Notes to self regarding speaking: Be sure to slow down, acculturation needs to enunciated carefully. Watch using synonyms for Latino – be clear that research is covering multiple nationalities Breath
Latinos included in the numbers include: Immigrants from Mexico and Central and South America, 1 st Generation Americans, and Multiple generation Americas. Mexican American statistic is one example of the different mental states between immigrants and non immigrants, similar relationships have been found in other cultures.
Types of acculturation: Discuss that these are not necessary a conscious choice, may be encouraged guided by views of the culture, situations (refugee vs. illegal immigrant vs. legal immigrant). Integration viewed as mentally the most successful. Examples of each type: Assimilation – immigrants changing last names, derogatory slang terms Separation – Native American tribes, Chinatowns, and cultural ghettos NY Integration – Phoenix, other positive examples
Dramatic stating of the research question – needs to be very clear
Discuss the interconnection of these affects. Clear signs of mental distress. Also discuss the possibility that these affects are underreported.
Don’t worry about elaborating yet – will be expanded upon shortly
Discuss additional research on orientation (negative effect of Anglo Orientation) – be sure to define difference between Latino and Anglo. Links between self-esteem and self-identity. Role of culture in general self-identity. Discuss briefly delayed discrimination response and Torres and Ong diary research
Impact of that statement – not only does it reduce the stress altogether. Also reduces the stresses affect. Discuss value of family in Latino culture
Discuss Dona and Berry’s study with refugees. Reasons why to much or to little contact would have to observed effect. Discuss Torres and Rollocks information on coping within the intercultural competency. Term might need additional clarification.
Focus especially on correlation – discuss direction of effect. Language concerns and also variety in the Latino community Value of culturally sensitivity measures, examples of insensitive ones.
Stress that acculturation is not a minority only issue. Link back to the statistics and the changing face of Latino culture. What’s the next step? Open for questions.
Acculturation And Mental Health In Latino Community
Acculturation and Mental Health in the Latino American Community Amanda Small Argosy University
Introduction <ul><li>As of 2007, 45.5 Million Latinos were living in the United States (U.S. Census as cited in Mejia & McCarthy, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>By 2050 an estimated over ¼ of the U.S. Population will be Latino (U.S. Congressional Research Service, 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican immigrants living in the U.S. have been found to have a higher depression rate than those living in Mexico (Vegas, Sribney, Arguilar-Gaxiol, & Kolody as cited in Torres, 2010) </li></ul>Source: U.S. Congressional Research Service, 2011
Acculturation <ul><li>Acculturation: The process by which two cultures in constant contact engage in an exchange of ideas, traditions, and characteristics that ultimately alter both cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>The process can be emotionally and psychologically taxing, leading to mental distress and self-identity issues in individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Typical acculturation styles include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation – individual values other culture and rejects own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation – individual rejects other culture and values own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration – individual values both own and other culture </li></ul></ul>
The Question <ul><ul><li>Is there a relationship between acculturation stress and mental distress for the Latino community in the United States? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And……. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If there is, what can help to mitigate that mental distress for the community? </li></ul></ul>
Mental Distress <ul><li>Acculturation stress in the Latino community of the U.S. has been linked to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety (Crockett et al., 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicidal Ideations (Hovey, 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression and Depressive Symptoms (Crockett et al., 2007; Hovey, 2000; Torres & Rollock, 2007; Torres, 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Academic Performance in Students (Crockett et al., 2007) </li></ul></ul>
Mitigating Factors <ul><li>Several factors have been found to be influential in an individuals ability to successfully cope with the impacts of acculturation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of Exposure to Latino Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercultural Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic Self-Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Support </li></ul></ul>
Ethnic Self Identity <ul><li>Strong Latino orientation or ethnic self identity are significant association with life satisfactions, high self esteem, and reduced mental distress even while high acculturation stress is present (Edwards & Lopez, 2006; Torres, 2010; Umana-Taylor & Updegraff, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>A well-grounded ethnic self identity also mitigates the commonly found depressive responses to discrimination and perceived discrimination (Torres & Ong, 2010; Umana-Taylor & Updegraff, 2007) </li></ul>
Social Support <ul><li>Individual who have Family and Peer social supports tend to experience less acculturation stress, and those who are still experiencing high stress tend to experience fewer symptoms of mental distress (anxiety/depression) (Crockett et al., 2007; Hovey, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Also adequately supported individuals tend to have higher overall life satisfactions (Edward & Lopez, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Of the two types of social support (family and peer), family support is found to have a more pronounced effect on mental distress (Crockett et al., 2007 ). </li></ul>
Exposure to Latino Culture & Intercultural Competence <ul><li>Individuals who have a median amount of exposure to Latino culture experience less negative consequences from acculturation, than those who were over or under exposed in their daily lives (Dona & Berry, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>Individual who demonstrate intercultural competency (the ability to adapt to pressures from other cultures and function effectively with those cultures) experience fewer depressive symptoms despite the presence of acculturation stress (Torres & Rollock, 2007). </li></ul>
Research Issues <ul><li>Challenges in conducting acculturation research with Latino community: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy reliance on self-reporting measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is largely correlative in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures are developed in English are being use with non-English or bilingual populations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic criteria may lack cultural sensitivity, especially as they relate to acceptable coping behaviors (Torres & Rollock, 2007). </li></ul></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>Americans every day experience acculturation either as a member of the majority or as a member of a minority. For the Latino community with adequate social support, and an established ethnic identity as well as access to their culture, the consequences of that acculturation do not have to be poor mental health. </li></ul>
Resources <ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Crockett, L. J., Iturbide, M. I., Torres, R. A., McGinley, M., Raffaelli, M., & Carlo, G. (2007). Acculturative stress, social support, and coping: Relations to psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(4) , 347-355. doi:10.1037/1099-98089.13.4.347 </li></ul><ul><li>Dona, G., & Berry, J. W. (1994). Acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress of Central American refugees. International Journal of Psychology, 29(1) , 57-70. </li></ul><ul><li>Edwards, L. M., & Lopez, S. J. (2006). Perceived family support, acculturation, and life satisfaction in Mexican American youth: A mixed-methods exploration. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(3) , 279-287. doi:10.1037/0022-0188.8.131.529 </li></ul><ul><li>Hovey, J. D. (2000). Acculturative stress, depression, and suicidal ideation in Mexican immigrants. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6(2) , 134-151. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.6.2.134 </li></ul><ul><li>Mejia, O. L., & McCarthy, C. J. (2010). Acculturative stress, depression, and anxiety in migrant farmwork college students of Mexican heritage. International Journal of Stress Management, 17(1) , 1-20. doi:10.1037/a0018119 </li></ul><ul><li>Torres, L. (2010). Predicting levels of Latino depression: Acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(2) , 256-263. doi:10.10037/a0017357 </li></ul><ul><li>Torres, L., & Ong, A. D. (2010). A daily diary investigation of Latino ethnic identity, discrimination, and depression. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(4) , 561-568. doi:10.1037/a0020652 </li></ul><ul><li>Torres, L., & Rollock, D. (2007). Acculturation and depression among Hispanics: The moderation effect of intercultural competence. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(1) , 10-17. doi:10.1037/1099-9809-13.1.10 </li></ul><ul><li>Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Updegraff, K. A. (2007). Latino adolescents’ mental health: Exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. J ournal of Adolescence, 30 , 549-567. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.02.002 </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Congressional Research Service. (2011) The Changing Demographic Profile of the United States, (RL32701). Washington, DC: Shrestha, L.B., & Heisler, E.J. Retrieved from: www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL32701.pdf </li></ul>
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