SMART Seminar Series: Railway Systems Complexity and Management

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This talk by Professor Felix Schmid discussed a systematic approach to the analysis of railway system complexity, with a particular focus on interfaces and interactions. Case studies related to …

This talk by Professor Felix Schmid discussed a systematic approach to the analysis of railway system complexity, with a particular focus on interfaces and interactions. Case studies related to conventional railways, high-speed railways, light rail transit and novel technologies. For more information: http://goo.gl/qLtzY

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  • 1. UNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAM Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Dr. Felix Schmid The University of Birmingham, in Association with Armitage, Harris, McKechnie, Perrow, Qurashi, Reason
  • 2. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their ManagementTypical Railways? UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 2 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 3. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Overview of Presentation • What are determinants? A definition: – Determinants are factors or issues that have the potential to influence a decision, situation or context: – Determinants are normally co-acting, i.e., there is rarely ever a single determinant. • A railway complexity case study; • Review of railways’ natural characteristics; • Managing the complexity of the railway system; • A high-speed rail example of complexity management; • Conclusion and discussion. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 3 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 4. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Background to Complexity Case Study • Birmingham, Manchester, Sheffield and Felix Schmid; • A rather basic case study: – The night of Friday, 7 January 2005 is dark and stormy; – In the morning of Saturday, 8 January 2005, the storm is still raging; – John Hebblethwaite (not his real name) is rostered to take the 05:11 from Sheffield to Manchester Airport and back… – It is his first day at work after 6 months of sick leave; – Events take a rather unpleasant turn for many; – Case study lessons for the parties involved. • The railway’s relationship with its competitors. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 4 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 5. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Geography of Britain Scotland West Coast Main Line (WCML) Glasgow Edinburgh Carlisle Blackpool Preston Liverpool Holyhead Sheffield Crewe Manchester WalesBirmingham Fishguard England Rugby Cardiff Bristol LONDONPenzance UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 5 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 6. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Current Roles of Felix Schmid • Designer and director of MSc in Railway Systems Engineering at University of Sheffield (1994-2008); • Professor of Railway Systems Integration, University of Birmingham (since 2005); – Director of Education, Birmingham Centre for Railway Research and Education; – Leader of railway systems engineering courses for industry; – Visiting lecturer at École Nationale des Ponts. • Research in railway control systems & human factors; • Expert on CrossRail’s systems engineering panel; • Consultant to MWH and Crossrail for track systems. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 6 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 7. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management The World’s Most Wonderful Commute Stockport Sheffield M. Chinley R2 R1 Chesterfield UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 7 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 8. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management A Functional View of Railways A fun Standards more ctional re usefu prese Rules and l than ntatio Regulations based a com n is Laws analy pone sis nt Transport People or Goods by Rail Transport Units Achieved (TUA) Demand for Transport by Transport Quality Achieved (TQA) Railway Transport Value Achieved (TVA) / rney ry e jou cessa es, th a ne Funds s Resources & o st ca ity is t valu e Equipment In m rt activ eren People po o inh trans and of n evil UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 8 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 9. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management A ‘normal’ Train Journey to Work? • Friday, January, 7 January 2005, 22.10: Forecast of severe gales for Saturday; • 8 January 2005: Leave home at 06.35 to cycle to station – in record time thanks to strong following wind! • Board 07:18 train to travel to work in Sheffield, the former home of the MSc in Railway Systems Engineering; • No problems apparent – train A Class 158 2-car Diesel Multiple Unit leaves on time. waits to leave Piccadilly UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 9 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 10. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management A Class 323 Train of Northern Rail • ‘Northern Rail’ is franchise; • Modern type of suburban train found in Manchester and West Midlands area; • Largely used on regional APEX commuter routes; FRAME • 3-car electric multiple unit UPPER ARM PANTOGRAPH HEAD (25kV) powered by 3-phase CONTROL ROD induction motors; KNUCKLE LOWER • Just one single arm high- ARM RAISING CYLINDER speed pantograph with low AIR FEED INSULATOR 4th BAR contact force; • ‘My’ train is diesel multiple unit of Class 158, built around 1990, still quite new. AIR UNIVERSITYOF EQUIPMENTSlide No: 10 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23INSULATORS BASE & BIRMINGHAM
  • 11. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Determinant: Railway Diversity The Number of distinct and different sub-activities that are performed within an integrated UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 11 system of tasks Wollongong, 2012-22-23 University of (McKechnie). BIRMINGHAM
