should have a fair wind after it.As they discussed Shelvockes book, Wordsworth proffers the following developmental critique toColeridge, which importantly contains a reference to tutelary spirits: "Suppose you represent himas having killed one of these birds on entering the south sea, and the tutelary spirits of theseregions take upon them to avenge the crime."[3] By the time the trio finished their walk, the poemhad taken shape.Bernard Martin argues in The Ancient Mariner and the Authentic Narrative that Coleridge was alsoinfluenced by the life of Anglican clergyman John Newton, who had a near-death experienceaboard a slave ship.
  34. 34. SUMMARY There is a Latin epigraph before the poem that is a quote by Thomas Burnet from Archaeologiae philosophicae. It says that there are forces in nature and that people should study them. There are also notes beside the poem that summarize and explain the corresponding passages. There are two versions of this poem, one written in 1798 and the other in 1817. In the later edition, some passages are changed or left out. There are also fewer older words. An old sailor, or Ancient Mariner, stops three young men who are going to a wedding. The sailor grabs one of the men and tries to speak, but the man wants him to let go. However, the man, or Wedding Guest, is captivated by the sailors "glittering eye" and listens obediently like a child. The Wedding Guest sits on a stone, and the sailor begins his tale, explaining how his ship... (read more)
  35. 35. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Here is what I wrote: "Energy, energy, everywhere, nor any drop to eat." Meant as a comment on our inability (we animals) to get nourishment directly from sunlight, though it shines on us everywhere. The plants and other photosynthesizers come to our rescue, as readers of this website understand. Coleridge, who probably knew little, if anything, about photosynthesis and energy, wrote the following famous lines: "Water, water, everywhere, And all the boards did shrink; Water, water, everywhere, Nor any drop to drink." Thats just a small excerpt from what is a pretty long story told in poetic verse. It is a beautiful and fascinating poem, which is why I had to appologize to Coleridge for daring to mess with his great work. Click on the links below, or just keep scrolling to learn a little more about the poem and Coleridge, and to read a few more excerpts from the poem.
  36. 36. Excerpts from The Rime of the Ancient MarinerTHE RIME OF ANCIENT MARINERHe holds him with his glittering eye --- The Wedding Guest stood still,And listens like a three years child: The Mariner hath his will.The Wedding Guest sat on a stone: He cannot choose but hear;And thus spake on that ancient man, The bright-eyed Mariner.
  37. 37. In the antarctic ocean they getstuck in dangerous ice until analbatross seems to come to theirrescue. Then the idiot mariner (alittle editorializing) shoots it witha crossbow.... The ice was here, the ice was there, The ice was all around: It cracked and growled, and roared and howled, Like noises in a swound! At length did cross an Albatross, Thorough the fog it came; As if it had been a Christian soul, We hailed it in Gods name.
  38. 38. The loud wind never reach the ship, Yet now the ship moved on!Beneath the lightning and the Moon The dead men gave a groan.They groaned, they stirred, they all uprose, Nor spake, nor moved their eyes;It had been strange, even in a dream, To have seen those dead men rise.The helmsman steered, the ship moved on; Yet never never a breeze up-blew;The mariners all gan work the ropes, Where they were wont to do;They raised their limbs like lifeless tools--- We were a ghastly crew.The body of my brothers son Stood by me, knee to knee:The body and I pulled at one rope, But he said nought to me.
  39. 39. Things got really bad....Water, water, everywhere, And all the boards did shrink;Water, water, everywhere, Nor any drop to drink.The very deep did rot: O Christ! That ever this should be!Yea, slimy things did crawl withlegs Four times fifty living men, (And I heard nor sigh nor groan) Upon the slimy sea. With heavy thump, a lifeless lump, They dropped down one by one. The souls did from their bodies fly, They fled to bliss or woe! And every soul, it passed me by, Like the whizz of my crossbow!
  40. 40. Forthwith this frame of mine was wrenched With a woeful agony,Which forced me to begin my tale; And then it left me free.Since then, at an uncertain hour, That agony returns:And till my ghastly tale is told, This heart within me burns.I pass, like night, from land to land; I have strange power of speech;That moment that his face I see, I know the man that must hear me:To him my tale I teach.
  41. 41. family of Samuel Taylor Coleridge
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