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Weed Resistance to Glyphosate in Southern Europe: Present and Future Perspective.

Weed Resistance to Glyphosate in Southern Europe: Present and Future Perspective.

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  • University of Córdoba Roundup Ready ® Maize symposium: The European Perspective Weed Resistance to Glyphosate in Southern Europe: Present and Future Perspective. Dr. Rafael De Prado and Fidel González-Torralva University of Cordoba, Spain
  • Main crops produced in the Mediterranean Region Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • University of SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE Córdoba Is that in which the production systems permit the obtainment of a continuous benefit from the use of water, soil, genetic resources, etc. to meet the current needs of the population without destroying the basic natural resources for future generations. Castillo, 1992 Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective View slide
  • University of Córdoba Evolution of herbicides use in Spain 70 60 50 40 1999 2004 30 2009 20 10 0 Wheat Olive Stone fruit Vineyard Citrus Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective View slide
  • University of Córdoba RESISTANCE The Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) defines herbicide resistance as “the inherited ability of a plant to survive and reproduce following exposure to a dose of herbicide normally lethal to the wild type”. Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • Distribution of Resistant Weed Biotypes in Southern Europe Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • Resistance mechanisms in weeds University Non target site of Córdoba Foliar surface Absorption Cuticule Apoplast Systematization Translocation Metabolization Herbicide application Resistant Plant Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • Resistance mechanisms in weeds University Target site of Córdoba Target site modification Overexpression Herbicide application Resistant Plant
  • University of MULTIPLE RESISTANCE Córdoba ALS INHIBITORS ACCase INHIBITORS PSII INHIBITORS SUSCEPTIBLE BIOTYPE DETOXIFICATION SYSTEM RESISTANT BIOTYPE STOP ACCase STOP PSII Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • Evolution of ALS Resistance in Southern Europe 30 University of 25 Number of resistant species Córdoba 20 15 10 Evolution of PS II (C1) Resistance in Southern Europe 5 World: 107 70 Southern Europe : 26 0 60 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Number of resistant species 50 Year 40 30 Evolution of ACCase Resistance in Southern Europe 20 30 World: 68 10 Southern Europe : 59 25 Number of resistant species 0 20 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year 15 10 5 World: 38 Southern Europe : 26 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • Evolution of Glyphosate Resistance in Southern Europe University of Córdoba 6 5 RESISTANT SPECIES 4 3 2 1 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YEAR World: 18 Southern Europe : 5 Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • WORST WEEDS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION: ORCHARDS AND OLIVE TREES Ecbalium elaterium Conium maculatum Conyza spp Cuscuta campestris Euphorbia helioscopia Malva parviflora
  • WORST WEEDS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION: ORCHARDS AND OLIVE TREES REGION: Avena sterilis Paspalum distichum Lolium multiflorum Lolium rigidum Cyperus rotundus
  • Evolution of Glyphosate Resistance in Southern Europe University of Córdoba Main differences between glyphosate R and S Lolium multiflorum biotypes. R/S factor depends of growth stage. Shikimate does not accumulate in R biotypes. Absorption and translocation of 14C-glyphosate in S is higher than R biotypes. Spray retention is higher in S biotypes. Mutations in EPSPS have been founded in R biotypes. Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • University of Córdoba ED50 Evolution of Lolium multiflorum treated with glyphosate 1500 R S 1000 -1 g ai ha 500 0 13 21 55-55 65 Growth Stage (BBCH) Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • Shikimic Acid (Shikimate) Pathway University of Córdoba AShikimate accumulation in L. multiflorum biotypes 1,6 Shikimic acid (mg g-1 fresh weight) ) 1,4 1,2 1 0,8 R Biotype 0,6 S Biotype 0,4 0,2 0 0 24 48 72 96 Hours after treatment
  • Retention and contact angle in L. multiflorum treated with University glyphosate of Córdoba Adaxial Surface µL spraying solution g-1 dry matter Angle (degrees) S R S R 1,763b 1,265a 62,4 (2,83) 112,9 (5,00) Major of 90º Minor of 90º θ = 180 – tan-1[(x.b2)/(y.a2)] θ = 2.tan-1(h/x) a b x y θ Unpublished data, 2010 Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • Wax differences between R and S L. multiflorum biotypes University of Córdoba 2µm² CAD software quantification Area Covered by Wax (%) S R 42,9 (0,66) 102,6 (2,38) Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • Absorption and translocation of 14C-Glyphosate in R and S biotypes of University glyphosate resistant L. multiflorum. of Córdoba 48 hours after 14C-Glyphosate application R S
  • Protein Alignment of EPSPS Glyphosate Resistant University of Lolium spp. Córdoba *Arrows indicate amino acid mutations sites Roundup Ready® Maize symposium: The European Perspective
  • Glyphosate (2250 g ai ha-1) treatment in olive orchard University with glyphosate resistant L. multiflorum of Córdoba 0 DAT 15 DAT 30 DAT 75 DAT
  • University of Efficacy (%) of herbicides mixture with glyphosate applied in Córdoba glyphosate-resistant L. multiflorum. DAT Herbicide 15 30 45 60 75 Untreated 0,0±0,0c 0,0±0,0c 0,0±0,0c 0,0±0,0c 0,0±0,0c G1125 54,0±12,3b 47,4±9,2b 47,3±7,3b 42,1±6,2b 40,5±6,4b G2250 61,2±8,7bc 67,4±6,1bc 62,7±10,2bc 60,2±7,1bc 57,2±7,3b G1125+O 58,2±9,2b 62,8±8,0bc 53,1±9,3b 52,1±6,8b 52,2±10,4b G1125+F 49,1±8,3b 99,1±2,7a 100,0±0,0a 100,0±0,0a 100,0±0,0a G1125+C 79,1±6,3ab 100,0±0,0a 100,0±0,0a 100,0±0,0a 100,0±0,0a G1125+Q 71,1±4,0ab 100,0±0,0a 100,0±0,0a 100,0±0,0a 100,0±0,0a G=glyphosate (g ae ha-1); O=orosorb (0,8% v/v); F=flazasulfuron (50 g ai ha-1); C=clethodim (120 g ai ha-1) and Q=quizalofop (50 g ai ha-1).
