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SMART Data Workshop: Social media and Emergency Management
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  • Documenting context around this type of collecting is very important 
    some hashtags would be inexplicable to people even a few years after the event, yet to people using them at the time it was a shared language.  The organic nature of hashtags and the completely anarchic way they can emerge can also force Emergency services agencies to switch to using a popular hashtag to participate in the current conversations.
    the data set that a researcher would be faced with in the years to come is many tiny pieces of information, our documentation supplements the metadata captured in Vizie to provide the social, environmental and geopolitical context within which to interpret and decode the tweets etc.
  • We have seen many examples of social media use during natural disasters in Australia, and it is not surprising considering most people in that type of situation have access to their mobile phone (and social media apps) as well as a pressing need to keep their family and friends informed of the danger and that they are ok.
    The Black Friday fires in Victoria in February 2009 was some of the earliest mass use of social media to share information in a disaster … the Brisbane floods in 2011 social media really proved itself.

    SPEED is one of the challenges of capturing a sample of the social media conversation in a disaster situation. The characteristic ‘burst’ and high level of activity all happens very rapidly, requiring a quick response in putting search terms into the system. Some retrospective collecting is possible but the Twitter search api indicates 6-9 days is the optimal timeframe before the retrieval capability degrades.

    As you can see from this graph – measuring the posts trapped in the Environment monitoring activity in October 2013 (which includes bushfires) – shows peaks on 18 and 23 October 2013. Fires across NSW, particularly severe in the Blue Mountains
    18 October – fatality at Lake Munmorah, fires increasing in severity
    23 October – extreme weather warnings for hot weather, warnings from previous day that 23 October was likely to be a day of extreme risk and residents encouraged to leave the Blue Mountains area if they were not prepared. The weather was better than expected and backburning efforts on the 22nd meant that the extreme risk was averted.

