cohesion

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cohesion

  1. 1. Textualequivalence COHESIONGROUP 1: ĐẶNG THỊ THỦY NGUYÊN HOÀNG THỊ HƯƠNG LÊ THỊ DUYÊN TRƯƠNG THỊ HUYỀN
  2. 2. Main parts1. what is textual equivalence?2. Overview of cohesion3. Some kinds of cohesive devices . Reference . Substitution . Ellipsis
  3. 3. I)What is textual equivalence?Textual equivalence= “any TL form (text/portion of text) which is observed to beequivalent of a given SL form (text/portion of text)”- main standard for text equivalence = the identity ofcontextually relevant features:e.g., I have arrived –tôi vừa đến
  4. 4. e.g. I have arrived –tôi vừa đếnExplain ( tense, truth of information).The speaker ( I and not you or he)• I have arrived and not left (arrive and notleave),• it is about an event that has already happenedand not something that will happen (have arrivedand not will arrive),• the prior event is linked to the current situation(have arrived and not arrive, or arrived),• the current situation is present (have arrived andnot had arrived).
  5. 5. II) Overview of cohesionDefinitions : - The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistic by PH.Mathews(1997) defines cohesion is in term of syntacticunit( sentence). -A Dictionary of Linguistic and Phonetics by DavidCrystal ( 1997) defines cohesion is term of grammaticalunit( word). -MAKH and RH(1976) argued that concept of cohesion issemantic one . For them, it refers to relation of meaningthat : exists with in the text, gives the text texture=> Cohesion is expressed partly through vocabulary andpartly through grammar
  6. 6. Textual equivalence : cohesion -reference There are certain items in any language which can not be interpreted semantically in their own right rather make reference to something else within the text for their interpretation. Here is an example of reference e.g. Doctor Foster went to Gloucester in a shower of rain He stepped in puddle right up to his middle And never went there again Here in above example : He -> refers back to Doctor Foster There -> refers back to Gloucester He and there show that information about them is retrieved elsewhere within the text. It characterizes a particular type of information which is called reference . => Reference is the continuity of meaning in a text
  7. 7. Textual equivalence: cohesion - referenceTypes of reference: there are three kinds of reference1/ personal reference: he, she, it2/ demonstrative reference: this, that3/ comparative reference:e.g 1.it is the same cat as the one we saw yesterday(general comparison) 2.Take some more tea( particular comparison)
  8. 8. Textual equivalence: cohesionReference = the relationship of identity which holds betweentwo linguistic expressions (textual reference, situationalreference; co-reference also)*Differs across discourse types and languagese.g. in English: relies heavily on pronominal reference in Brazilian Portuguese: prefers lexical repetition (+inflects person and number = additional relations)=> We have to recognize the different ways reference indifferent languages.
  9. 9. Textual equivalence: cohesion2. Substitutionis a grammatical relation where one linguistic itemsubstitutes for anothere.g. 1. My car is running badly 2. I should buy a new oneOne of ( 2) substitutes for car in (1)
  10. 10. Textual equivalence: cohesion2. Substitutionis a grammatical relation where one linguistic itemsubstitutes for anothere.g. 1. My car is running badly 2. I should buy a new oneOne of ( 2) substitutes for car in (1)
  11. 11. Textual equivalence; cohesion –substitutionTypes of substitution; there are three types ofsubstitution1/ nominal substitution: there are three nominalsubstitutes ( one, ones, same)e.g. I have heard some strange stories in my time, butthis one was perhaps strangest one of all2/ verbal substitution :the verbal substitute is do. Thisoperates as head of a verbal group. Lexical verb isreplaced by do and its position is on the final group.e.g. I don’t know the meaning of half those languagewords and whats more , I dont believe you do either
  12. 12. 3/ clausal substitution: so and not are clausalsubstitution( substitution of report clause, substitution of conditionclause and substitution of modalized clause) A: do you think he will come tommorow? B: yes, i think so or no, i think not
  13. 13. Textual equivalence : ellipsis 3.Ellipsis: involves the deletion of either the noun or the verb . In English ellipsis occurs most frequently in question – answer pair of the following type e.g. 1)which car do you like? 2) this is the nicest Here, the word car of (1) is elided in (2): ( this car is the nicest) * In Arabic : prefers pronominal reference above all

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