  • 12. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Range of Railway Subsystems Electrification & Traction & Vehicle Power Supplies Braking Operations Management Structures Systems Maintenance System Bogie Communi- VCS Systems Control cations & Axles & Wheels Signalling Systems CIS Rail ATP Rail Sleepers & Ballast Station Systems Substructure System CIS: Customer Information Systems / VCS: Vehicle Control Systems UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 12 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 13. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Customer and Passenger Needs Diversity UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 13 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 14. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Subsystem and Component Diversity • Types of Subsystems: – Switches and crossings; – Electrification equipment; – Power supplies & substations;VH – Train control and signalling; – Rolling stock and traction.H • Component variety: – Steel and concrete structures;M – Microprocessors; – Sensors and effectors;L – Thyristors, GTOs, IGBTs; – Williams, ORR, 2006 Precision mechanical systems; – Electrical machines. • Issue raised by McKechnie as ‘heterogeneïty’. UNIVERSITYOF Slide No: 14 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 15. UNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAM Railway are Diverse or Heterogenous Systems
  • 16. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management 158 motors to Stockport and all is well & some nice OHLE too! A useful facing crossover! UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 16 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 17. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management On Time in Stockport, depart after 60 sStockport Viaducton Normal Route Edgeley Side of UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 17 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 Stockport BIRMINGHAM
  • 18. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Determinant: Railway Dispersion Extent to which assets, resources and people required for correct operation of system are distributed over a large UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 18 area / along corridors (Schmid) University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 19. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Dispersion and Linearity • Linear infrastructures: – 10 m wide and 1000s km long; – Great impacts on environment; – Environmental impact varies. • Distributed assets: – Assets difficult to reach; – Assets difficult to maintain; – Assets difficult to control. • Dispersed staff: – Supervision vs. management; – Management only long term; – Supervision must be strong; – Fast decision taking locally. • Issue raised by Schmid. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 19 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 20. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Major Structures to cope with Linearity UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 20 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 21. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Classic Example of Dispersion IssueVHHML UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 21 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 22. UNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAM Railways are Long and Thin – they are Dispersed
  • 23. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Turn off towards Buxton and Sheffield 1997 1967 2008 2004 1850 to 1895 UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 23 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 24. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management A Difficult Issue: Asset Life Diversity The extent to which assets of widely differing ages must work together to achieve the UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 24 purpose of a system (Schmid). University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 25. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Asset Life Diversity: 1 day to 200 Years • Long life railway assets: – Cuttings, embankments; – Culverts, bridges, viaducts, flyovers, dive-unders, tunnels; – Stations, offices, depots.VH • Medium life railway assets:H – Tracks, rails and signals; – Locos, carriages, ferries;M – Wagons, track machines, • Short lived railway assets:L – Ticket machines, ticket gates; – Computers, cars and trucks; – Staff uniforms and hand-tools. • Issue raised by Armitage. UNIVERSITYOF Slide No: 25 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 26. UNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAM We are using Assets that were created between just 5 and 160 Years ago
  • 27. UNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAM We are still on our winter journey from Manchester to Sheffield
  • 28. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management In Theory, it’s only 6 Mins to Chinley ‘Slow’ Route from New Mills joins from left, ‘stopper’ waiting … and ‘stopper’ still waiting UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 28 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 29. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Sadly, that’s not what happened on the stormy Saturday, 8 January 2005 A Level CrossingWoodsmoorStation There are 7500 of UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 29 BIRMINGHAM these in Britain University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23
  • 30. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Determinant: Nature of Interactions Way in which subsystems and activities relate to each other during normal and disturbed UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 30 operations of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 University (after Perrow) BIRMINGHAM
  • 31. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management ‘Complex’ Interactions (Perrow) • Linear Interactions: – Segregated subsystems; – Easy substitutions; – Few feedback loops; – Single purpose, separate controls; – Direct information; – Extensive understanding. • ‘Complex’ interactions: – Parts and units not in a production sequence are close together; – Unfamiliar or unintended feedback loops; – Indirect or inferential information sources; – Limited understanding of some processes. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 31 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 32. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Life is not always easy for railways… UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 32 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 33. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Linear vs. ‘Complex’ Interactions • Railway interactions: – Train sequences; – Conflicts at junctions; – Passenger behaviour;C – Staff behaviour; – Trespass and vandalism. • Maintenance activities: – Rolling stock and track;N – Structures and stations. • System control: – Management of nodes; – Staff allocation to duties;L – Rolling stock schedules. • Issue raised by Perrow. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 33 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 34. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management The Train stops at Woodsmoor at 07:34 Woodsmoor Sheffield M. Chinley R2 R1 Chesterfield UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 34 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 35. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management … and conductor provides information • We are stuck behind a Class 323 without a pantograph: – Branch of a tree had broken off and was foul of OHLE; – First electric train of the morning (in the dark) hit branch; – Pantograph and branch combine to break droppers; – Pantograph disintegrates – no power. • Class 158 is hemmed-in, in both directions: – Class 323 ahead without power is unable to move; – Level crossing behind train only strikes-in in one direction; – The cross-overs of Hazel Grove are beyond the 323. • Access is near impossible due to housing and gardens. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 35 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 36. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Let’s Look at the Situation in Detail Rather than here, at Hazel Grove Failed Train Here Platform at Woodsmoor UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 36 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 37. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Many Subsystems and Interfaces Electrification & Traction & Vehicle Power Supplies Braking Structures Third Parties Operations Management Systems Maintenance System Bogies Communi- VCS Systems Control cations & Axles & Wheels Signalling Systems CIS Rail ATP Rail Sleepers & Ballast Station Systems Substructure System CIS: Customer Information Systems / VCS: Vehicle Control Systems UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 37 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 38. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Interfaces: Strength of System Coupling Extent to which two components or activities must be linked to achieve an UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 38 appropriate performance (after Perrow). University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 39. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Loose Coupling vs. Tight Coupling • Loose Coupling (process and technical): – Processing delays possible; – Sequence & order can be changed; – Alternative methods available; – Slack in resources possible; – Buffers and redundancies are fortuitously always available. • Tight Coupling (process and technical): – Time-dependent behaviour, i.e., delays in processing not possible; – Invariant sequencing; – Only one method to achieve goal; – Little slack available; – Buffers and redundancies must be designed in as part of the system. • Issue raised by Perrow. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 39 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 40. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Tightly Coupled Mechanical Systems • Wheel and rail interface: – Steel on steel stiffness; – Motion control by conicity; – Traction and braking with small contact area; – Track held by ballast. • Pantograph and overhead: – Overhead relative to rails; – Low contact force limits wear; • Switches and crossings: – Accurate mechanisms needed; – Must be locked for trains. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 40 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 41. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Railways are Tightly Coupled Systems • Single degree of freedom of movement of rolling stock requires infrastructure with variable geometry; • Limited adhesion requires train control and signalling;T • Stiffness of wheel / rail interface requires accurate infrastructure and high quality maintenance; • Linear (distributed) nature of the railway infrastructure propagates failures and is open to environmentalL influences; • Need for reliable timetabled operation and good resource management; • Interface and interaction management is essential. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 41 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 42. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Charles Perrow 1999 • “[S]ystems are not linear or complex, strictly speaking, only their interactions are. Even here we must recall that linear systems have very few complex interactions, while complex ones have more linear ones, but complex interactions are still few in number” • This is often referred to as ‘Interactive Complexity’: – Do we prefer linear or complex systems? – Do we prefer loose or tight coupling? • Unfortunately, some systems have to be interactively complex and tightly coupled by their nature! UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 42 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 43. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management System Dimensions and Industries Interaction / Coupling Chart Tight Coupling dams nuclear power railways >> plant grids DNA nuclear weapons Linear Interaction Complex Interaction assembly-line production mining R&D firms simple-goal agencies Loose Coupling UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 43 Adapted from Perrow,University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 1999:97 BIRMINGHAM
