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Current and future role of the non-selective use of glyphosate

Current and future role of the non-selective use of glyphosate

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  • 1. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Current and future role of the non-selective use of glyphosate Jim Orson © Copyright text
  • 2. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective © Copyright text
  • 3. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective “All our attempts at couch control by cultivation have been fruitless.” Andrew Charlton, Farmer’s Weekly January 2009 © Copyright text
  • 4. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Glyphosate • 1974 - introduced in UK for perennial weed control • 1980 - pre-harvest application introduced © Copyright text
  • 5. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Reduction (%) of common couch shoots in the following season after pre-harvest or post-harvest application of a range of doses (kg ae/ha) of glyphosate in 1979 in Scotland (Source; O’Keeffe et al., 1981) Site Pre-harvest Post-harvest 0.72 1.44 0.72 1.44 1 99.7 99.7 95.1 97.8 2 98.8 98.4 64.5 89.6 3 99.4 99.2 31.6 93.7 4 - 90.0 - 60.0 © Copyright text
  • 6. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Glyphosate – a few properties Solubility in water (20oC) = 10,500 mg/l Koc = non-mobile GUS leaching potential index = -0.36 Potential for particulate bound transport = medium © Copyright text
  • 7. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective UK competitiveness based on technology Average wheat yields (t/ha) t/ha Effective 9 Effective fungicides 8 herbicides 7 6 5 Increase in N 4 3 2 Semi-dwarf 1 varieties 0 68 73 78 83 88 93 98 03 08 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 © Copyright text
  • 8. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective % of winter wheat in England established after non-plough tillage 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 19 5 19 6 19 7 19 8 19 9 19 0 19 1 19 2 19 5 19 6 19 7 19 8 19 9 19 0 19 1 19 2 19 3 19 4 19 5 19 6 19 7 19 8 20 9 20 0 20 1 20 2 20 3 20 4 20 5 20 6 20 7 08 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 Source: © Copyright text
  • 9. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective % of winter wheat crops in England sown in September and before 20th September, 1970-2008 harvest years 60 50 September Before 20/09 Crops drilled (%) 40 30 20 10 0 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 Source: © Copyright text
  • 10. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Glyphosate • Introduced in UK for perennial weed control in 1974 • Pre-harvest application introduced in 1980 And then it got cheaper! • Subsequently used for annual grass and broad-leaved weed control and crop dessication • Glyphosate residues commonly occur in UK bread (below MRLs) © Copyright text
  • 11. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Percentage of bread samples (ordinary and speciality) containing glyphosate residues, 2000-2006 © Copyright text
  • 12. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Wheat yield (t/ha @ 85% MC) and moisture content (%) of grain at harvest of Consort wheat, treated or not treated with 1.0 l/ha Roundup (360 g ae/l glyphosate) when the bulk grain content of the site was 30% moisture content; Morley 1999 Fungicide programme 1.0 l/ha Yield % moisture Roundup (t/ha) No No 6.52 18.23 No Yes 6.32 14.96 Non-strob No 7.31 17.34 Non-strob Yes 6.81 14.91 Strob No 8.44 17.01 Strob Yes 7.68 15.45 © Copyright text
  • 13. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Wheat yield (t/ha @ 85% MC) and moisture content (%) of grain at harvest of Consort wheat, treated or not treated with 1.0 l/ha Roundup (360 g ae/l glyphosate) when the bulk grain content of the site was 30% moisture content; Morley 1999 Fungicide programme 1.0 l/ha Yield % moisture Roundup (t/ha) No No No 6.52 18.23 No Yes impact6.32 on 14.96 Non-strob MOG No quality 7.31 17.34 Non-strob Yes in clean 6.81 14.91 Strob No crops8.44 17.01 Strob Yes 7.68 15.45 © Copyright text
  • 14. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective % of winter wheat in England established after non-plough tillage 45 40 The value 35 of stale 30 seedbeds? 25 20 Cereals 15 Rye-grass 10 Barren brome 5 Meadow brome - Seeds can 0 No be lost Black-grass? without 19 5 19 6 19 7 19 8 19 9 19 0 19 1 19 2 19 5 19 6 19 7 19 8 19 9 19 0 19 1 19 2 19 3 19 4 19 5 19 6 19 7 19 8 20 9 20 0 20 1 20 2 20 3 20 4 20 5 20 6 20 7 08 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 Wild-oats? creating Source: © Copyright text plants
  • 15. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Post-drilling use • Convenience – rather than improved weed control • Maize in France: – up to 48 hours after drilling provided soil has more than 10% clay (<24 hours and max dose of less than 360 g ae/ha if soil is sandy) – soil well structured and seed well covered © Copyright text
  • 16. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Most likely active substances to fail re-registration as a result of the revision of 91/414 • 2,4-D? (2011) • Flumioxazine (2012) • Metribuzin? (2017) • Amitrole?? (2011) • Fluquinconazole? (2020) • Pendimethalin (2013)* • Carbendazim (2009)* • Flusilazole (not sure) • Picloram? (2018) • • Carbetamide? (2020) Chlorotoluron? (2016) • plus Glufosinate (2017) • Prochloraz? (2020) • Prothioconazole? (2018) • Ioxynil?? (2015) • Cyproconazole?? (2020) • Water Ipridione?? (2013) • Quinoxyfen (2014)* • Tebuconazole?? (2018) • • Deltamethrin? (2013) Dimethoate? (2016) • Framework Linuron (2013) • Tepraloxydim? (2015) • Thiram? (2013) • Mancozeb?? (2016) • • Dinocap (2009) Epoxiconazole?? • Directive Maneb?? (2016) • Triflusulfuron? (2018) (2018) • Metconazole?? (2017) * = no derogation • Esfenvalerate (2011)* ? = endocrine disruptor on PSD assessment ?? = endocrine disruptor on both PSD and Swedish assessment Other active substances may be subject to candidates for substitution – particularly most insecticides © Copyright text
  • 17. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective % reduction in black-grass heads from the application of 2,500 g/ha isoproturon at GS 11-13 of the weed – individual TAG trials 1996-2007 (blue) and average (green) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 © Copyright text
  • 18. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective % reduction in black-grass heads from the application of 2.5 l/ha Hawk at GS 11-13 of the weed – individual TAG trials 1996 – 2004 (blue) and average (green) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 No. trials text 3 © Copyright 4 5 6 8 8 9 6 3
  • 19. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Cases of resistance to ‘Atlantis’ (mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron) in black-grass in the UK by 2008 (‘Atlantis’ introduced autumn 2003) • >250 cases confirmed in pot tests • In 21 counties • Most not ‘field failures’ • Target site resistance (Pro197) confirmed on 10 farms • Target site resistance (Trp574) confirmed on 1 farm • Both target site mutations (Pro197 & Trp574 ) on 1 farm • Enhanced metabolism also probable • 79% also ACCase (‘fop’/‘dim’) TSR © Copyright text Compilation of Bayer, Syngenta and Rothamsted results
  • 20. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective The future – do we need a Plan B? • Need to embrace new technologies (e.g. remote sensing and GM) in addition to refining current technologies to reduce dose/ha of key active substances • Need to build up fertility in soils in order to: – sustain/increase yields – increase flexibility of cropping © Copyright text
  • 21. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective © Copyright text
  • 22. Roundup Ready Maize symposium: The European Perspective Glyphosate 35 years on and still developing new uses and approaches © Copyright text