J Costa


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Agronomic benefits of conventional uses of glyphosate

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J Costa

  1. 1. Agronomic benefits of conventional uses of glyphosate Jaime Costa, PhD March 23rd, 2010 Regulatory & Scientific Affairs Manager Monsanto Spain & Portugal
  2. 2. Contents Early use to cope with manpower reduction and the weakness of other herbicides (1975-1985) Optimized application brings use expansion in larger surfaces and some not anticipated benefits (1980-1995) Lower prices following competition with generic products leads to higher intensity of use (1990-2005) Growing stewardship needs, under frequent use and lower number of alternative low cost herbicides (2005-2010).
  3. 3. Roundup® introduction Solution vs. growing infestations of Agropyron (Elymus) repens and other perennial weeds in arable crops. The trend to higher fertilizer rates and shorter varieties of cereals increased the pressure of weeds Avg. wheat yields in Europe in t/ha (Oerke et al., 1994) 5 4 3 2 1 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990
  4. 4. Roundup® introduction Growing infestations of Sorghum halep., Paspalum spp. and Cyperus rotundus in irrigated orchards. Control of growing infestations of Cynodon dactylon and Convolvulus arvensis in vineyards and olives.
  5. 5. Comparative evolution in Spain of prices for Roundup®, diesel and manpower (in today €) Need to optimize applications to gain new uses 30.00 1 l Roundup 25.00 20.00 10 l diesel 15.00 10.00 5.00 1 day salary (minimum 0.00 wage) 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009
  6. 6. Optimized timing for application Fully developed perennial weeds (unless drought stressed) Best performance in preharvest applications Faster harvest, lower need for drying and lower mycotoxin risks Couch population highly correlated (R2 = 0,9572) with yield loss in wheat: % yield loss 50 2000’s 1990’s 1980’s 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Couch shoots /m2
  7. 7. Harvest aid glyphosate benefits Excellent fit in olives, hazelnuts… Facilitates mechanical harvests Reduced manpower cost Reduced yield losses.
  8. 8. Easier management in orchards and vines Need to access lower branches Less diseases or pests under the row Faster mowing or cultivation.
  9. 9. Optimized application equipment Low volume applications (< 300 l/ha) Shielded sprayers for directed applications in sensitive crops ULV controlled droplet applications (20 l/ha) Wipers for contact applications.
  10. 10. Cost and operator safety benefits in citrus (data from IVIA expert Dr. Gómez de Barreda, 1981) 200 Total cost in €/ha Manpower hours/ha 150 100 50 0 Mechanical No tillage No tillage cultivation with with CDA knapsack applications herbicide applications
  11. 11. Other benefits in citrus Excellent safety for maturing fruits Better fit with part time agriculture Ridge maintenance under flood irrigation Best compatibility with drip irrigation
  12. 12. Other benefits in orchards and vines Best compatibility with drip irrigation Compatibility with stony soils.
  13. 13. Non crop applications Improved safety for roads, streets and other non crop areas Reduced cost (and risk) for operators Lower risk formulations available, for best compatibility with aquatic wildlife.
  14. 14. Comparative evolution in Spain of prices for Roundup®, diesel and manpower (in today €) Proliferation of generic products 30.00 Lower prices facilitate more benefits as tillage replacement 1 l Roundup 25.00 20.00 10 l diesel 15.00 10.00 5.00 1 day salary (minimum 0.00 wage) 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009
  15. 15. Pre plant or pre-emergence control in annual crops Quicker planting operations Cleaner start with all the moisture Stale seedbed for control of weeds resistant to other herbicides (Alopecurus, Bromus, etc.) Breaking the green bridge for better control of pests and diseases.
  16. 16. Less manpower, lower CO2 emissions and more moisture and biodiversity with conservation tillage More details by AEAC/SV Director Particular benefits for contractors.
  17. 17. Benefits of glyphosate and no-tillage in olives (according to data from M. Pastor in Olivae, 1990-1991 and 1997) 140 Relative yield of olives 120 Fuel consumption l/ha Total cost equiv. 100 €/ha 80 60 40 20 0 Conventional No tillage with tillage bare soil
  18. 18. Olive –shallow roots- responds very well to no-tillage Highest risk of soil erosion in cultivated olives
  19. 19. Erosion control in perennial crops Temporary green cover Glyphosate use to control at the end of winter the green vegetation strips between the rows of olives
  20. 20. Erosion control and more biodiversity in perennial crops Vegetation management in vineyard
  21. 21. Selective applications in forestry, pastures and protected areas Stump treatments to control regrowth No spray, no drift, lowest exposure Improved formulations without risk pictograms.
  22. 22. Improved, low risk formulations, available for use in sensitive areas Benefits not recognized in application exposure models or regulation of empty packages Classified risk of several of our glyphosate formulations increases when the bottle is empty!
  23. 23. Directed applications in annual crops Diverse types of equipment for selective use of glyphosate. Preharvest use in maize is easier to perform than selective in-crop application Farmers welcome new tools for control of Datura, Xanthium, Abutilon and other new weeds.
  24. 24. Comparative evolution in Spain of prices for Roundup®, diesel and manpower (in today €) Lower number of alternative low cost 30.00 a.i.’s Focus on stewardship 1 l Roundup 25.00 20.00 10 l diesel 15.00 10.00 5.00 1 day salary (minimum 0.00 wage) 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2009
  25. 25. Continued benefits under increased stewardship after 2005 Acceptable operator exposure in applications of undiluted Roundup® Management of some cases of glyphosate resistance (Lolium and Conyza).
  26. 26. Continued benefits under increased stewardship after 2005 BAP traning for compliance with established tolerances More contribution to biodiversity through conservation agriculture.
  27. 27. Helping the trend for a more affordable food also in the next century (data on real prices in the US from CAST Issue Paper 45, , 2010)
  28. 28. Thank you!
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