Transcript

  • 1. ICT CENTRE Dr Cécile Paris and Stephen Wan CSIRO Computational Informatics Social Media and Emergency Management – The Vizie tool Kathryn Barwick and Mylee Joseph State Library NSW
  • 2. Social Media SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 2 mercatornet.com edudemic.com
  • 3. Different channels for different purposes mwpartners Ias.surrey.ack.uk technonologyinprevention webseoanalytics SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 3
  • 4. Prevention Preparedness Response Recovery Emergency Management Resilience em.gov.au siliconangle.com Blogs.oregonstate.edu dis.anl.gov SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 4
  • 5. Prevention Preparedness Response Recovery First-event detection Alerts Disseminate information Assess readiness of Community; engage Monitor situation Identify where what is needed Inform Respond Plan for recovery Analyse past events Disseminate information Assess readiness of community Engage with community Monitor for early warnings Understand how community reacts to event and response Understand community attitude Inform for better prevention/etc. Learn Understand issues Work towards a resilient community Document SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 5 Emergency Management
  • 6. Prevention Preparedness Response Recovery Emergency Management Resilience em.gov.au dis.anl.gov SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 6 Learning Documenting
  • 7. Use of Social Media throughout the whole cycle em.gov.au dis.anl.gov SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 7  Prevention and Preparedness – Understanding community awareness: are people talking/sharing about prevention/preparedness; where do they talk about it? – Understanding the language used by community – Disseminating appropriate information – Engaging with the community  Discover the crisis  Deal with events as they unfold – Data exploration (what are the issues? Facebook vs Twitter?)  Learn about what happened  Document for the future (SLNSW)
  • 8. Preparedness and Prevention SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 8
  • 9. SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 9
  • 10. First event detection: burst in mentions of crisis events (Twitter) From ESA (Cameron et al, 2012) SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 10
  • 11. Monitoring a crisis and recovery – discussions across all SM channels SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 11
  • 12. Vizie: Collecting and Analysing Social Media Vizie Overview12 | Query = “csiro hendra” Etc.
  • 13. Exploring the data with Vizie: understanding, learning and reflecting Presentation title | Presenter name | Page 13
  • 14. Explore data to enable in-depth analysis – e.g., • Most shared content • Time sequence • Where does what gets discussed • Shared discourse and shared language • Compare different topics Learning SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 14 70,000 posts collected during the first day alone of the Ashes cricket series in November last year, roughly double the number collected in October during the bushfires in the Blue Mountains https://twitter.com/alexpal95_alex/statuses/419814926241513472 https://twitter.com/nayyarasheed/status/419803506959069184
  • 15. Documenting (SL NSW) -- Capturing the conversation = different voices & perspectives, as it happens and unfolds – the modern day diaries and letters https://twitter.com/NSWRFS/status/393984735787364352https://twitter.com/onsight_simon/status/393378878934093825 https://twitter.com/NickGrimm/status/393225099899191296 SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 15
  • 16. Documenting (SL NSW) https://twitter.com/carolprobets/status/449354571412811777 https://twitter.com/abcnews/status/393239745813176320 https://twitter.com/SarWhyte/status/410183181204074496 SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 16
  • 17. https://twitter.com/nadine_morton/statuses/426543933011660800 https://twitter.com/wwccmedia/statuses/425867215288532 992 SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 17
  • 18. Making use of SM not as easy as it might appear... 1. Amount of data 2. Needle-in-a-haystack problem – where to look for what when and how? ... However, I’m also left with a profound sense of the challenges still remaining. The designated places of safety for many people in the wide flat valley was as much as 10 km away, leaving them highly vulnerable, especially if they lack transport, as travel time for a lahar from the peak is perhaps only half an hour. Maybe better understanding of precursors would enable precautionary evacuation before an eruption, but would the political and social appetite be there after the challenging experiences when this was done for Baños and Tungurahua? I was also frustrated to find one evacuation route could not even be followed safely, where a left-turn was prevented by the later addition of a central fence in the highway. Although I’m sure this was miscommunication between agencies, I guess this also comes back to competing risks and priorities – was the daily hazard for cars crossing the highway perhaps just more important than a once-a-century mudflow? http://blogs.egu.eu/gfgd/2013/10/01/guest-blog-a-summer-of-volcanic-observation-in-ecuador-5/ SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 18
  • 19. More challenges... Processing text • Embedded symbols (e.g., “hash tags”, @ signs, “.au”, links) • Terminology variation: • Lexical Variation: misspellings, incorrect use of terminology,, informal language, abbreviations, slang • Synonyms, different terms than official language • Syntax: Ungrammatical sentences, lack of correct punctuation • Semantic, pragmatic, discourse: • Lack of discourse markers, or informal language to mark them • Grouping discussions together barryisfunny.com Whoah, Ooooh, Weeee cuppa, shakey shake News.com.au SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 19
  • 20. She’s a natural disaster: a tusnami in her eyes an earthquake in her chest a hurricane flooding her mind she’s a traveling catastrophe Recently, my office has been flooded with gifts from some super friends. @M1Jarvis I don’t like u! My stomach is on fire! Can’t move! Hate you! Regards, Niall Sifting the wheat from the chaff SMART Workshop, May 2014| C. Paris | Page 20
  • 21. Mentions a disaster -- but is it relevant? A quiet moment for #eqnz reflection to mark the second anniversary of Christchurch’s Feb 20122 earthquake. Yuss! I win at #eqnz quick draw! #competitiveaboutstupidhit Businessblogshub.com SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 21
  • 22. Credibility of sources and veracity of information Tht.org.au paul-barford.blog Blog.resourcepro.com SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 22
  • 23. Technologies available Classifiers Burst detection algorithms Clustering algorithms Topic identification Visualisation Summarisation Heuristics for location Tracking discussions Network analysis SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 23
  • 24. Where? What? How? Challenges in disseminating information and engaging with the public through social media Nepal et al, 2012 Blog.socialmaximizer.com Prblog.typepad.com SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 24
  • 25. How to establish credibility and trustworthiness? Disseminating information and engaging with the public empowernetwork.com SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 25
  • 26. How to evaluate impact? How to increase impact? Disseminating information and engaging with the public Name ScreenName Followers Against Suicide @AgainstSuicide 165,000 Suicide Prevention @afspnational 20,000 Beyond Blue @beyondblue 13,000 Black Dog Institute @blackdoginst 5,000 postgradproblems.com SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 26
  • 27. https://twitter.com/sarahcoates7/status/266378296307105792 #vala14 and #s19 #giraffewatch Challenges in documenting – capturing context SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 27
  • 28. https://twitter.com/chenwhitney/status/3762565844997529 60 https://twitter.com/MJCarty/statuses/376369653297078274 https://twitter.com/laureningram/status/376217492466589698https://twitter.com/anwyn/status/376210869153054722 #democracysausage #eqnz SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 28
  • 29. • Can be used throughout Emergency Management cycle • In times of crisis: very good at providing the trigger or an indicator (look in this direction) • Large amounts of unfiltered and analysed information – need tools to help obtain useful information SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 29
  • 30. SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 30 • Social Media is one source of information • Social Media must be verified by another Source • Provides valuable information to the historical record • Must be captured and documented appropriately to enable future learning
  • 31. • Social Media must be verified by another Source • Provides valuable information to the historical record • Must be captured and documented appropriately to enable future learning SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 31
  • 32. Some references • Barwick, Joseph, Paris and Wan, S. (2014, February 3-6). Hunters and collectors: seeking social media content for cultural heritage collections. Paper presented at the VALA2014 17th Biennial Conference, Melbourne. http://www.vala.org.au/vala2014-proceedings/vala2014-session- 7-barwick • Cameron, Power, Robinson, and Yin (2012). Emergency situation awareness from twitter for crisis management. In Proc. of the 21st international conference companion on World Wide Web, p 695-698, ACM. • J. Colton and M. Cameron. ESA: Emergency Situation Awareness -- From Tweets to Situation Awareness; Social Media Analysis for All-Hazards. • Griffen, Jones and Paris (2012): Strategic Implications of Social Media for Emergency Management. In Next Generation Disaster and Security Management. Clarke & Griffen (ed). The Australian Security Research Council. • Moss, Information / Intelligence Specialist , State Disaster Coordination Centre Queensland Government. Using Social Media as a Trigger or Indicator. EIDOS Presentation. • Wan and Paris Vizie: Social Media Monitoring. SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 32
  • 33. Prevention Preparedness Response Recovery Thank you! Cecile.Paris@csiro.au Learning Documenting SMART Workshop May 2014| C. Paris | Page 33