  • 44. UNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAM After 20 minutes, Felix ‘jumps ship’, illegally
  • 45. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management There was another Route to Sheffield… R3 Sheffield M. Chinley R2 R1 Chesterfield UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 45 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 46. UNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAM But the Driver’s Route Knowledge had Lapsed, due to the Sickness Leave
  • 47. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Consequences of just a few Mistakes • Consequences for the passengers on the Class 158: – 07:18 should have arrived in Sheffield at 08:09 but, instead, reaches South Yorkshire at 10:53; – Felix arrives in Sheffield at 10:10 on the 09:18 and is in the University 10 minutes before his lecture; – Most passengers have had to wait for 150 minutes without decent information – coming from an airport; – Passengers bound elsewhere have missed connections; – Railway has lost a lot of goodwill. • Network Rail and TOC B share ca. £100,000 cost of delay penalties – both had made serious mistakes. UNIVERSITYSlide No: 47 … but Felix has acquired a really excellent case-study! University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM OF
  • 48. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Case Study Lessons I • Accumulation of minor mistakes and failures can lead to a collapse in any tightly coupled (transport) system: – Single degree of freedom of motion of rolling stock: • Railway requires points; – Limited adhesion and thus inability to drive by line of sight: • Railway requires signalling and formal (level) crossings; – Stiff interface requiring highly performing maintenance: • Minimise scale of infrastructure to limit cost; – Linear nature of railway increases management difficulty: • Reduces ability to control and intervene; – Operational characteristics require adherence to timetable. • Organisational structure of system affects outcomes. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 48 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 49. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Case Study Lessons II • Impact of natural characteristics of rail mode of transport: – Route learning failure (driver should not have resumed work without it); – Train design failure (two pantographs would have minimised knock-on delays); – Control and supervision failure (better management and early intervention); – Infrastructure and signalling inadequacies (no capability for reversal or overtaking of failed train); – (Environmental) unpredictability not factored in. • The railway does not forgive mistakes! UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 49 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 50. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Determinant: Railway Variability Extent to which tasks must depart from a constantly recurring simple pattern UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 50 (McKechnie). University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 51. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Not enough Variability to cause TroublePhotograph Courtesy Keeping Track Image Library UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 51 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 52. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Too much Variability to cause Trouble? Photographs Courtesy North Sout Railway UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 52 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 53. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management External and Internal Variability • External variability: – Operational impact of weather; – Demand variation; – Economic cycle impact;VH – Stakeholder vacillation; – Subsidy regime variation;H – Impact of connecting services; – Third party behaviour.M • Internal variability: – Variable passenger behaviour;L – Variable staff performance; – Variable wheel-rail adhesion; – Spontaneous system failures; • Issue raised by McKechnie. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 53 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 54. UNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAM Railways Operate in a Highly Variable Environment Physically, Operationally and Organisationally
  • 55. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management And here it is: The Butterfly of Railway Complexity Le Papillon de la Complexité Ferroviaire Der Komplexitätsschmetterling UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 55 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 des Systems Bahn BIRMINGHAM
  • 56. UNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAM A Slightly Different Perspective
  • 57. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Regulations and Standards Issue • Tools to control complexity? • Intricate legal framework: ! RSE – Interoperability regulations; EA – Technical Specifications for Interoperability; 5YVH – Road traffic regulations; R – National health and safety law; TEH – European rail safety law. AFM • Intricate standards system: TE – CEN Standards; DAL – UIC ‘standards’; OF – National regulations; – Internal standards. T • Issue raised by Qurashi. OU UNIVERSITYOF Slide No: 57 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 58. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their ManagementFive Dimensions of Complexity Variability Ve ry ? McKechnie S hor t gh y Hi Sh ort r Ve Water gh Me Hi diu Rail m Nuclear m diu Very High Me Hig Medium h w High Low LoRegulations Diversity Various& Standards Low High Very High Medium Excessive!Qureshi Low Low um Medi Me diu m h Hig Hig h h ry Hig Ve Ver yH igh Dispersion Interdependence Schmid UNIVERSITYOF Perrow and McKechnieSlide No: 58 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 59. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management What Core Issue have we forgotten? b le s ha P eri RY e VE ar ay ilw Ra f the c ts o du Pr o The UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 59 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 60. Six Dimensions of Complexity Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Variability Ve ry Product Life McKechnie Sh ort Harris gh y Hi Sh ort r Ve Water gh Me Hi di um Rail Nuclear m diu Very High Me Hig Medium h w High Low LoRegulations Diversity Various& Standards Low High Very High Medium Excessive!Qurashi Low Low um Medi Me diu m h Hig Hig h h ry Hig Ve Ver yH igh Dispersion Interdependence Schmid UNIVERSITYOF Perrow and McKechnieSlide No: 60 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 61. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Summary of Complexity Determinants • Level of Variability: – Affects extent to which tasks must depart from simple recurring patterns. • Level of Diversity (heterogeneity): – Relates to number of distinct and different sub-activities that must be performed within an integrated system of tasks; – Affects extent to which assets and processes exist beyond normal planning and management horizons. • Level of Interdependence (tight coupling / intensive interactions): – Extent to which performance of a system, as a whole, is reliant on and facilitated by exchanges of information to co-ordinate individual tasks. • Level of Dispersion and Linearity: – Extent to which assets, resources and people contributing to correct operation of system are distributed over a large area / along corridors. • Regulations and Standards: – Extent to which activities are regulated by governments and other bodies. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 61 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 62. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Physical Characteristics of Rail Mode Characteristic → Motion restricted to single Low coefficient of friction Stiff interface between wheels Distributed linear infra- ↓ Aspects degree of freedom along track between wheels and rails and rails structure subsystem Strengths G • No steering required; • Low rolling resistance; • Low energy dissipation; • Product reaches customer; • Predictable motion; • Low rolling surfaces wear; • High tonnages / period; • Production process controll- • Narrow swept path; • Efficient propulsion; • Low forces in track bed; able throughout system; • Linked consists (trains); • High speed operation; • Predictable motion; • External events rarely affect • High standard of safety. • Energy efficiency. • Smooth operations; all of system; • Potentially long track life. • Part opening of new systems. E • Track-based power supply. • Energy recovery potential. • Low wheel-rail damping. • Multiple feeder options. Weaknesses G • Guidance function cost; • Limited braking rate; • Stiff rolling interface; • Environmental impact • High route blockage risk; • Low acceleration rate; • Low inherent damping; affects linear strips of • Low network flexibility; • Seasonal adhesion variation; • Noise & vibration issues terrain; • Complex route changes; • Line of sight inadequate; • Cost of track & structures; • Remote management of • No collision avoidance. • Low rolling surface wear. • Cost of inspection. local problems difficult. E • Complex electrification; • Risk of slip and slide; • High impact environment • Voltage drop along route; • Limited design options. • Torque control required. for traction drives. • Many supply points needed. Technical G • Variable geometry elements; • Signalling system; • Load rack design; • Provision of redundancy; requirements • Train position detection; • Adhesion control; • Testing & inspection; • Protective features (tunnels, • Locking of route elements; • Artificial wear required; • Accurate maintenance; galleries, fences etc.). • Junctions & stations. • Regular maintenance. • Regular maintenance. Operational G • Timetabling & planning; • Path allocation to trains; • Strong procedures. • Scheduling of services; requirements • Strict rulebook for all staff. • Stringent safety rules. • Several layers of control. Management G • Rigorous selection of staff; • Simulation of individual • Maintenance management; • Delegated authority; tools • Modelling of train services. train behaviour. • Technical understanding. • Strong supervision. Training G • Responsibility; • Environmental awareness; • Strong engineering skills; • Rule based behaviour; • Staff competence. • Safety ethos. • Safety ethos. • Adaptive behaviour. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 62 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 63. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Railways have Strong Competitors Constraints / Controls Timetable, Management Systems Road Transport Demand Transport Product Profit? Transport Rail Transport Transport Goods Demand Demand & People by Rail Service Quality Air Transport Demand Mechanisms / Processors Waterways People, Rolling Stock, Infrastructure, Demand Power, Supplies, Finance UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 63 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 64. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management How can we Design better Systems? • Understand better the purpose of systems: – Identify stakeholder requirements; – Make stakeholder requirements measurable. • Understand better the functions that satisfy purpose: – Identify system functionality and architecture; – Identify necessary subsystems and their functions. • Understand better the interfaces between subsystems: – Identify links and relationships between functions. • Understand fully the interactions between subsystems: – Define limits to the interactions; – Monitor the interactions. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 64 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 65. UNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAM It’s a Complex System: Let’s apply (Railway) Systems Engineering