  • Glyphosate at 2160 g ai ha-1 30 DAT 45 DAT 0 DAT 60 DAT Control 60 DAT
  • Visual assessment of different herbicide treatments on Conyza spp. DAYS AFTER TREATMENT TREATMENT 15 30 45 60 A 0,0 ± 0,0 0,0 ± 0,0 0,0 ± 0,0 0,0 ± 0,0 B 71,7 ± 12,6 80,0 ± 5,0 80,0 ± 5,0 85,0 ± 13,2 C 85,0 ± 8,7 100,0 ± 0,0 100,0 ± 0,0 100,0 ± 0,0 D 18,3 ± 10,4 30,0 ± 5,0 41,7 ± 7,6 56,7 ± 5,8 E 26,7 ± 5,8 70,0 ± 5,0 80,0 ± 10,0 93,3 ± 2,9 F 18,3 ± 2,9 20,0 ± 10,0 20,0 ± 5,0 31,7 ± 7,6 G 60,0 ± 5,0 60,0 ± 10,0 65,0 ± 5,0 70,0 ± 10,0 H 55,0 ± 10,0 81,7 ± 10,4 85,0 ± 5,0 88,3 ± 7,6 I 40,0 ± 0,0 70,0 ± 10,0 76,7 ± 2,9 96,7 ± 2,9 J 68,3 ± 7,6 88,3 ± 7,6 96,7 ± 2,9 100,0 ± 0,0 K 60,0 ± 5,0 68,3 ± 2,9 71,7 ± 2,9 70,0 ± 17,3 A Control B Glyphosate 2160 g ai ha-1 C Glyphosate 4320 g ai ha-1 D Flazasulfuron 200 g ha-1 E Glyphosate 2160 g ai ha-1+ Flazasulfuron 200 g ha-1 F Saflufenacil 20 g ha-1+ Dash 0,75% G Glyphosate 2160 g ai ha-1+ Saflufenacil 20 g ha-1 + Dash 0,75% Glyphosate 2160 g ai ha-1 + Saflufenacil 20 g ha-1 + Dash 0,75% H ** Saflufenacil 20 g ha-1 + Dash 0,75% I Fusta 8 L ha-1 J Fusta 8 L ha-1 + glyphosate 720 g ai ha-1 K Glyphosate 2160 g ai ha-1 + Saflufenacil 20 g ha-1 + Aceite 1 %
  • University “Would it be possible to have a sustainable crop of Córdoba management in the future using herbicides?” Good agricultural …We are more than 6,500 practices… millions of people
  • University of Córdoba Innovation in Agro-Technologies are Key-Factors to Satisfy Future Food Demand Trillion Kilocalories /Year 7.37 2.13 11.28 10.6 0.52 Reserve 10.0 2.29 1.72 5.1 5.17 1.23 5.0 -0.13 Improvements -1.12 Demand Supply Demand Arable Conversion Gap Fertilizer Irrigation Traditional Bio- Supply 1995 2025 Land Loss Crop technology 2025 Protection and Seeds Source: Kern, M., 1998 Future of Agriculture fig. 2
  • Summarize University of Córdoba - Resistance to herbicides is wide spread in Europe as well as globally ( see www.weedscience.org ). www.weedscience. - Confirmed glyphosate resistant weed biotypes of Lolium rigidum, Lolium multiflorum, Conyza canadensis rigidum, multiflorum, and Conyza bonariensis are known in Europe, these resistant biotypes are exclusively spread in perennial crops like vineyards, citrus plantations and olive groves. They were selected because there was a sole groves. reliance on glyphosate in these crops to control weeds. weeds. - Glyphosate resistant weed biotypes can be managed by: by: •glyphosate applications when the plants are most susceptible •complementary cultural practices, like tillage or mowing •herbicide sequences and/or tank-mixes tank- -Mixture of auxinic herbicides alone and/or with glyphosate are a good solution to control dicotiledonea weeds. weeds. -ALS and ACCase inhibitor herbicides mixture with glyphosate must be managed with care. In terms of care. resistance development they can be named “High Risk Herbicides. Herbicides.
  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION