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Global Status –

I. Glyphosate Resistant
   Weeds and

II. Monsanto Stewardship
    Programs




John Soteres, Ph.D.
Globa...
I. Glyphosate Resistant
Weeds
- Global Status
- Contributing Factors
- Management practices
Definitions:
Herbicide Resistance: "Herbicide resistance is the inherited ability of a plant to
   survive and reproduce f...
Weed Resistance : Selection pressure
"Herbicide resistance is the inherited ability of a plant to survive and reproduce
fo...
Resistance has been reported to all herbicide
classes
• First herbicide resistance reported in 1957 to 2,4-D
• First triaz...
Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds - 2010
                                                 12 genus/ 17 species worldwide




    ...
Reported Glyphosate Resistant Weeds
Genus                   Year First    Country             Situation
                  ...
Factors Associated with Evolution of GR Weeds
• Fallow
  – Glyphosate only
  – “Low rates”
  – Reduced tillage

• Orchards...
Factors Associated with Evolution of GR
Weeds: “Low Rates”
• “Low Rates” ( application rate
  and/or applications beyond
 ...
Glyphosate-
          Glyphosate-Induced Weed Shifts in GR corn or a Rotation of GR
          Corn, Sugarbeet and Spring W...
Weed management diversity is the foundation of
proactive resistance management:
Definition of Diversity
    Use of multipl...
Alternating Herbicides vs Mixtures
 (Postemergence example)

Herbicide mixtures, whose               Field pennycress (Thl...
Managing Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds
 Resistant Species                                Options

Amaranthus spp.      Triazi...
Managing Glyphosate Resistant Weeds:
Amaranthus palmerii in Cotton
Fields were across the road from each other. Two differ...
Crop Rotation with an aggressive weed management
program can reduce seed bank significantly



                           ...
II. Monsanto Stewardship
Programs
Robust Stewardship Programs are key to effectively
managing weed shifts and the development of
herbicide resistance in agr...
Research and Development
Significant resources are focused on herbicide resistance:

   – Mechanisms of resistance
   – We...
Weed Resistance Monitoring:
 Objectives: Early detection of new species and spread
             to new areas

 Options:
  ...
Stewardship Guidelines

General principles of herbicide resistance management:
•   Apply integrated weed management practi...
Principles of Monsanto’s Weed Resistance Stewardship
Program:
  Commitment to follow-up on performance complaints and situ...
Thank You
Proactive versus Reactive
Management in U.S. Soybeans

1.   Current management of waterhemp (Amaranthus sp.) in
     Soybe...
Evidence of Success of Education
Programs in the U.S.
                            Always or                      Rarely or...
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J Soteres

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Global Status –
I. Glyphosate Resistant Weeds
II. Monsanto Stewardship Programs