  • 66. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Rail Systems Engineering & Integration • Railway Systems Engineering and Integration (RSEI) is concerned with: – Managing the people, resources and processes required to conceive, design, build, operate, maintain, renew, close and decommission railways of all types; – Respecting the limits and constraints imposed by the natural physical, organisational and operational characteristics of the rail mode, in an effective and efficient manner; – Satisfying the system’s stakeholders and environmental concerns. • RSEI is not just about technologies, components, interfaces, know-how and processes; • RSEI is about developing people to carry out their tasks better and more effectively, while respecting the constraints of a highly complex technical and organisational system. • ‘Integration’ goes beyond systems engineering… UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 66 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 67. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management History of Systems Engineering © Brian Halliday, Network Rail 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Products Software Projects UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 67 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 68. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Systems Engineering Responsibilities • Requirements Management: – Requirements elicitation and requirements management; – Definition of system and subsystem specifications. • Performance and Technical Risk: – Modelling of operational performance; – Evaluation of robustness of technical options. • Cost and Capability: – Development of optimised system options; – Human, equipment and operations integration. • Quality Systems Design: – Creation of quality management systems. • Configuration Management: – Provision and control of asset information; – Development of configuration management systems. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 68 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 69. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Typical Systems Engineering VEE Process Conceive and Concept of Operation Need for a New Select Solution Function / System Capture Stakeholder Commission into Requirements Service Operation Develop System Define Validation Plan Test Whole System Specification Functionality De fin n tio it ion da Design and Develop Define Test Plans Integrate System ,D li Va System Architecture Components eco & mp ing osi t st Te i on Develop Components Test Test Components n, & tio and Subsystems Plans and Subsystems Ve ra ri teg fi c In a ti on Source or Produce System Components UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 69 Project Time Line University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 70. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Typical Systems Engineering VEE Process Conceive and Concept of Operation Requirement Select Solution Satisfied Capture Stakeholder Commission into Requirements Service Operation Develop System Define Validation Plan Test Whole System Specification Functionality De fin n tio it ion da Design and Develop Define Test Plans Integrate System ,D li Va System Architecture Components eco & mp ing osi t st Te i on Develop Components Test Test Components n, & tio and Subsystems Plans and Subsystems Ve ra ri teg fi c In a ti on Source or Produce System Components UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 70 Project Time Line University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 71. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Purpose of VEE Process in SE&I • Ensures structured approach to projects; • Assists robust requirements capture and maintenance; • Ensures clear staging of projects: – Allows establishment of stage gates; – Allows monitoring of time line; – Encourages closing out of issues; – Encourages management of prevarication. • Encourages thinking ahead to later stages; • Ensures robust verification and validation; • Assists robust configuration management: – Reduction of modification effort and rework. UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 71 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 72. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Why do projects fail? Other 23% Lack of User Input 13% Incomplete Require- 12% Technology ments Changing 11% 48% 12% Unrealistic Time Unrealistic 4% 6% Inadequate Unclear Resources 5% 6% Lack of Executive Support 8% Standish CHAOS report, 1995, http://standishgroup.com/visitor/chaos.htm UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 72 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 73. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management What goes wrong? 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Incorrect facts Omissions Inconsistency Ambiguity Misallocation Leffingwell, http://www.rational.com/media/whitepapers/roi1.pdf UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 73 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 74. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management How much does it cost to fix? 250 200 200 Relative Cost to Fix 150 100 50 50 20 1 5 10 0 Requirements Design Build Test Commissioning Operation Lifecycle Phase when Error Discovered Leffingwell, http://www.rational.com/media/whitepapers/roi1.pdf UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 74 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 75. Determinants of Railway System Complexity and their Management Conclusion • Natural characteristics of rail mode are constraining; • Railways are fundamentally different from other modes of transport and service industries; • Rail mode is inherently complex: – Technologically, organisationally and operationally; – Project delivery and safety management. • Stakeholders often have conflicting requirements and contradictory agendas; • VEE project life-cycle can be helpful in major projects but requires strong PM who imposes stop criteria! UNIVERSITYOFSlide No: 75 University of Wollongong, 2012-22-23 BIRMINGHAM
  • 76. UNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAM Railways perform well when they observe a robust and efficient timetable