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  1. 1. Global Status – I. Glyphosate Resistant Weeds and II. Monsanto Stewardship Programs John Soteres, Ph.D. Global Weed Resistance Management Lead
  2. 2. I. Glyphosate Resistant Weeds - Global Status - Contributing Factors - Management practices
  3. 3. Definitions: Herbicide Resistance: "Herbicide resistance is the inherited ability of a plant to survive and reproduce following exposure to a dose of herbicide normally lethal to the wild type.” – ‘dose of herbicide’ = Labeled Rate – Minimum differential between ‘susceptible’ and ‘resistant’ populations is generally considered to be 2X Herbicide Tolerance: "Herbicide tolerance is the inherent ability of a species to survive and reproduce after herbicide treatment. This implies that there was no selection or genetic manipulation to make the plant tolerant; it is naturally tolerant." Hard-to-control: Weed species that tend to be more sensitive to rate, growth stage and application conditions to achieve commercially acceptable control. – Hard-to-control does not equate to species most likely to develop resistance
  4. 4. Weed Resistance : Selection pressure "Herbicide resistance is the inherited ability of a plant to survive and reproduce following exposure to a dose of herbicide normally lethal to the wild type.” Resistant Resistance is detected when a high proportion (usually >15-30%) of the treated population is resistant to the herbicide. Courtesy of Ian Heap
  5. 5. Resistance has been reported to all herbicide classes • First herbicide resistance reported in 1957 to 2,4-D • First triazine resistance reported in 1968 • To date resistance has been confirmed in 195 species (115 dicots and 80 monocots), 346 resistance biotypes This website requires that a species be tested to confirm that the resistance is at levels above the labeled rate and is heritable.
  6. 6. Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds - 2010 12 genus/ 17 species worldwide Ambrosia spp. U.S. Conyza spp. Canada U.S. Brazil Argentina Amaranthus spp. S. Africa U.S. Israel Other broadleaves Parthenium sp. Colombia Spain Euphorbia sp. Brazil China S. Halepense (P) Plantago sp. S. Africa Argentina U.S. Lolium spp. (A) U.S. Brazil Digitaria insularis (P) Other annual grasses S. Africa Paraguay Elucine sp. Malaysia, Colombia Argentina Brazil Urochloa sp. Australia France, Italy, Spain Australia 01/11/10JKS 6
  7. 7. Reported Glyphosate Resistant Weeds Genus Year First Country Situation Reported Lolium (2 spp.) 1996 / 2001 Australia / Chile Fallow / Orchards Eleucine 1997 Malaysia Orchards Conyza (2 spp.) 2000 / 2003 USA / S. Africa RR soybeans / Vineyards Plantago 2003 S. Africa Vineyards Ambrosia (2 spp.) 2004 USA RR soybeans Parthenium 2004 Colombia Orchards Amaranthus (2 spp.) 2005 USA RR soybeans / RR cotton Sorghum (perennial) 2005 Argentina RR soybeans Digitaria (perennial) 2006 Paraguay RR soybeans Euphorbia 2006 Brazil RR soybeans Echniochloa 2007 Australia Fallow Urochloa 2008 Australia Fallow Kochia 2009 USA Fallow, RR corn, RR soybeans
  8. 8. Factors Associated with Evolution of GR Weeds • Fallow – Glyphosate only – “Low rates” – Reduced tillage • Orchards / Vineyards – Glyphosate only – “Low rates” – Reduced tillage • GT Crops (gly use) – Glyphosate only – “Low rates” – Reduced tillage
  9. 9. Factors Associated with Evolution of GR Weeds: “Low Rates” • “Low Rates” ( application rate and/or applications beyond recommended growth stages) – For some species, rate is a factor related to the development of resistance – Rate is also a factor related to weed shifts
  10. 10. Glyphosate- Glyphosate-Induced Weed Shifts in GR corn or a Rotation of GR Corn, Sugarbeet and Spring Wheat. (Wilson et. al. Weed Tech. 2007) Chenopodium album Kochia scopia 500 600 450 400 500 Lambsquarters Density 350 Kochia Density 400 (plants / m2) (plant/m2) 300 250 300 200 200 150 100 100 50 0 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Low GLY Rate 490 50 4 35 4 4 Low GLY Rate 136 40 86 222 106 449 Labeled GLY Rate 70 11 2 9 1 2 Labeled GLY Rate 144 18 37 26 9 141 Conclusion: Low rates of glyphosate can cause species shifts.
  11. 11. Weed management diversity is the foundation of proactive resistance management: Definition of Diversity Use of multiple methods to manage weed populations Key Elements • Integration of in-crop weed management options – Multiple modes-of-action in tank mix or in sequence – Use of cultural practices to supplement herbicide use RR Corn- YR 1 RR Corn – YR 2 RR Corn – RR 3 Acetanilide + Acetanilide + Triazine Acetanilide Triazine Glyphosate Glyphosate + Glyphosate Auxins • Integration of weed management options across a crop rotation system (multiple crops and fallow period) Wheat RR Soybeans RR Corn SU Glyphosate Acetanilide Auxin Glyphosate
  12. 12. Alternating Herbicides vs Mixtures (Postemergence example) Herbicide mixtures, whose Field pennycress (Thlaspi components are equally arvense) response averaged effective against the target over 4 yr of the experiment weed species, are predicted No ALS ALS 1:4 ALS Mixture through model simulations to 29 delay resistance longer than rotations. (Dingle et al, 2003; Powles et al. 1997) 11 8 4 0,3 0,6 Biomass @ maturity (g/m2) Resistant seed bank (%) Selection for Weed Resistance: Herbicide Rotation and Mixture. Beckie et al. Weed Tech. 2009.
  13. 13. Managing Glyphosate-Resistant Weeds Resistant Species Options Amaranthus spp. Triazine, HPPD (corn) PPO (cotton) PPO, Triazines, ALS (soybeans) Conyza ALS, PPO (vineyards, orchards) Auxins (2,4-D, dicamba) (corn, preplant) ALS, Triazines, PPO (soybeans) Ambrosia spp. PPO, ALS, Triazines (soybeans) HPPD, ALS, Triazines (corn) S. halepense ACCase, Acetanilides (soybeans, cotton) D. insularis SU, Acetanilides (corn) Lolium spp. ACCase, paraquat, glufosinate (fallow, orchards, vineyards) ACCase, Acetanilides (soybeans, cotton) ALS, Acetanilides (corn) Conclusion: there are multiple options for controlling resistant populations. 01/11/10JKS 13
  14. 14. Managing Glyphosate Resistant Weeds: Amaranthus palmerii in Cotton Fields were across the road from each other. Two different farmers, two different programs. Genuity™ Roundup Ready® Flex Variety Widestrike® Genuity™Roundup Ready® Flex Valor™ fb Cotoran™ fb Roundup PowerMAX™ + Variety Dual Magnum™ Cotoran fb Roundup PowerMAX + Dual Magnum fb Roundup PowerMAX + Staple™ fb Ignite® Labeled Use Rates of All Products, Missouri Bootheel 2009; Dow AgroSciences and Bayer Crop Science do not endorse the use of Ignite over the top of Widestrike cotton
  15. 15. Crop Rotation with an aggressive weed management program can reduce seed bank significantly Glyphosate-resistant weeds prevalent Soybeans ‘08, ‘09 Alternative crop ‘08, Soybeans ‘09 Carthage, NC July 2009
  16. 16. II. Monsanto Stewardship Programs
  17. 17. Robust Stewardship Programs are key to effectively managing weed shifts and the development of herbicide resistance in agriculture….. Key Elements of a Stewardship Program: • Research • Monitoring • Grower/Retailer Education and Training Adoption of Best Management Practices in Brazil Conyza - RGS – Feb 2009 Conyza - RGS – Feb 2010 Conyza - RGS – Feb10 High adoption Low to Medium adoption
  18. 18. Research and Development Significant resources are focused on herbicide resistance: – Mechanisms of resistance – Weed biology / Modeling – Best practices to retard development of resistance and management of existing problems – Discovery/development of new options 100% 90% Translocatio n Target Site 80% GA S GA R Percent Control 70% TN 1 60% TN 2 MS 50% Azlin Sequestration Metabolism 40% TN 1 Fit TN 2 Fit 30% MS Fit 20% Azlin Fit 10% 0% 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Glyphosate (kg a.e./ha) Monsanto works closely with Academics around the world to answer the key questions…..
  19. 19. Weed Resistance Monitoring: Objectives: Early detection of new species and spread to new areas Options: – Long-term field studies – Monitor grower fields and take weed counts – Monitor grower performance issues with appropriate follow up – Random collection of weed seed and grow-outs What has been useful: – Coordinated efforts between Industry, Farm Consultants, and Universities to monitor grower performance for early detection – Random collection of weed seed and growouts is effective to identify the spread of resistance What has not worked: – Long-term field studies nor routine monitoring of grower fields are effective for either objective Courtesy B. Johnson Baseline studies are only needed when the performance of a herbicide in not clearly understood – with glyphosate since performance is well known.
  20. 20. Stewardship Guidelines General principles of herbicide resistance management: • Apply integrated weed management practices. Use multiple herbicide modes-of- action with overlapping weed spectrums in rotation, sequences, or mixtures. • Use the full recommended herbicide rate and proper application timing for the hardest to control weed species present in the field. • Scout fields after herbicide application to ensure control has been achieved. Avoid allowing weeds to reproduce by seed or to proliferate vegetatively • Monitor site and clean equipment between sites. Summary • Significant progress has been made in the consistency of messages
  21. 21. Principles of Monsanto’s Weed Resistance Stewardship Program: Commitment to follow-up on performance complaints and situations in which weed resistance is suspected Transparency (a clear and open process) Where resistance has been confirmed by established valid criteria, we acknowledge and communicate and recommend practices to manage the resistant weed Provide management solutions, information, and training to farmers so they can continue to be successful with the Roundup Ready System and glyphosate herbicide Maintain close cooperation with all outside parties involved with weed resistance (Industry, Academics, Commodity Groups, Regulators) to provide the best solutions to growers Maintain a leadership position in research on glyphosate resistant weeds and best management practices Discover and provide new options for more effective weed control management
  22. 22. Thank You
  23. 23. Proactive versus Reactive Management in U.S. Soybeans 1. Current management of waterhemp (Amaranthus sp.) in Soybeans – Sequential postemergence applications of glyphosate – Total cost of $10/A 2. Strategy to delay the selection of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp - pre/post – Canopy XL @ 4.5oz/A preemergence ($8.66/A) – Roundup Weathermax @ 22 oz/A postemergence ($10.21/A) – Total cost of $14/A 3. Strategy to control PSII/ALS/glyphosate-resistant waterhemp - pre/post in soy – Boundary 7.8EC @ 1.25 pt/A PRE ($12.14/A) – Flexstar @ 24 oz/A PRE ($19.03/A) – Fusion @ 12 oz/A PRE ($14.66/A) or RWM @ 22 oz/A – Total cost of $46/A Strategies to Manage Amaranthus sp in Soybeans in IL (B. Young, 2009)
  24. 24. Evidence of Success of Education Programs in the U.S. Always or Rarely or Best Practices Often Sometimes Never Scout before 83% 11% 5% Scout after 81% 15% 4% Start with clean field 75% 13% 12% Control early 89% 9% 2% Control escapes 79% 15% 6% Clean equipment 25% 20% 54% New seed 94% 3% 2% Different modes 39% 33% 28% Supplemental tillage 21% 26% 53% Use label rate 93% 4% 1% Frisvold et al, 2009
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